Developmental Psychology: Chapters 1-5
Developmental Psychology: Chapters 1-5 PSYC 3206
Popular in Developmental Psychology
FWF 317 001
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
verified elite notetaker
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3206 at East Carolina University taught by Gary Stainback in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
Reviews for Developmental Psychology: Chapters 1-5
I'm pretty sure these materials are like the Rosetta Stone of note taking. Thanks Kimberly!!!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/10/16
Psyc 3206 Developmental Psychology Exam 1 (Chap 1-5) Study Guide Chapter 1 Life span studies o The study of human development is an ever-evolving field. Development is systematic and adaptive helping people with many transitions in their lives o The most important thing to remember is that development is life-long (hence it is a life-span study) “from womb to tomb” Perspectives on human development o Development is systematic and adaptive o Physical development Body, brain, senses, motor skills and health o Cognitive development Learning, memory, moral reasoning, language, thinking, and creativity o Psychosocial development Personality, emotional life, and relationships Developmental periods o The periods of the life span are ultimately a social construction based on subjective perceptions or assumptions. These perceptions or assumptions vary among differing cultures and will often change over the course of generations o For example the idea of adolescence was only recently introduced in industrial societies o Periods of the life span Infancy and toddlerhood Birth to 3 years Early childhood 3-6 years Middle childhood 6-11 years Adolescence 11-20 years Young adulthood 20-40 years Middle adulthood 40-65 years Late adulthood 65 years and over Maturation o Sequences of physical and behavioral patterns often cause individuals to vary in rate and timing of development Effects from poverty o Socioeconomic status includes income, education and occupation and there are risk factors that exist in both poor and affluent (rich) societies o Some risks associated with poverty that increase chances of negative outcomes are Emotional and behavioral problems, cognitive and school performance, parents’ emotional state and home environment, and living in neighborhoods with large unemployment contributes to potential lack of social support o However there are also some strength and resilience factors in poor neighborhoods such as Parents report feeling very close with their children, they attend church and feel safe at home and school as well as eat more meals together Normative & non-normative events o Normative event Can be influenced by age-grade – in other words people in similar age groups will experience a life change simply because of their age (i.e. going through puberty is predictable and it is biological so it is similar for almost everyone Can be influenced by history-grade – these are events that shape attitudes of a historical generation A historical generation is defined as a group that experiences an event at a formative time in their life: for example children that lived during WWII have a very strong social bond with each other going through a trauma like that together Groups like this are also referred to as cohorts (a group born around the same time) – it is possible for a historical generation to have many cohorts and groups depending on events in that time o Non-normative event A non-normative event is an unusual event that affects individual lives (no group affiliation because it often happens to very few people) Two types Typical events at atypical times o For example someone who goes through puberty at the age of 20 (everyone goes through puberty but not when they are 20) or gets married while they are still in their teens (a lot of people get married but they wait until they are older). Atypical events o For example being born with a birth defect or winning the lottery Cohorts o A cohort is a group of people born around the same time Plasticity o Plasticity is modifiability of performance – in other words how well something changes or adapts due to events or tasks they complete Chapter 2 Theory and hypothesis o A theory is a set of logically related concepts that seek to describe and explain development and to predict the kinds of behavior that might occur under certain conditions This helps us see connections between isolated pieces of data o A hypotheses is an explanation that can be tested by further research Psychosexual stages o The psychosexual stages come from Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory Psychoanalytic theory states that unconscious forces motivate human behavior. Psychoanalysis is therapy that gives us insight into unconscious emotional conflicts There are 3 Freudian parts of personality Id: which is your pleasure principle (devil on your shoulder) Ego: which is your reality principle (your head) Superego: which follows the rules of society (angel on your shoulder) o There are 5 Freudian Psychosexual stages Oral Birth to about 15 months Sucking and feeding Anal 12-18 months to 3 years Potty training Phallic 3 to 6 years Attachment to parents Latency 6 years to puberty Socialization Genital Puberty to adult Mature adult sexuality Erikson’s psychosocial model o Erikson’s psychosocial model emphasized the influence that society had and stated that development is life long and does not only occur in childhood. o According to Erikson there are eight stages of development each involving a “crisis” that a person must overcome/deal with; If the person is able to reach a resolution to their conflict they gain a “virtue”. Trust vs. mistrust (hope) Autonomy vs. shame (will) Initiative vs. guilt (purpose) Industry vs. inferiority (competency) Ego identity vs. role confusion (fidelity) Intimacy vs. isolation (love) Generativity vs. stagnation (care) Ego integrity vs. despair (wisdom) Operant and Classical conditioning o Learning is defined as a long-lasting change in behavior, based on experience adaptation to the environment. o Associative learning states that we respond to situations based on if they are painful or threatening or pleasurable. There have been many studies done on this which have taught us about the concepts of classical and operant conditioning o Classical conditioning Basically classical conditioning is based on associating certain stimuli with certain responses (behaviors) to teach someone to behave in a certain way. For example: Ivan Pavlov (Pavlov’s dogs) – this tested stimulus and response another example is John Watson (little albert) – conditioning of fear o Operant conditioning is teaching someone a behavior through rewards and punishments The individual will learn the consequences of “operating” on the environment. There will become a learned relationship between behavior and its consequences Research was done by B.F. Skinner who formulated original ideas by working with animals and then applied these ideas to humans Reinforcement Reinforcement is done in the hopes of increasing the likelihood of behavior reoccurring Positive reinforcement: giving a reward (candy for finishing a task) Negative reinforcement: removing something aversive (no chores for getting an A+ on homework) Punishment Punishment is used to decrease the likelihood of behavior reoccurring Positive punishment: adding something aversive (getting scolded) Negative punishment: removing something pleasant (taking away car keys, getting a “time-out”) Learning theory o Social leaning theory was created by Albert Bandura who said that development is bidirectional. He believed in the concept of reciprocal determinism which essentially states that a person acts on the world as the world acts on the person o This idea gave us the observational learning or modeling theory – children choose models to imitate Disequilibrium o A loss or lack of equilibrium or stability Assimilation & Accommodation o There are two processes to how children handle familiar information- but first you have to understand that as humans we create complex cognitive structures also known as “schemes” (according to Piaget). Schemes are organized patterns of behavior used to think and act in a situation (for example children suck bottles and thumbs) o Assimilation is incorporating new information into existing schemes o Accommodation is changing structures to include new information Ecological approach & levels o Perspective 5: evolutionary/sociobiological theory o These theories use Darwin’s evolutionary theory of survival of the fittest; which states that animals with traits suited to the environment are the ones that ultimately will survive.. these adaptive traits are then passed on to offspring and eventually evolution starts to take place changing a characteristic of the group as a whole to ensure maximum survival o Natural selection is another concept created by Darwin that is looked at which says that as the environment changes traits change in adaptiveness (the species eventually changes over time) o Ecology is the branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings – so psychological theories that aim to do this as well are taking an ecological approach (such as evolutionary/sociobiological theory) o Ethology Ethology is the study of distinctive behaviors that have adaptive value in natural contexts; innate behaviors evolve to increase survival odds (think of imprinting and a squirrels’ burying of nuts) o Evolutionary psychology Evolutionary psychology ultimately looks at how biology and the environment interact to produce behavior and development. Without knowing (unconsciously) humans strive for personal survival and genetic legacy (it is an instinct). Because of this mechanisms are developed that evolve to solve problems over time For example; a woman may not like morning sickness but it protects her fetus so our body allows it to happen anyway Forms of data collection – interview o Diaries o Visual techniques o Interviews o Questionnaires Structured Open-ended +/- correlations o Seeks to determine whether a relationship exists between variables and is expressed in terms of direction and magnitude o Correlational research is often beneficial because it allows researchers to make valid predictions based off data but it cannot establish cause and effect Laboratory vs. Field experiments o Naturalistic observation (people watching) In this form data is collected by observing someone in their natural settings without interfering in any way Limitations to this however are that researchers cannot inform causes of behavior and cannot know all possible influences on behavior o Laboratory observation Is when behavior is observed and recorded in a controlled environment (like a lab). In this type of observation you are more likely to identify and control causal influences However, the limitation to this is observer bias which basically is a researcher’s tendency to interpret data to fit their expectations (can be intentional or unintentional) o One very important element in an experiment is control so a laboratory experiment obviously has the most control and a field experiment has control as well but rather than being able to control every aspect of the experiment it controls every day settings or which home/school is being looked at and studied. Leaving natural experiments (naturalistic observation) with the least control (basically no control) Chapter 3 Epigenesis o Epigenesis is the way a gene changes in the face of environmental influences. So basically things in the environment can positively or negatively impact the way genetic material is expressed in the development of human beings For example: if someone has a history of heart disease in their family and is very likely to develop it themselves but they exercise regularly, eat all the right foods, and do what they can to monitor their blood pressure and cholesterol levels and then they don’t end up developing heart disease this is an example of how the environment and surroundings impacted genetic material o Epigenetic framework (or chemical molecules) that will alter the way a cell “read” the gene’s DNA o Epigenetic markers may contribute to cancer, diabetes or heart disease but these markers can change due to environmental factors (think about imprinting again- a baby chick imprints on a dog rather than on its mother duck because the dog is there and the mother duck is not) Chromosomes o Chromosomes are very important in determination of sex – for example males carry an X and a Y chromosome (that is why they are males) and a female carries two X chromosomes (this is why they are female) o Chromosomes are coils of DNA that carry genes Autosomes: we have 22 pairs that are not related to sexual expression (these make up our genes and characteristics as a person) Sex chromosomes: we have 1 pair which determines our sex (XX: female, or XY: male) Dominant vs Recessive Inheritance o A dominant gene is Heterozygosity (different copies of gene: a dominant and recessive) and carries a dominant allele: if a dominant allele is present then the gene it carries will be what is inherited o A recessive gene is homozygosity (identical copies of gene: a recessive and recessive) and in order for it to be inherited must have no presence of a dominant allele Sex linked disorders o Sex linked disorders are things such as red/green color blindness or hemophilia which come about because of an issue or abnormality in their sex chromosome o Because this is a sex linked disorder males and females will be affected differently o Sometimes people can have a sex linked disorder but they personally are unaffected by it (it is a recessive gene for them among a dominant one). In this case they are known as a carrier: an individual unaffected by the disorder but passes on the gene to their offspring If a carrier has a child with another carrier or with someone who has an expressed sex linked disorder then there is a chance their offspring will develop the disorder Heritability o Heritability is the statistical estimate of heritable influence on trait variance in a population (what percent of the population has this trait and how many other forms of this trait are there; how many people have brown hair, how many hair colors are there) o Heritability can be measured in a number of ways Family studies: looking at the degree to which bio-relatives share traits Adoption studies: looking at the degree to which adopted children resemble biological relatives or adopted family members Twin studies: looking at the degree to which monozygotic and dizygotic twins resemble each other for a trait Canalized traits o Canalization is the heritable restrictions on the range of trait development o So basically this looks at how the environment reflects or reinforces genetic differences Passive: parents provide environment that fosters the trait Reactive or evocative: based on their traits, children evoke different responses from others Active or niche picking: choosing an environment that suits your traits o Development of traits are a reflection unique to environment in which each child grows up (did they have an accident, illness, unique interaction with friends or peers that steered them one direction rather than another) o Examples of traits could be obesity, intelligence, school achievement, personality (temperament), schizophrenia. Embryonic disk o A baby is considered an Embryo (or is in the embryonic stage) between 2 and 8 weeks of pregnancy o During this time organs and major body systems develop rapidly (respiratory, digestive, nervous, etc.) and during this time there is also a risk of spontaneous abortion or miscarriage o The embryonic disk is another formation happening during this stage of pregnancy and essentially what this is the bundle of cells into which a fertilized ovum divides begins to flatten into what we call the embryonic disk. From this the embryonic disk acquires three layers and plays an important role in nervous system development Ectoderm (outer layer) Mesoderm (middle layer) Endoderm (inner layer) Environmental influences on fetus o There are many environmental influences on a fetus such as Teratogen: environmental agent which can interfere with normal development Nutrition and maternal weight Drug and alcohol intake: fetal alcohol syndrome Nicotine Caffeine Maternal illnesses: sexually transmitted diseases (HIV/AIDS) Maternal age and stress Outside environmental hazards o There are also some paternal factors that can have influence on a fetus such as Exposure to lead Marijuana or tobacco smoke Alcohol or radiation Pesticides Paternal age Alcohol consumption during pregnancy o Alcohol consumption during pregnancy leads to fetal alcohol syndrome Prenatal assessment techniques o Disparities in prenatal care are that we lack a uniform national standards and guaranteed financial coverage, rise of low birth weights (is it possible we reached a plateau?) and higher risk groups may not have access to prenatal care o However there are some ways to monitor prenatal development such as ultrasound and amniocentesis, chronic villus sampling, embryoscopy, and maternal blood tests Chapter 4 Parturition o Parturition brings on labor and occurs about two weeks before delivery starting with uterine contractions helping the cervix become flexible. This process is stimulated by rising estrogen levels in the body Medicated delivery methods o One medicated delivery method is a cesarean delivery (C-section) where the baby is surgically removed from the uterus through the abdomen. Over 30% of all U.S. births are done by this method and is often used when labor progresses slower than usual. This practice is also very common when a woman has her first or a very large baby, the woman is older, or by mother’s who have had a previous cesarean section o A medicated delivery can also be having natural childbirth but being put on anesthesia to relieve some of the pain and pressure. Essentially what the anesthesia does is blocks pain receptors in the brain which helps the mother relax but doesn’t inhibit her ability to push and essentially give birth. Approximately 60% of women choose pain relief during labor Size & appearance at birth o The average size of a baby is 20 inches long and 7.5 pounds o A new born baby has what are known as Fontaneis: soft plates of head Lanugo: fuzzy prenatal hair Vernix caseosa: oily protection against infection o Some body systems of the new born are Breathing: anoxia or hypoxia can lead to birth trauma Meconium: stringy waste in fetal intestinal tract Neonatal jaundice: yellowing of skin and eyeballs, caused by immaturity of the liver, half of all babies experience this however usually baby does not need treatment Apgar scores o Apgar is an acronym for appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, and respiration o The apgar score is a range from 0-2 (0 being bad and 2 being good) – the higher the score the healthier the baby o For example a baby with an appearance score of zero is blue and pale, a score of 1 their body is pink but their limbs are blue, and a score of 2 they are all pink o Scores 8 and higher are good o Scores 5-7 means some assistance needed for breathing o Scores <4 indicate need for immediate lifesaving treatment This often occurs in premature births or very long complicated births Care for low birth weight infants o A low birth weight infant is an infant that weighs less than 5 and a half pounds o Prematurity and low birth weight are the second-leading cause of infant death right after birth defects o Many maternal traits that increase risk of low birth weight are If the mother is underage or overage, uneducated and poor, the baby is given poor nutrition, the mother smokes or drinks, the mother is under a lot of stress or has infections and high blood pressure o Immediate treatment for prematurity is Intravenous feeding, surfactant, Isolette: controlled environment like an incubator, and kangaroo care Reducing infant mortality o There are a number of things that can lead to infant mortality. The primary causes worldwide are preterm deliveries, sepsis or pneumonia, and asphyxiation at birth Birth defects are the leading cause in the US. But there has been improvement in US infant mortality rates likely due to SIDS awareness o SIDS stands for sudden infant death syndrome (sometimes called “crib death”) This is characterized by a sudden death of an infant under 1 year of age, with the cause of death being unexplained. There may be underlying biological defect (such as a heart gene mutation) or may be associated with sleeping on ones stomach o 90% of injury deaths in infancy are due to suffocation, motor vehicle accidents, drowning, or residential fires or burns o Luckily because of our awareness of these problems preventive measures can be taken such as 90% of all children today being vaccinated Breast Milk o Breast milk almost always is the best food for your baby It is more digestible, reduces allergic reactions, minimizes numerous infections, may reduce risk of SIDS, and is said to enhance cognitive performance o It is recommended that babies exclusively breast-feed for a minimum of 6 months Brain and reflex behavior o Brains develop overtime and a baby’s social environment is a huge factor in brain development. Brains are capable of change and are a very complex and integrated dynamic organ; making long term stress very damaging. o Parts of the brain Cerebrum, corpus callosum (joins two halves) and the four lobes (frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal) o There are a number of brain cells present which help the brain perform its functions Neurons: send and receive information Glia: nourish and protect the neurons Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers Myelination: fatty substance which helps send faster signals o Reflexes are our bodies unlearned and protective behaviors such as Postural: reactions to changes in posture or balance Locomotor: resemble later-appearing voluntary movements such as walking and swimming Other early human reflexes are Moro reflex: the moro reflex is one that becomes present when there is a sudden loss of support (when the infant feels as if it is falling); when this happens the infant will spread out the arms (abduction) or unspread the arms (adduction) and usually will cry o This is significant because it evaluates the central nervous system. It is often associated with the startle reflex and is believed to be the only unlearned fear in human newborns Darwinian reflex: the tendency of young infants to grasp a bar and hang suspended Tonic neck: this is a primitive reflex found in newborn humans (but normally vanishes around three months of age). What happens here is that when the face is turned to one side, the arm and leg on the side to which the face is turned extend and the arm and leg on the opposite side flex Rooting: a reflex seen in normal newborn babies who automatically turn the face toward the stimulus and make sucking (rooting) motions with the mouth when the cheek or lip is touched o This helps to ensure successful breastfeeding babkin and babinski: this reflex found that pressure by the examiner’s thumbs on the pals of both hands of the infant resulted in opening of the infant’s mouth; it is elicited in many newborn infants, normal and abnormal, except when lethargic or comatose. Walking and swimming Development of senses o Early senses of touch and pain Touch is the first sense to develop (rooting reflex), which is how babies are able to experience pain at birth o Early senses of smell and taste These senses begin to develop in the womb and typically we see that newborns prefer sweet tastes. While in the womb fluids and odors may be transmitted through amniotic fluid so it is important to be careful while pregnant. In a nature v. nurture debate it can be argued that odor preference requires experience- so 6-day-old infants will prefer their mother’s breast pad to another nursing mother’s because they are used to their mother’s smell. With that being said however, it is also then argued that certain tastes are innate- for example sweetened water calms crying newborns, whether full- term or premature o Sense of hearing A baby’s sense of hearing is functional before birth and a 3-day- old can tell new speech sounds from ones they have already heard This is why baby’s will often turn toward a new sound rather than an old one o Sense of sight This sense is least developed at birth and a baby won’t reach 20/20 vision until they are about 6 months of age. Binocular vision (depth perception) will develop around 4 and a half months Motor developmental milestones o At 3.9 months most babies master grasping a rattle o At 5.4 months they master rolling over o At 13.7 months they master standing along (1 year and 1 month) o At 14.9 months they master walking well (1 year and two months) o At 20.6 months they master building a tower of cubes (a year and a half) o And by 4 years they master copying a circle Chapter 5 Classical & Operant conditioning Developmental tests o Bayley scales of infant and toddler development are used to measure current development (not future functioning) o There is a mental scale, motor scale, and a behavior training scale Circular reactions, imitation o There are three types of circular reaction Primary: action and response both involve infant’s own body (1 to 4 months) For example a baby sucks their thumb and enjoys it so they continue to suck their thumb Secondary: action gets a response from another person or object, leading to baby’s repeating original action (4 to 8 months) A baby coos and sees a smiling face which they like so they continue to coo Tertiary: action gets one pleasing result, leading baby to perform similar actions to get similar results Baby steps on a rubber duck and the duck squeaks, the baby likes this so then they squeeze the duck with their hands and it squeaks so they continue to do these things o Types of imitation Invisible: using body parts baby cannot see… like the mouth Visible: hands and feet … parts the baby can see Deferred: imitation after a delay Elicited: imitating based on an explanation only Habituation & Dishabituation o Habituation is a type of learning in which familiarity is indicated by reduced response o Dishabituation is an increase in responsiveness after presentation with a new stimulus o This occurs because of the novelty preference An infant often pays more attention to new visual stimuli demonstrating that they can tell new from old and do have visual recognition memory Visual & auditory perceptual processing o Visual reaction time and visual anticipation can be measured by visual paradigm o Information processing is often categorized Perceptual: based on how things look (birds and planes both have wings and can fly) Conceptual: based on what things are (chairs, tables, and sofas are all furniture items) o Information processing: causality This is the idea of understanding that one event causes another and allows us to control and predict the world. This typically develops around the age of 6 months (manipulating a mobile with hands and feet) Early language development o Language is a communication system based on word, grammar, and cognitive development o Literacy is the ability to read and write o Infants have many early vocalizations Crying: newborns Cooing: repeated vowel sounds: “ahhh” 6-8 weeks Babbling: repeating constant sounds: “ma-ma-ma” 6-10 months o Recognizing language sounds precedes language ability. Fetuses’ heart rates slow when they hear familiar nursery rhymes and by 6 months babies learn ot recognize basic sounds of their native language – phonemes o A babies first words Linguistic speech is verbal expression that conveys meaning and occurs around 10-14 months of age Holophrase is simple syllables that have complete meanings. For example “Da” could mean “Where is Daddy?” “naming explosion” occurs at 16-24 months o First sentences Telegraphic speech: 2-3 words expressing one idea. For example “no do” means “do not do that” Competence in syntax gradually increases (rules for putting sentences together) Gestures o Conventional social: waving bye-bye, nodding head to mean “yes” o Representational: holding arms up means “pick me up” o Symbolic: blowing means “hot” o Learning gestures helps babies eventually learn to talk Errors in language development o Underextension of word meanings: for example the word “doggy” refers to your dog only o Overextension of word meanings: for example all men with gray hair are “grandpa” o Overregularizing of rules: for example “I thinked about it” Influences on early language development o Early language development is affected by the maturation of the brain and social interactions with parents and caregivers o Language ultimately is a social act Prelinguistic period: adults repeat sounds a baby makes (this encourages the baby to keep trying to make these sounds) Vocabulary development: parent holds ball while saying “this is a ball”. This is “code mixing” or “code switching” The child might know the word “ball” because they have heard it or seeing the actual ball might be the way they know the word so by associating both of them together they have two different senses helping them learn the word (the more senses the easier it is to remember – more memory cues can be triggered)
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'