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/ Evolutionary Anthropology / ANTH 3141 / What is the largest empire in the world?

What is the largest empire in the world?

What is the largest empire in the world?

Description

School: 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: World Prehistory
Professor: Amy kowal
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Anthropology, World Prehistory, and history
Cost: 25
Name: Test 3
Description: These notes cover all lecture information for test three including sites, domesticates, periods (date ranges and outstanding characteristics), as well as information on the geographical areas of the sites and how they relate to the development of their subsequent cultures/societies.
Uploaded: 02/10/2016
41 Pages 17 Views 1 Unlocks
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TEST 3


What is the largest empire in the world?



Chapter 7

Prehispanic South America (The Inca and their Predecessors)

-At the time of Columbus’ departure from Spain, the largest empire in the world was Tawantinsuyu, the Inca empire. The empire was greater in size than any fifteenth- or twentieth-century European state, covering 380,000 square miles. The Inca controlled the most extensive political domain that has ever existed in the Southern Hemisphere. Cuzco, the capital, governed 80 provinces. If you want to learn more check out What are the forms of public speaking described by aristotle?

-The earliest experiments with food production preceded the transition to sedentary village life. -There were some important differences between prehispanic sequences in Mesoamerica and South America.

-Most of the major South American centers were shorter-lived than those of Mesoamerica. -The South American region lacked a core region like the Basin of Mexico.


What is the tawantinsuyu?



Don't forget about the age old question of What are some examples of types of traits?

-Power shifted between the Pacific Coast and the rugged uplands.

-Animal domestication was more important in South America.

-Land transportation using pack animals was present in South America, while water transportation was more important in Mesoamerica.

-Writing developed in Mesoamerica, while the Inca only had a numerical system using knots (quipu).

Peruvian Highlands We also discuss several other topics like Why are volcanoes in subduction zones so dangerous?

-The west coast of Peru has interesting features.

-The waters off the coast are one of the world’s richest fishing areas (maritime cultures). The shore is one of the world’s driest deserts, rarely receiving measurable quantities of rain. Streams carrying the snowmelt and rainfall from the Andes provide most of the surface water.


Where is the peruvian highlands?



-The desert coast of Peru was first settled after 7000 B.C. by mobile groups who exploited various environmental zones. Shellfish, along with deer, small mammals, and birds were hunted. Wild plants were collected in the coastal river valleys.

-After 5000 B.C., groups became more sedentary in the coastal region. Increased reliance on marine and plant products occurred. Cultivated squash and tubers introduced from the highlands (first cultivation took place in the highlands) were consumed. Permanent villages were established shortly after 4000 B.C.

Maritime Hypothesis (p. 381)- Michael Mosely. Proposed that complex societies with monumental architecture emerged during the preceramic period on the pacific coast of South America. Subsistence activities at these sites appear to have focused on marine resources. Mosely intended to refute the widely accepted belief that only agricultural economies can support the foundations of civilization. He called his argument the Maritime Hypothesis, noting the abundance of shellfish middens and fishing nets at many coastal settlements, particularly at several sites that were closer to the coast and somewhat earlier than El Paraiso. If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between dna & rna?

The Inca Empire 

-Inca attributed their place of origin to a place called Collasuyu. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the precursor for glycogen synthesis?
We also discuss several other topics like Who is the founder of liberalism?

-The origin myth may stem from the belief in the sacred nature of Collasuyu’s Lake Titicaca, the largest lake in South America.

-The inhabitants of these early communities had a mixed agrarian economy.

-The early villagers subsisted on a range of domesticated species adapted to the torrential rains of the wet season, as well as an extended dry season.

-The most important food sources were plants like potatoes, grains like quinoa, and domesticated animals, such as alpaca and llama.

-One of the early villages on the southern shores of Lake Titicaca was Chiripa. The center of the site had a large mound constructed around 900 B.C. A series of subterranean houses was arranged around the mound.

-Much of what is known about the Inca comes from written documents filtered through European chroniclers.

chroniclers.

-In 1532, a group of Spaniards led by Francisco Pizzaro came into contact with populations that were part of a giant centralized domain called Tawantinsuyu.

-The capital of the empire was Cuzco.

-The highest-ranked leader was called Inca. Patrilineal inheritance.

-At the time of Spanish contact, a rivalry existed between two brothers, which may have contributed to the loss of the empire to the Spanish.

-According to legend, the rise of the Inca began with hostilities between Cuzco and the neighboring people of Chanca. The Chanca laid siege on Cuzco, however Cuzco’s defenders rallied to defeat the Chanca and drive them away from the Inca homeland. Cusi Inca Yupanqui was crowned Inca after the victory around A.D. 1440. He was renamed Pachakuti. Less than a century later, the empire stretched over 2,600 miles from north to south.

The fall of the Inca Empire is due to the Spanish. Combination factors include: -disease: smallpox, measles, tuberculosis, Inca Huayna Capac (disease from animals to humans from Old World to New World via domestication of animals)*

-internal conflict among Inca brothers Atahualpa and Huascar

-spanish ambush and capture of Inca Atahualpa

-warfare: 100,000 Inca warriors in one battle

-enemies allied with Spanish

-superior weaponry and cavalry of Spanish

-greed of Spanish for Inca gold

-last of Inca peoples defeated in 1572

Chapter 8

States and Empires in Asia and Africa

-Underlying causes that underpin the emergence of hierarchical social formations vary greatly. -Such institutions emerge in conjunction with larger, denser populations where consensual methods of decision making do not work effectively. Egalitarianism does not work, stratification is necessary. -Institutions become self-serving so that those who are privileged remain so.

-Increasing inequality in wealth and power is a hallmark of civilized societies.

-By specially marking the offspring of the privileged from birth, the number of heirs is limited. -The rise of hierarchical polities is generally linked with economic transitions in exchange and production. -In Eurasia and Africa, beasts of burden could distribute goods inexpensively, leading to the development of large-scale and specialized craft industries.

-As societies increase in size and complexity, the mechanisms of exchange shift to tribute and marketing.

-The sequences of transition are not uniform and the specific organization of different states varies markedly.

-People have been living in farming communities in Southwest Asia for nearly 10,000 years. -Settlements consisted of small, packed mud or clay structures that must be rebuilt every 50-75 years.

-Over thousands of years, structures have been rebuilt on top of earlier ones, gradually leading to mounds of accumulated mud and clay. Thousands of these mounds, called tells, rise above the landscape in Southwest Asia.

-Ancient irrigation canals also cover the landscape of the area.

-The soils of the alluvial plain are deposited by the annual floods of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The rivers provide water that makes irrigation possible in an area where rainfall is inadequate for farming. -Farmers today can cultivate a variety of crops.

-No early agricultural villages have been found on the flat plain between the rivers in Mesopotamia. -By 6,000 B.C., the first farming villages were settled on the northern fringe of the Tigris and

Euphrates floodplain.

Euphrates floodplain.

-Communities were generally composed of several houses, containing a few rooms.

-By 5500 B.C., the Halafian pottery style spread throughout a wide area of northern Mesopotamia, suggesting that the villages were linked. Shortly after the appearance of Halafian ceramics in the north, the focus of Mesopotamian settlement shifted to the south, an area known as Sumer. -No sedentary villages prior to the sixth millennium B.C. have been recorded in Sumer. -By 5300 B.C., an economy based on fish, irrigation agriculture, and domestic cattle arose in Sumer. -The ‘Ubaid period (5300–4100 B.C.) begins the sequence and was marked by the establishment of the temple.

-The first villages in southern Mesopotamia were small, about 2.5–5 acres.

-Little is known about early Egypt. What is known is that the civilization along the Nile River was different in its long-term history from the ancient civilizations that developed in other parts of the world. Egyptian civilization centered on the Nile Valley.

-The Nile flows to the north from its source in equatorial Africa. Its final 800 miles cut through Egypt before fanning out into an enormous delta. Lower Egypt to the north has rich cultivable floodplains that are extremely fertile. Annual temperatures are ideal for the cultivation of a wide range of crops. -No definite sedentary villages have been found in the Nile Valley prior to the sixth millennium B.C. -Soon after 5000 B.C., food production was established.

-Most of what is known about predynastic Egypt comes from the south, where the earliest occupations are called Badarian.

-Badarian settlements consisted of clusters of skin tents or small huts.

-Many of the dead were buried carefully in pits in which grave goods were placed. -In the south, Amratian tradition (3800–3500 B.C.) materials are found directly above Badarian levels. This tradition is characterized by the appearance of more developed craft industries. Amratian metalworkers used copper to make various items.

-The origins of Egyptian metallurgy have not definitively been determined.

*Giza and dynastic egypt 

-After the unification of Egypt, Narmer moved the capital from Hierakonpolis, in Upper Egypt, to Memphis, in Lower Egypt.

-Memphis remained the political center for 1,500 years.

-The symbol of the pharaoh was the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt.

-A series of pharaohs during the first (3100–2890 B.C.) and second (2890–2686 B.C.) dynasties ruled under the double crown.

-The Egyptian population was less urban than Southwest Asia and was ruled by many dynasties. -Apart from a few large cities, most Egyptians lived in self-sufficient villages.

-A massive hereditary bureaucracy developed (inherited positions of power), devoting energy to tax collection, harvest yields, and the administration of irrigation.

-Trade links were established to other parts of Africa.

-Between the third dynasty in 2686 B.C. and the Persian conquest in 525 B.C., Egypt was ruled by at least 23 dynasties.

-The third through the sixth dynasties are referred to as the Old Kingdom (2686–2181 B.C.), a time of grandiose pyramid construction. 

-The first pyramid was a stepped stone structure constructed by Zoser. Step pyramids were soon followed by pyramids with smooth faces. Like all royal tombs until 1000 B.C., the pyramids were constructed in the desert on the west side of the Nile.

-The development of civilization in China was largely indigenous.

-Between 5000 and 3000 B.C., the Yellow River region of North China was settled by millet and pig farmers who resided in large villages of up to 100 houses.

-During the Longshan period (3000–2205 B.C.), significant changes took place in North Chinese social organization, including increases in social ranking.

-For the first time, Longshan settlements were walled, and the largest communities were much bigger than before.

before.

-Similar developments were also occurring in other parts of China.

-The era following Longshan in North China is known as the San dai, or Three Dynasties.

-The introduction of rice cultivation changed lifeways in Southeast Asia.

-Southeast Asia was populated by hunter-gatherers until cultivated rice was introduced in the third millennium B.C.

-When rice was introduced from south China, small agricultural villages were established throughout the area.

-Rice rapidly became the staple crop across Southeast Asia.

•The introduction of new technologies transformed some Southeast Asian societies. -Between 1500 and 1000 B.C., bronze casting was adopted.

-After 500 B.C., iron was smelted to make weapons and agricultural tools.

-Settlements began to grow in size, and more hierarchical forms of leadership emerged. -Before the end of the first millennium B.C., Southeast Asians began to engage in maritime trade with offshore islands, China, and the Indian subcontinent.

•Some Southeast Asian societies became highly ranked kingdoms, focused on large centers that were presided over by an aristocratic class.

-Ruling power was based in part on control of agricultural land, rice surpluses, and advantages in access to high-status imported goods.

-Public displays of feasting were important aspects of maintaining power.

-For hundreds of years, small competing polities were often in a state of flux.

•Just after A.D. 800, Angkor arose and became one of the largest and most centralized polities in Southeast Asia.

-After A.D. 550 in the Mekong Valley region of Cambodia, a series of kings tried to establish control over large areas; none, however, was able to hold the kingdom together for long.

-The formation of the large state in A.D. 802 is attributed to Jayavarman II.

-He joined a series of smaller competing polities into a large state by first defeating rival rules and then placing his followers in positions of authority.

-He established a succession of Khmer dynasties whose reign at Angkor endured for more than 600 years.

•The Sahara Desert has undergone several changes that have affected human settlement in the region. -Prior to 10,000 B.C., the region was very dry and uninhabited.

-Several millennia later, conditions improved and the Sahara consisted of shallow lakes and marshes linked by permanent streams where communities of foragers settled.

-Livestock were added to the subsistence base in the fifth millennium B.C.

-The central and southern Sahara continued to be occupied by pastoralists until about 2500 B.C. •Around 2500 B.C., the Sahara became drier and people migrated south to the Sahel. -By 1000 B.C., pastoralists adopted or domesticated cereals.

-Early West African staples include sorghum and millet.

-Wild foods continued to be important.

•Iron metallurgy was introduced into West Africa during the first millennium B.C.

-The great efficiency of iron tools led to the rapid spread of the technology throughout Africa. -The earliest identifiable iron-using society in West Africa is the Nok culture.

•Egalitarian political formations were present in southern African for a longer period than in West Africa. -Prior to the third century A.D., the area was occupied by hunter-gatherers.

-Farmers first settled in south-central Africa, in what is now Zimbabwe, during the fourth century A.D. -They grew grain, raised goats and sheep, but continued to rely on hunted foods for meat. -People lived in small, permanent villages.

•Ironworking and other technologies spread to the area around the third century A.D. -Small iron artifacts are found in every village.

-Cattle became important both culturally and economically soon after their introduction. •Mapungubwe was an important early state in southern Africa.

-The first buildings were constructed on Mapungubwe Hill early in the twelfth century A.D. -There were houses and richly adorned burials.

-Mapungubwe quickly became one of the largest towns in the region, controlling settlements up to 35 miles

-Mapungubwe quickly became one of the largest towns in the region, controlling settlements up to 35 miles away.

-The base of power for the city came from its intermediary role in coastal trade and wealth of gold and animal products from the surrounding areas.

Chapter 9

The archaeology of the last 9,000 years in Europe reveals remarkable transition.

Events ranged from the first farmers to the Roman conquests.

Included is the introduction of agriculture, innovation and use of metals, growth of regionalism and warfare, and the development of economically and politically powerful groups.

•There is interest in this period today because many of the basic tenets of western civilization come from prehistoric Europe.

-Languages, customs, traditions, and forms of government emerged in Europe during this period. -This period also allows the examination of the transition from small, simple bands of hunter-gatherers to large, complex states with thousands of citizens.

•8th and 7th millennia (8000 - 6000 B.C.), domestication and various forms of technology transformed European populations.

-Introduced from Southwest Asia, domesticated plants and animals arrived in Europe shortly before 7000 B.C.

-Pottery and the use of mud-brick houses emerged by 6500 B.C.

-Many of the changes emerged in the southeast and eventually spread north and west.

• 6th millennium (6000 - 5000 B.C.), Large settlements, elaborate religious systems, copper mining, and extensive trade networks appeared during this time.

-Agriculture continued to spread across Europe.

•5th - 3rd millennia (5000 -2000 B.C.), many technological and societal changes.

4th millennium (4000 - 3000 B.C.), agriculture had spread throughout the area.

-Neolithic societies in western Europe began to erect large structures.

-Conflict and warfare were growing increasingly common.

-Major innovations, such as the introduction of bronze, new weapons, the wheel, draft animals, the plow and ox cart, and the horse and chariot, appeared.

•The 2nd millennium (2000 - 1000 B.C.), Writing systems, craft specialization, taxation, and extensive trade networks emerged.-On Crete and in Greece, powerful polities emerged.

-Elaborate tombs of elite individuals are found in England, the Czech Republic, Spain, and southern Scandinavia.

•The 1st millennium (1000 - 0 B.C.) saw the emergence of the Iron Age.

-The classical civilizations of Greece and Rome arose in the Mediteranean.

-In Western Europe, Celtic and Germanic tribes were present.

-Julius Caesar and his successors eventually overwhelmed the groups in western Europe.

•The discovery and use of metals in the Old World was a relatively slow process.

-A few small pieces of copper appeared in the Near East by 7000 B.C.

-Melting and casting of copper began in southeastern Europe and the Near East shortly after 5000

-Melting and casting of copper began in southeastern Europe and the Near East shortly after 5000 B.C.

-During the fifth millennium B.C., copper mines were opened in Yugoslavia and various copper artifacts found their way throughout much of Europe.

•Conflict and warfare characterized the Bronze Age of Europe.

-The early Greeks gained power over Crete and came to dominate the Aegean between 1600 and 1100 B.C., a time known as the Mycenaean period.

-A warrior class emerged at this time.

-A military presence is visible in the Bronze Age citadels of southern Greece. -The citadels, of which the site of Mycenae is best known, were fortified palace towns, located on high, defensible points on the landscape.

•Metals appeared later in the northern part of Europe than in the Aegean area.

-Copper first appeared north of the Alps around 4000 B.C. and bronze objects began to appear after 2000 B.C.

-The Aegean acted like a magnet for valued raw materials from the rest of Europe. -The Bronze age in Denmark and southern Sweden was marked by the quality of fine metal objects buried in many funerary mounds and caches.

•Bronze Age barrows are found across southern Scandinavia.

-In some instances, the barrows have survived, which allow a glimpse of the elite of Bronze Age society in northwestern Europe.

-Individuals were buried dressed in their finest clothing and jewelry.

•Iron making was discovered in Turkey shortly before 2000 B.C.

-Due to high melting temperatures, sophisticated furnaces and smelting techniques are required for reducing the ore.

-The technology was probably a well-guarded secret for some time in order to gain military advantage. -Iron was initially used to make stronger, more durable weapons and later for making more practical tools and equipment.

•The Iron Age in western Europe can be divided into two phases.

-The earlier Hallstatt phase (800-500 B.C.) was centered in Austria, southern Germany, and the Czech Rebublic.

-Salt and iron mines in these regions led to economic boom times.

-The later La Tène period was centralized in eastern France, Switzerland, southern Germany, and the Czech Republic.

-The Iron Age, the time of the Celtic tribes, came to an end in most of western Europe around 50 B.C. with the Roman conquest.

•A distinctive Celtic art style was practiced throughout western Europe during the pre-Roman Iron Age.

-Weapons, tools, jewelry, and everyday equipment were ornamented with the distinctive style. -Both Iron Age phases are defined primarily by styles of artistic depiction and decoration and by types of pottery.

-The art style, along with certain religious practices and beliefs, was shared by several distinct societies in western Europe.

TEST 3 SITES

Chapter 7

*most of these sites are maritime cultures

SITE 

El Paraíso (p. 377)- located on the coast of Peru. An early sedentary village.

-located about 1.2 miles from the coast along a permanent stream.

-This site contains eight or nine large stone structures that cover over 140 acres. These structures range in size from three rooms to massive complexes measuring up to 980 feet long and 325 feet wide. Social inequalities and stratification probably existed here (we can tell because of the different sized rooms and different shaped buildings). 

-Preceramic sedentary settlements with monumental architecture were established around 3000 B.C. in several river valleys just inland from the coast. Caral is the largest of these centers. The settlement consists of a complex of six platform mounds, plazas, and residential buildings that cover 150 acres. -Early excavations at El Paraíso revealed that one of the stone structures consisted of a series of rectangular rooms, courts, and passageways. Walls were 5 to 8 feet in height. Walls were built of large stone blocks cemented together with clay. Stones were plentiful in the highland region. -Occupation ended by 1500 B.C.

-The function of the site is not entirely known. Found multifunctional artifacts (both residential and ritual where other people are coming in to participate in ritualistic ceremonies). Artifacts suggest both religious and non-religious use. The area may have been used for making textiles. Large quantities of labor were required to construct the units. This indicates social inequality and leadership (you need supervisors/ different levels of occupations within the process of construction of the buildings). -The diet of inhabitants of El Paraíso is uncertain. Residents may have depended largely on marine foods (at least 50% if not more). Cultivated plants have also been recovered at the site. Some indications are that plant foods provided a significant portion of the diet. Evidence of squash seeds, tubers and beans.

-Cotton Netting

-Very arid conditions allowed for preservation of textiles (cotton netting, rope, and other materials) 

SITE 

Chavín de Huántar (p. 382)- an early Andean center.

-After 1000 B.C., the balance of power shifted from the coast to larger centers in the Andean highlands. -Situated over 10,000 feet above sea level, near two rivers.

-The Chavín Horizon style is present at the site.

-There are important artistic similarities between the stone carvings at Chavín de Huántar and the decorative items of pottery, stone, and metal found at other sites in the highlands and on the coast. -Chavín carvings interweave figures that combine the natural features of people, snakes, jaguars, caymans, and birds with intricate geometric and curvilinear designs. -Major occupation at the site occurred between 850 and 200 B.C.

-Ceremonial architecture reached its largest extent after 390 B.C.

-The site included a complex of rectangular, stone masonry platforms.

-The largest platform rises about 45 feet above the surrounding terrace.

-The “Old Temple” was U-shaped and consisted of a main building and two wings that formed an open square.

-Several thousand people lived at Chavín de Huántar.

-Residential areas surrounded the ceremonial complex.

-The size and scale of the site far surpassed any others in the area.

-Chavín de Huántar became interconnected with large settlements in other highland areas and the coast. *No bronze work, worked with soft metals— gold and silver. No steel. Padded cotton armor. -Fairly spread out site, utilized the landscape to their advantage

SITE 

Moche (p. 387)- on the North coast of Peru. Moche culture was established around A.D. 1, about 3.5 miles

Moche (p. 387)- on the North coast of Peru. Moche culture was established around A.D. 1, about 3.5 miles from the ocean.

-After the Chavín era, between 200 B.C and A.D. 400, mostly small local polities were present in the region. -At the time, Moche was the largest settlement on the north coast of Peru.

-Unlike other centers at the time, Moche controlled not only the rest of the valley, but also adjacent coastal valleys.

-Two major pyramids (huacas) dominate the site and are separated by a 1650-foot plaza. -Huaca del Sol is 130 feet above the plaza. The structure measures 1,100 by 525 feet and is one of the largest adobe structure ever built in the Americas. Had domestic refuse accumulated at the top. Residential structure for more than one person.

-Huaca de la Luna is 100 feet high. Swept clean at the top. Probably flat-topped plaza on a pyramid. Ritual/ceremonial pyramid.

-The two pyramids were used differently.

-The two huacas were built from adobe bricks that contained over 100 different symbols on their tops. The symbols may have been the marks of the manufacturers of the bricks. -The pyramids required hundreds of millions of bricks, constructed in discrete, rectangular units. -The constructed segments may have been built by groups of associated laborers. The use of conscripted laborers was a means of tribute employed by the Inca over a thousand years later.

-Moche influence was present in other areas. In the Virú and Santa Valleys, Moche pottery traditions quickly replaced local traditions. In these areas, a sizable monument following the Moche huaca style was erected. Moche influence ceased by A.D. 600.

-Subsistence: Cotton, maize, potatoes, peanuts, and peppers were grown. Fishing and hunting of sea mammals occurred.

-Complex canal systems were built to transport water, perhaps requiring labor-recruitment systems. -Large public food-storage complexes were built.

-Moche society was highly stratified— Marked differences in the quantity and quality of grave goods were found. Variation in residential architecture also indicated differences in status.

-Moche artisans are noted for their metalworking. Various techniques were employed, and they began to use turquoise mosaic inlay and simple casting as well. Animal masks were common. -Developed the lost wax casting technique. Used to create intricate designs.

-Moche potters were also quite accomplished. They would paint intricate and geometric designs on pottery. -A wide array of ceramic vessels portrayed Moche mythology, ritual, and daily life. Many figures and professions were illustrated. Battles are frequently depicted. Erotic practices were displayed.

SITE 

Sipán (p. 393)- Sipán has been subject to looting for years. One of the richest sites for archaeological artifacts and showed what was valuable for everyday life of people during the time of occupation. -Local farmers would supplement their incomes by removing and selling artifacts.

-In late 1986, a royal tomb of a Moche ruler was uncovered was uncovered by locals who removed many of the valuable artifacts.

-Researchers soon moved in to recover as much information as possible.

-The smallest of Sipán’s three pyramids was built in six stages. The earliest stage began during the first century A.D. Initially the pyramid was only a low rectangular platform with two steps. Each subsequent building enlarged the pyramid. The final construction phase was completed around A.D. 300.

-Sipán excavations uncovered three fabulous tombs.

-They contained perhaps the richest burial ever found in the Western Hemisphere. In each tomb, the central figure was elaborately costumed in gold and silver ornaments, worked shell, gemstone, and metal. Findings allowed the question of whether the Moche actually engaged in such acts as the Sacrifice Ceremony to be answered.

-The central figures in two of the largest tombs were identified as specific participants in the Sacrifice Ceremony. Other people would be sacrificed in order to accompany the deceased ruler in the afterlife. Buried all at the same time.

-The Warrior Priest had paired backflaps, a crescent-shaped headdress piece, and other adornments. -A second principal figure was also found. (People of Peru are the ones who owned the artifacts)

-A second principal figure was also found. (People of Peru are the ones who owned the artifacts) -The earliest tomb was not as rich in artifacts, suggesting that the Sacrifice Ceremony was less elaborate in earlier Moche times.

-The excavations provide a clearer understanding of Moche social and economic organization. -Great wealth differences are apparent from the elaborate burial goods that would have required highly skilled artisans.

-The burials show that at least some of the art depictions are of actual events.

SITE 

Tiwanaku (p. 397)- A small settlement was founded in the last centuries of the first millennium B.C., about 12 miles south of Lake Titicaca, on the site of Tiwanaku. The Inca associated their origins with these people. Inca mythology relates them to these people, but whether or not they are actually related is unknown.

-The site was situated about 12,600 feet above sea level and were still able to utilize agriculture. -Monumental architecture arose during the first centuries A.D., when the site rose to importance. -Tiwanaku grew to 1.5 square miles and a population of 25,000–40,000 people. -The city dominated the region for 600-800 years.

-The core of Tiwanaku was a 50-acre area at the center of the site.

-An enormous stone-faced, stepped platform mound measured 655 feet on each side and 50 feet high.

-Some of the blocks used to construct the feature were 11 tons and had to be brought to Tiwanaku from quarries more than 60 miles away.

-The civic-ceremonial core also included a complex of buildings, with a stone drainage system, that may have been a palace. 

-The Gateway of the Sun was the most famous stone sculpture at the site and was carved from a single huge stone block. ***Labor for these mounds was done as a form of tribute and tax. -Food production and trade occurred at Tiwanaku.

-Camelid pastoralism and cultivation of grains and tubers were employed.

-Land was reclaimed from waterlogged lands adjacent to Lake Titicaca.

-Long-distance trade was maintained with economic colonies established in the Pacific Coast zone and tropical forested zones to the east. Warm region crops were obtained through trade. Trade connections were maintained by large llama caravans.

-Tiwanaku’s domination over the region diminished after A.D. 1000.

-A number of smaller competing states emerged, each maintaining its own local sphere of influence until the middle of the fifteenth century A.D.

-The specific cause of Tiwanaku’s collapse has not been determined.

SITE 

Chan Chan (p. 401)- founded at the mouth of the Moche Valley.

-The extent of early settlement has not been determined.

-The site grew rapidly in size and importance.

-By the middle of the fifteenth century, Chan Chan covered 8 square miles.

-Chan Chan was the capital of the Chimú state with a range of over 600 miles. -The civic-ceremonial core of Chan Chan covered over 2 square miles. The central area was dominated by 10 rectilinear compounds, each surrounded by high adobe walls.

-Many of these compounds, called ciudadelas, measured 600–1,900 feet on a side. -A large platform-court complex and flat-topped mounds were also part of the central area. -The ciudadelas each had a single entrance though the north wall that opened onto a corridor leading to a broad court.

-Each compound had many storerooms, smaller courts, and living quarters.

-Burial platforms were also included.

-The names of 10 Chimú kings have been found to correspond to the 10 ciudadelas. -Most of the residents of Chan Chan lived outside the compounds.

-Outside labor was used for monumental construction.

-The population at Chan Chan was relatively small, perhaps 25,000 people.

-Labor investments were made in agricultural intensification.

-Labor investments were made in agricultural intensification.

-A hydraulic system was constructed to bring water to the site along with an intervalley canal designed to bring water to the Moche Valley, about 40 miles away.

-The Chimú may have practiced split inheritance, where a successor to the throne received the office of leader, but the land and other personal wealth was transferred to the corporate group of the junior kinsmen. The inheritance pattern may have required each ruler to raise his own revenues. -Between 1462 and 1470, the Chimú were in competition with Inca. By the end of the decade, the conflict ended and the Chimú kingdom was incorporated into the Inca empire. The Inca were able to link their lands and road systems to those controlled by the Chimú. After the Inca conquest, Chimú artifacts were found to be more widely spread.

SITE 

Cuzco and Machu Picchu (p. 405)- Cuzco was established by Manco Capac, the first Inca ruler, in a mountain valley about 11,500 feet above sea level.

-The site was already one of the largest in the Lake Titicaca region by A.D. 1000.

-Cuzco was rebuilt after the victory of Chanca.

-A fortress with massive masonry walls was built on a steep hill above the central area. -The Temple of the Sun was built by Pachakuti at the center of the site. 

-Cuzco contained smaller temples, public buildings, and elite residences.

-The structures were typically built of cut stone, no mortar.

-Cuzco was not a typical Inca city. The principal function of the city was administrative, with many of its inhabitants involved in civic-ceremonial activities. Most of the commoner population lived in smaller communities in the surrounding valley. Their residences were built of stone and adobe. -A network of storehouses and religious shrines were placed in the immediate vicinity of Cuzco. -The market of Cuzco was small and outside the center of the city. This is in keeping with the administrative nature of the site.

-The Inca empire had a central role in the collection and redistribution of goods.

-Compared to the Aztec, private trade and marketing occurred at a very low level in the Inca empire. -Machu Picchu is the most famous archaeological site in Peru. The ruins lie on a saddle between two mountain peaks. Despite the site’s grandeur, little is known about the ruin. Burials of men and women are present, suggesting the site was not a military fortress. Access to the site was limited. -The ceremonial core of Machu Picchu could be entered only through a stone gateway. -According to Spanish legal documents, Machu Picchu was the property of the descendants of Pachakuti. -An intihuatana, a large stone pillar thought to have a ceremonial function, was found at Machu Picchu.

-Some researchers have proposed that the intihuatana was used by Inca priests as a sundial. Others have proposed that the pillar had no obvious astronomical function.

-Some features at Machu Picchu did have astronomical functions. 

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Nazca Lines- geoglyphs of animals, humans, plants and geometric shapes drawn over acres of land. Desert floor created by removal of rocks and exposure of lighter soil underneath. Evidence of offerings throughout the features suggests ritual landscape usage. Visible from low hills, not necessary to be highly elevated in order to see it. Believed to be a ritual practice, drawn so that the gods could see the images but were also done for the people.

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Chapter 8

giza, xianyang, angkor, great zimbabwe—these are sites she said she would focus on for this chapter but she hasn’t lectured on them yet. the ones i put a star next to down below are sites she said she would focus on as well.

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Eridu- southern Mesopotamia. Possible temple site. Irrigation farming and food surplus. Elaborate pottery.

-Although most of the structures at Eridu were houses, a significant nonresidential structure was also present. This building may have been an early temple with a possible altar facing the entrance, suggesting that the organizational capacity for the construction of minor public architecture was present. -The origins and antecedents of the temple institution have important implications for understanding the development of cultural elements in Sumer.

-Communities were based on irrigation farming and the economy produced enough food to support the growing population and a surplus that supported craft producers and decision makers. -Eridu could have had a population of several thousand people.

-The temple at Eridu was rebuilt and expanded numerous times.

-The most elaborate residential dwellings were situated immediately around the temple. -The development of the temple institution and spread of canal irrigation were key features of the ‘Ubaid period. This period was identified by a widespread monochrome pottery decorated with geometric designs. Most of the ceramics appear to have been made on a slow-turning potter’s wheel, in use for the first time.

-Pronounced social differentiation appeared only at the very end of the ‘Ubaid period. -Few luxury items are found at ‘Ubaid sites.

-Eridu remained an important place for more than 1,000 years following the end of the ‘Ubaid period.

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*Uruk- Mesopotamia. Major city. Clay tokens. Writing. Pre-historic site that began small (Uruk period characterization). Stepped pyramids and stepped architecture. More fanciful and more decor than previous sites like Abu Hureyra. During the Uruk (4100–3100 B.C) and Early Dynastic (3100–2370 B.C.) periods, urban settlements and the earliest states were first established in Sumeria. Uruk is a city and then grew to become it’s own period due to large technological, agricultural, political and economic advancements.

-Uruk became a major city of more than 10,000 people, covering 250 acres by 3100 B.C. -Residential architecture was made of whitewashed mud brick.

-Use of clay tablets for writing emerged.

-The Anu Ziggurat was the earliest monumental architecture at Uruk. A ziggurat is a monumental architecture.

-The structure is composed of a series of building levels, the earliest going back to ‘Ubaid times. -The stepped pyramid is named for the primary god (Anu) in the Sumerian pantheon, dedicated to him.

-The White Temple was built on top of the Anu Ziggurat.

-The Anu complex is estimated to have taken 7500 man-years to build, indicating the presence of political power to control a large, organized labor force.

-As temples became more elaborate, the individuals associated with them were separated from the general population.*

-Economic specialization was evident, as well as various levels of social classes. -During Uruk times, pottery was largely unpainted.

-Widespread use of the potter’s wheel developed during Uruk times. This increases the uniformity of the pottery, and well as the amount of pottery made. Prior to this, pottery was made using cords or a block of clay with hand manipulation to shape the pottery. Undecorated utilitarian vessels were made in great volume using the wheel or molds (allowing for production of mass quantities of pottery—which was 

good for the size of the population at the site—and for uniformity in the style of pottery). -Trade developed along major waterways. Ships sailed up the rivers from the Persian Gulf, carrying food and raw materials. Copper was imported into lower Mesopotamia around 3500 B.C. Coppersmiths were present in Mesopotamian cities by 3000 B.C.

-Metal took on an important role in agriculture and warfare.

-The wheel was introduced (different from the potter’s wheel) during the fourth millennium B.C., and wheeled vehicles gained widespread use.

wheeled vehicles gained widespread use.

-The invention of the plow was an important development in the fourth millennium B.C. This increased agricultural yield. Major crops were wheat, barley, flax, and dates (we begin to see domestication of fruit and fruit trees, not just typical farming veggies and animals). Prior to the plow, digging sticks were used for agriculture.

-Cattle and fish were important food sources.

-The world’s earliest known written documents come from Uruk. The writing was done on clay tablets. Prior to the tablets, they used clay tokens. 

-Made on clay, the tablets date to 3400 B.C. The principal function of the writing appears to be economic, since the clay tablets record lists of commodities and business transactions as a permanent record. Over 1,500 symbols have been identified. **In summation, the first means of writing were for business transactions.** Only the elite were taught how to read this material (the first people utilizing this system were the business men/merchants/traders, then eventually scribes and priests) Peasants don’t really get to learn the writing system in order to keep the balance of the status quo and within the elite system.

-By the Early Dynastic period (about 3000 B.C.), metal tools were becoming more efficient. Smiths began to alloy copper with tin to create bronze, which is harder and more durable than copper. The development of bronze is linked to an increase in warfare since it is able to withstand assaults. It gets added to weaponry and armor. Armies were equipped with wheeled chariots and wagons. -Rulers started to control subjects through military strength, religious sanction, and taxation. -During the Early Dynastic, Sumer was divided into 10-15 city-states, which were largely politically autonomous.

-Uruk grew to 1,000 acres and may have contained 50,000 people.

-Great defensive walls were constructed around major urban centers, including Uruk. -After its peak around 2700 B.C., Uruk’s supremacy was challenged by other early cities and its political importance declined.

-Ur became Uruk’s economic and military rival.

-Ur is renowned for its Royal Cemetery, where more than 2,500 burials were unearthed. -By the end of the Early Dynastic period, bureaucratic organization and social stratification were highly developed.

-The history of the third and second millennia B.C. is extremely complicated, with political realignments, military conquests, and dynastic replacements occurring frequently.

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*Harappa and Mohenjo-daro- Indus Valley/Harappan Tradition, in what is now Pakistan. -The earliest known sites in the area date to the late fifth and early fourth millennia B.C. -These sites were scattered across the plains in major agricultural areas or along important trade routes. -The early Indus Valley settlements consisted of small, mud-brick houses.

-The size of settlements varied, and a few included monumental construction.

-Plow-based agriculture and craft technologies were present.

-Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro are part of the Indus Valley civilization, also known as the Harappan tradition.

-Fifteen hundred Harappan sites have been reported; Harappa and Mohenjo-daro are the best-known urban centers.

-The two sites are surprisingly similar.

-Both cover approximately 370-620 acres and contained populations of 40,000-80,000 people. -Both were built with massive mud-brick walls and platforms that raised the towns above the surrounding floodplains.

-Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro consisted of several mounded sectors.

-The sites have a high rectangular mound on the west and other large mounds.

-Some of the most important public buildings associated with the Harappan tradition are located on the western mound at Mohenjo-Daro.

1. The “granary” was 11,000 square feet and may have been constructed over brick supports so that air could circulate under the stored grain. This was more than likely done to prevent rot when

moisture occurs from changing temperatures during the day.

moisture occurs from changing temperatures during the day.

2. The Great Bath may have been used for ceremonial ritual bathing.

-Mohenjo-Daro’s other sectors were divided into blocks by streets. Hundreds of houses made of baked mud bricks lined the streets. Some houses had two stories. More spacious dwellings were laid out around central courtyards.

-At Mohenjo-Daro and other major urban centers of the Indus Valley, there were designated living and working quarters for various craft specialists.

-There were significant differences between Indus Valley and Mesopotamian civilizations. 1. Although the Indus Valley covered a larger area, it had a smaller number of major centers. Whereas Mesopotamia had many city-states, the similarities between Harappa and Mohenjo daro suggest that Indus centers were closely linked economically and culturally. (fewer numbers of large cities)

2. Indus civilization may have had a more equitable distribution of wealth.

3. Indus material culture was simple compared to that of Mesopotamia.

4. The Indus elite engaged in fewer lavish public displays and built no rich tombs, elaborate palaces, or fancy temples.

5. Indus settlements were closer to natural resources than Sumerian sites.

-A system of writing different from early Mesopotamian script developed in the Indus Valley. -Over 4,000 seals with Indus script have been found. Seals were used to mark ownership. A seal is melted wax with a symbol/stamp pressed/printed into it.

-Since many animals are depicted on the seals, these animals may be totems representing specific kin groups.

-The Indus civilization began to decline around 1900 B.C. Archaeologists now believe that this may have been due to decentralization.

-Many elements of Harappan civilization still remain in Hindu traditions today.

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Hierakonpolis- best-known Amratian center. center of a very large pottery industry. -Most of the inhabitants lived in rectangular, semisubterranean houses of mud brick and thatch. -Near the site was a large cemetery with part of the burial area reserved for elaborate tombs that varied in size and contents.

-At least 15 Amratian kilns have been identified, the largest of which covered over one quarter of an acre. -Two types of pottery were made: one for everyday use and the other for grave offerings. -The large kilns must have produced a surplus, beyond local needs.

-Craft activities were carried out on an even larger scale during the subsequent Gerzean period (3500–3100 B.C.). These included pottery production, metallurgy, and the manufacture of stone bowls. -Trade with Southwest Asia intensified in volume.

-Gerzean remains have been found in Upper and Lower Egypt, perhaps indicating greater integration between the two areas. 

-However, differences in ceramic styles and burial customs continued to distinguish Upper and Lower Egypt.

-In artistic representations, key individuals are depicted wearing different crowns, suggesting that several different polities may have developed along the Nile.

-Social and economic inequalities increased during Gerzean times. This is evident from tomb size, grave design, and burial inclusions.

-Written records and stone monuments indicate that warfare increased at this time. -Around 3100 B.C., Narmer, Egypt’s first pharaoh, unified the region into one kingdom and founded a dynasty (3100–2890 B.C.) and a political structure that lasted for nearly 3,000 years. -The unification of Upper and Lower Egypt was depicted on a carved stone palette found at Hierakonpolis. 

-The Egyptian state was far larger and more complex than any city-state in Mesopotamia. -The royal court centralized wealth and power. 

-The unification of Egypt was closely timed with the earliest hieroglyphic writing, which is very different from Southwest Asia writing.

-Widespread adoption of irrigation occurred for domestication of crops, which allowed for large surpluses.

surpluses.

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*Giza- major site of the Old Kingdom.

-The Pyramid of Khufu there stands 500 feet high and covers 13 acres. This pyramid was constructed from over two million stone blocks weighing an average of over one ton each. Construction involved thirteen million man-days of labor (animal labor was also included in construction). -Two other large pyramids were constructed by Khufu’s successors. The famous Great Sphinx is located close to the pyramids.

-Pyramids built after this dynasty were relatively small.

-Pharaohs were central to the Egyptian state during the early dynasties and were considered divine. These rulers controlled economic exchange, served at the top of the bureaucracy, and acted as the heads of the state religion.

-Towards the end of the Old Kingdom, royal power declined and the Old Kingdom collapsed. A period of decentralization followed and provinces became competitive and fought with each other (possibly due to internal conflict within bureaucracy).

-Around 2000 B.C., Upper and Lower Egypt were reunited, marking the beginning of the Middle Kingdom.

-The rulers pacified southern Egypt and overthrew the dynasty in power to the north. -The capital was brought back to Memphis.

-During the first half of the second millennium B.C., central authority weakened again. -In 1000 B.C., a third era of unification began, called the New Kingdom.

-The kings established far-reaching domains of control, and the centralized government depended on large amounts of external tribute for its maintenance and support.

-During the New Kingdom, kings were considered quasi-divine (not seen as gods themselves but are linked to the gods).

-They adopted new burial customs; their mummies were buried in rock-cut tombs in the Valley of the Kings. -The administrative centralization and stability that characterized the New Kingdom ended around 1000 B.C. -Strong provincial leaders and local army commanders increased their regional power. -A period of foreign intervention followed.

-The Nile Valley was ruled by the Assyrians, Persians, and Alexander the Great.

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An-yang- The Xia dynasty (2205–1766 B.C.) is the first hereditary dynasty in recorded Chinese history. -Scapulimancy, the practice of interpreting cracking patterns on heated bones, was practiced. -Bronzeworking became an increasingly important activity. Warfare and ritual were important as well. -Palatial house foundations found at Erlitou were associated with ritual burials. -The decline of the Xia dynasty roughly corresponded with the rise of the Shang dynasty (1755–1122 B.C.). -Towards the end of the Shang dynasty, the capital was moved north to An-yang. An-yang was a large ceremonial and administrative center with monumental architecture surrounded by craft areas. -Residential areas surrounded the center of the site.

-An-yang consisted of three groups of buildings, the largest of which was about 200 feet long. -Chinese writing developed during Shang times. By the late Shang era, Chinese written language had developed to include over 3,000 symbols. Chinese writing was related closely to the political, military, and ritual activities of the upper class and had little to do with mercantile matters. -Late Shang society was highly stratified.

-Kings were at the top of the hierarchy and were considered divine. The king and his court received grain and other forms of tribute, that they used to support a lavish lifestyle. Elaborate burials of kings occurred.

-The lower class consisted of farmers and craftworkers. At the bottom of the lower class were the war captives, who were kept as slaves or served as sacrificial victims for rituals and temple dedications.

-Shang civilization is famous for its bronze work. Bronze was used to make food and drinking vessels, weapons, chariot and cavalry fittings, and musical instruments. Large ceremonial vessels were

vessels, weapons, chariot and cavalry fittings, and musical instruments. Large ceremonial vessels were also made. Indications are that the origins of bronzeworking was indigenous.

-Basic subsistence patterns changed little from earlier times. Millet, supplemented with rice and wheat, was the main crop in North China.

-Stone hoes, harvesting knives, and wooden digging sticks remained the primary cultivation implements. -Irrigation may have occurred.

•Changes in labor practices constituted the most dramatic shift in the Shang economy. -More people were engaged in farming, raising production per unit of land.

-The importance of agricultural labor may have encouraged rural families to grow, leading to large-scale population growth.

•The borders of the Shang state are not known, but late Shang rulers had at least some control over a fairly large area in northern China.

-Influence varied according to distance from the capital.

-Shang rulers traveled widely and were assisted by a complex hierarchy of nobles. -Local lords were responsible for collecting taxes and supplying men for public projects. -Armies as large as 30,000 soldiers were assembled to fight “barbarians.”

-The Shang dynasty was overthrown by people living on its western periphery in the vicinity of Xianyang.

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*Xianyang- society based on rice and rice farming (heavy on rice production and increased the spread of rice)

•The Chinese state had developed by Shang times, with major centers that had ceremonial cores. -The last capital of the Shang period was at An-yang.

-Another important site was Ao, which covered about 1.3 square miles and had a central precinct that was enclosed by a huge earthen wall 30 feet high.

-Ao had hundreds of skilled craftworkers and the area contained more than a dozen kilns. •The Zhou dynasty (1122 to the third century B.C.) marks the beginnings of imperial China and its traditions. -The society was highly stratified at its center.

-Away from the core, areas were divided into partially independent provinces, and administration was enacted by lords who had great control over their domains.

-During the Three Dynasties, the Chinese state was built on a hierarchical network of large lineages. •Changes in Chinese populations and technology occurred during the Zhou dynasty. -Great cities were built, the largest of which had over a quarter of a million people. -Large irrigation works were constructed, and wet-rice irrigation became increasingly important. -Iron casting was practiced and iron agricultural tools were in use.

-Changes in agricultural technology enabled rapid increases in population density. •The latter half of the Zhou period was characterized by political change and upheaval. -By the third century B.C., the descendants of western Zhou kings ruled an increasingly small area outside their original homeland.

-The Zhou polity weakened and other states rose in influence.

-Eventually the Zhou was eclipsed by the Qin polity, along with five other contemporary states. •Shihuangdi unified China into a single imperial kingdom in 221 B.C.

-He inherited the throne of the Qin kingdom at the age of thirteen.

-Shihuangdi frequently engaged in battle, eventually conquering six other major kingdoms. -He declared himself China’s first emperor.

-The Chinese empire was ruled from the capital city of Xianyang.

-Shihuangdi forced over 100,000 royal and wealthy families from throughout the empire to move to the city from their local areas, which weakened their power. Luxurious palaces that were replicas of royal residences in their homelands were built in Xianyang, making them figureheads for their regions. The move also concentrated economic and political power in a single capital.

-He built the Great Wall along China’s northern periphery by joining walls that had been constructed by earlier feudal states. Some have suggested that the wall was constructed for defensive purposes. Others have proposed that the wall was a means of preventing China’s heavily-taxed peasants from escaping taxes and conscription. Overall, the wall was a monument demonstrating Shihuangdi’s power and control over Xianyang. The 1,500-mile wall was built by 700,000 conscripts.

-Other actions helped Shihuangdi solidify his political power and centralize authority. -He established China’s first army, which may have contained more than a million people.

-He established China’s first army, which may have contained more than a million people. -He destroyed the feudal structure to weaken regional autonomy.

-Confucian philosophy was prohibited since it was seen as a threat.

-The Chinese legal system was increasingly codified, and Chinese character writing was standardized. -Shihuangdi began building his tomb as soon as he became emperor. The project took 36 years and was worked on by 700,000 laborers. The architects of the tomb conceived of it as a miniature universe. The burial tomb, called Mount Li, was at one time 150 feet tall, and the total complex covered 500 acres.

-A little less than a mile from Mount Li lies a three-acre gallery of terracotta soldiers. This symbolized the past practice of kings being buried with living warriors, women, servants, and horses. Eight thousand figures have been exposed, along with wooden chariots and horses. The soldiers are arranged in battle formation. A rich artifact assemblage accompanies the army.

-Shihuangdi died on a journey to the eastern provinces and was succeeded by his youngest son. -His oldest son was given a fake order to commit suicide so that the younger son could succeed as emperor.

-Qin rule was succeeded by the Han dynasty, which lasted for 400 years (206 B.C. – A.D. 220). -During the Han dynasty, China became even more densely settled with an estimated population of over fifty million.

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*Angkor- maritime society, major port region. huge religious ritual site. has the largest temple constructed during its time— angkor wat.

•The introduction of rice cultivation changed lifeways in Southeast Asia.

-Southeast Asia was populated by hunter-gatherers until cultivated rice was introduced in the third millennium B.C. -When rice was introduced from south China, small agricultural villages were established throughout the area. -Rice rapidly became the staple crop across Southeast Asia.

•The introduction of new technologies transformed some Southeast Asian societies.

-Between 1500 and 1000 B.C., bronze casting was adopted.

-After 500 B.C., iron was smelted to make weapons and agricultural tools.

-Settlements began to grow in size, and more hierarchical forms of leadership emerged.

-Before the end of the first millennium B.C., Southeast Asians began to engage in maritime trade with offshore islands, China, and the Indian subcontinent.

•Some Southeast Asian societies became highly ranked kingdoms, focused on large centers that were presided over by an aristocratic class.

-Ruling power was based in part on control of agricultural land, rice surpluses, and advantages in access to high status imported goods.

-Public displays of feasting were important aspects of maintaining power.

-For hundreds of years, small competing polities were often in a state of flux.

•Just after A.D. 800, Angkor arose and became one of the largest and most centralized polities in Southeast Asia. -After A.D. 550 in the Mekong Valley region of Cambodia, a series of kings tried to establish control over large areas; none, however, was able to hold the kingdom together for long.

-The formation of the large state in A.D. 802 is attributed to Jayavarman II.

-He joined a series of smaller competing polities into a large state by first defeating rival rules and then placing his followers in positions of authority.

-He established a succession of Khmer dynasties whose reign at Angkor endured for more than 600 years. •Angkor is the modern name for a large complex of monuments, temples, and other structures that was the political and ceremonial center of the Khmer civilization.

-There are more than 100 temples at the site that were constructed by a series of Khmer dynasties between the 9th and 15th centuries A.D.

-At its height in the 12th century, the site may have had between 500,000 and 1 million residents. -Each new king at Angkor built a massive religious structure to commemorate his reign; at death it became his mausoleum.

•Angkor Wat is the largest and most elaborate temple at Angkor.

-The structure was constructed by Suryavarman II soon after he became king in A.D. 1113. -The walled complex measures 5,000 x 4,000 feet and incorporates a large moat that is 660 feet wide. -The walls of the complex are covered with scenes in bas-relief that depict the king and his court, processions, and battle scenes.

•Construction of temples and other public works required large pools of labor.

-Local labor was tied to the temples.

-Local labor was tied to the temples.

-The labor provided temples with goods and labor for rituals and for maintaining the ruling elite. -Khmer civilization had no currency.

-Through taxation, the royal courts received and distributed huge amounts of goods, including rice and other forms of subsistence.

-A bureaucracy controlled most aspects of Khmer life.

•The economy of Angkor and other Southeast Asian states was based on surplus rice agriculture. -Some have argued that the huge water reservoirs at Angkor were for irrigating the rice fields. -Others note that plenty of groundwater existed and that the reservoirs were for controlling drainage and flooding. •Angkor was the victim of various invasions.

-During the 12th century, Angkor was sacked by a rival.

-The Khmer rebuilt the center, erecting a large ceremonial center surrounded by an 8-mile long wall. -Angkor was abandoned in A.D. 1431 after it was sacked by the Thai following a long siege.

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Jenné-jeno-•The Sahara Desert has undergone several changes that have affected human settlement in the region. -Prior to 10,000 B.C., the region was very dry and uninhabited.

-Several millennia later, conditions improved and the Sahara consisted of shallow lakes and marshes linked by permanent streams where communities of foragers settled.

-Livestock were added to the subsistence base in the fifth millennium B.C.

-The central and southern Sahara continued to be occupied by pastoralists until about 2500 B.C. •Around 2500 B.C., the Sahara became drier and people migrated south to the Sahel.

-By 1000 B.C., pastoralists adopted or domesticated cereals.

-Early West African staples include sorghum and millet.

-Wild foods continued to be important.

•Iron metallurgy was introduced into West Africa during the first millennium B.C.

-The great efficiency of iron tools led to the rapid spread of the technology throughout Africa. -The earliest identifiable iron-using society in West Africa is the Nok culture.

•Jenné-jeno is located in the Inland Niger Delta in southwestern Mali along the middle course of the Niger River. -The site consists of a mound of successive settlements 2,600 feet long and 20-26 feet high. -Initial settlement dates to 200 B.C.

-The early inhabitants were mixed agriculturalists who constructed circular houses of straw coated with mud. -Domesticated rice in the area dates to the first century A.D.

•Exchange and craftworks occurred at Jenné-jeno.

-Craft skills were evident in the earliest materials recovered at the site.

-Significant quantities of well-manufactured ceramics were present.

-Villagers traded their agricultural, fish, and animal products for iron ore and grindstones from at least 30 miles away. •Camel transport had an important effect on the economy.

-Camel domestication first occurred in Arabia and spread to the Sahara by early in the first millennium A.D. -Camel transport provided a means of regular long-distance trade across the desert.

-Jenné-jeno developed into an important market center.

•The city reached its height after A.D. 800.

-Jenné-jeno expanded to 80 acres and a city wall was constructed.

-Brick architecture replaced the earlier mud technology.

-Evidence of blacksmiths and coppersmiths is present.

-The rulers of Jenné-jeno presided over an area of floodplain extending 100 miles downstream. •Jenné-jeno began to decline after A.D. 1150 and was abandoned by 1400.

-Defensive concerns and the spread of Islam may have been factors.

-The modern city of Jenné was established nearby during the twelfth or thirteenth century. -The Inland Niger Delta has remained an important thoroughfare for exchange throughout much of the second millennium A.D.

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*Great Zimbabwe-•Egalitarian political formations were present in southern African for a longer period than in West Africa.

-Prior to the third century A.D., the area was occupied by hunter-gatherers.

-Farmers first settled in south-central Africa, in what is now Zimbabwe, during the fourth century A.D. -They grew grain, raised goats and sheep, but continued to rely on hunted foods for meat. -People lived in small, permanent villages.

•Ironworking and other technologies spread to the area around the third century A.D.

-Small iron artifacts are found in every village.

-Small iron artifacts are found in every village.

-Cattle became important both culturally and economically soon after their introduction.

•Mapungubwe was an important early state in southern Africa.

-The first buildings were constructed on Mapungubwe Hill early in the twelfth century A.D. -There were houses and richly adorned burials.

-Mapungubwe quickly became one of the largest towns in the region, controlling settlements up to 35 miles away. -The base of power for the city came from its intermediary role in coastal trade and wealth of gold and animal products from the surrounding areas.

•Great Zimbabwe was the largest and most famous site of the Karanga.

-When Mapungubwe was at its peak, Great Zimbabwe was a smaller district center.

-Great Zimbabwe is located in the central region of Zimbabwe, on a tributary that drains into the Indian Ocean. -The site is bounded by a narrow ridge of granite that forms a 300-foot cliff.

•Several types of structures were built at Great Zimbabwe.

-The first stone structures, built after A.D. 1250, were positioned on top of the high cliff, possibly for defense. -Other buildings were constructed on the steep, rocky cliff.

-Structures were also built on the valley floor.

-Some larger buildings were constructed, perhaps for religious purposes.

•In the valley, larger, free-standing walled enclosures were built.

-At the Maund Ruin, 29 separate stone walls abut 10 circular dwelling huts.

-The Great Enclosure was a large complex with a perimeter wall over 33 feet high, 16 feet thick, and over 800 feet long.

-Inside the Great Enclosure was the Conical Tower, a solid circular stone tower that rises 33 feet from its base. •Great Zimbabwe had a powerful political authority.

-Construction of extensive stone walls required an organized labor force.

-Control of trade links with Indian Ocean polities may have been a significant factor, and Great Zimbabwe became an important commercial center.

-Prosperity was based largely on its monopolization of coastal and long-distance trade.

-Exotic goods were obtained through trade and were essential for demonstrating prestige and rank. •Great Zimbabwe reached its peak between A.D. 1350 and 1450.

-The population was as high as 12,000 to 20,000.

-The site reached over 1,700 acres and controlled an area of about 40,000 square miles.

-The balance of power then shifted north.

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Franchthi Cave- Evidence of human occupation at Franchthi Cave in southern Greece dates back over 20,000 years. The cave was located some distance from the sea with a fairly level plain in between. -Early inhabitants exploited a wide range of wild food resources, including large land mammals, marine life, and plant foods.

-Year-round occupation may have occurred by 10,000 years ago.

-Reliance on the sea increased, with large tuna representing about 50% of the animal remains during some periods. This reveals seafaring abilities.

-Franchthi Cave provides early evidence for the introduction of agriculture to the European continent. After 7000 B.C., domesticated plants and animals were present. Sheep and goats, along with domesticated wheats and barley, were found. Wild plant and animal species found at earlier occupation levels became less prominent in the diet. Domesticated plants and animals appeared rather suddenly at Franchthi and must have come from the Near East. This may have resulted from people moving into the area, bringing domesticates to Greece. Another possibility is the adoption of domesticates by the indigenous peoples of southeastern Europe. The domesticated products may have been introduced by seafarers.

-Some stone blades show sickle polish, indicating that they were used to cut the stems of plants such as grasses and reeds.

-The occupation area of the site increased at this time, with a population perhaps as large as 75 individuals. SITE

SITE 

Varna- A cemetery near the city of Varna, on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, contained at least 190 graves in an area covering 1.6 acres. The graves were simple rectangular pits dug to various depths, with red ochre spread over most of the burials.

-About 14 pounds of gold were found during the excavation.

-Additional grave goods made of stone, shell, and other materials were found. -Most of the burials at Varna were males, lying extended on their backs, with their heads toward the Black Sea. A few women were buried in a flexed position on their right side. No graves of children were present. -A limited number of grave goods were found with the bodies and in empty graves. -Several of the graves were distinctive.

-Three empty graves contained life-size clay masks of human faces with some features made of gold. Thousands of gold pins and other objects were found in these “mask” graves. -Another grave contained over a thousand gold objects weighing a combined 4.5 pounds. -Other graves also contained elaborate grave goods, including large quantities of gold.

-The graves provide evidence for status differentiation in southeastern Europe at the time. -The graves may have been made for religious or political leaders.

-The location of the cemetery points to the role of trade and exchange.

SITE 

The Iceman- A frozen mummy from the Stone Age was found in 1991 in the high Alps , on the border between Italy and Austria. The Iceman, nicknamed Ötzi, is the highest archaeological find in Europe, at 10,500 feet.

-Shortly after his death, he was buried in snow, where his body was mummified through the drying processes of sun, wind, and ice. Preservation of the body was remarkable, with most of the internal organs intact. Examination of the Iceman’s body revealed a great deal of information about him.

-He was 46 years old at his time of death and was about 159 centimeters (5’2.5”) tall. -He had tattoos on his back and right leg.

-X-rays revealed several broken ribs and indicate that he suffered from arthritis.

-His last meal, which he ate at least 8 hours prior to his death, included unleavened bread, some greens, and red deer meat.

-Ötzi died between March and June around 4300 B.C.

-The Iceman was carrying an extensive amount of gear, including seven articles of clothing and twenty items of equipment. Some of the items carried included a bow and quiver of arrows, a hafted copper axe, several flint tools, and a net. His clothing included items made of animal skins. One of the more interesting items he had was the almost pure copper axe, since this documents the widespread use of the metal during the latter half of the Neolithic period.

-Some speculation can be made as to the Iceman’s origins. He probably came from valleys to the south in Italy, less than a day’s walk away.

-A piece of charcoal he carried came from trees that grew to the south of the Alps, and pollen from his intestines came from a tree which grew in the same area.

-The food he ate suggest connections to a farming village.

-The Iceman probably died from armed conflict. He had deep cuts to his hand and wrist. There was an arrowhead lodged in his back.

SITE 

Charavines- underwater site located between Lyon and Grenoble in southeastern France. -Excavations took place between 7 and 13 feet underwater.

-The oxygen-deficient mud of the lake bottom preserved a remarkable array of food remains and other items.

-There were two major phases of occupation at Charavines. Each building phase lasted 20-25 years, separated by about 3 years of abandonment. From three to eight structures were built per settlement phase. Houses were 40-50 feet long and 10-14 feet wide. Low platforms of clay were built on the floors for the hearths.

-The excellent preservation of specimens revealed that the diet of the inhabitants of Charavines was varied and nutritious. Millions of fruit pits, nutshells, and seeds have been collected.

varied and nutritious. Millions of fruit pits, nutshells, and seeds have been collected. -The occupants practiced farming, collecting, hunting, and fishing, with a sizeable portion of their diets coming from wild sources.

-Evidence of meat from both domestic and wild sources was found, although about 90% of the meat by weight comes from the latter. More than 80 different species of plants were found, including cultivated plants such as wheat, barley, flax, and poppy.

-The manner in which food was raised and prepared can be determined from the site. Whole dried apples were preserved at this site, along with baked breads and other materials. Wooden spoons and whisks and baking stones for making breads were found. Both gardens and fields were used for growing plants. Cultivating tools were found as well.

-Artifacts at Charavines provide information about technology and trade.

-Many wooden objects, including bows and arrows, handles for axes, canoes and paddles, and others, were recovered. Textiles and tools for cloth making were found.

-Objects, such as flint used for daggers, revealed that trade from outside the region must have occurred.

SITE 

Stonehenge- ceremonial site. animal bones indicate feasts. observatory. built in stages over 1500 years. constructed with scaffolding to elevate the stones and manual labor. artifacts beneath stones tell us about the people who built the structure. initial construction 4000 BC.* Almost immediately after agriculture spread to western and northern Europe at the beginning of the fourth millennium B.C., farming societies began to erect massive stone structures, known as megaliths. These structures usually involved burial areas which were buried beneath a mound of earth to create an artificial cave. -Tens of thousands of megaliths are found across Europe.

-Radiocarbon dates indicate an age between 4,000 and 2,000 B.C.

-Such structures provide evidence of the impact of agriculture on the inhabitants of western Europe. -Megaliths fall into three major categories.

1. Menhirs- large standing stones, erected either individually or collectively in a linear fashion. 2. Henge monuments- or circles, are defined by an enclosure, usually a circular ditch and bank, up to 1,600 feet in diameter.

3. A dolmen- is a megalithic tomb or a chamber with a roof, which may have served “cults of the dead” for ancestor worship.

-The construction of Stonehenge took place over a period of 1,500 years, from approximately 3,000 to 1,500 B.C. and was built in 3 stages.

1. circular bank and ditch, almost 330 feet in diameter.

2. remodeled, added erection of a circle of upright timbers was added.

3. huge columns of sandstone being quarried and dragged to the site.

-One of the largest pillars weighs as much as 50 tons and was likely moved on oak rollers, then put into play using a system of scaffolding.

-Not a residential structure. People who utilized the stonehenge lived in Durington Walls. -Stonehenge functioned as a ceremonial site and an observatory to record the summer solstice. Some have argued that the site was an astronomical computer, used to record various lunar and stellar alignments.

SITE 

Knossos- The Aegean Sea ranges from the shores of Turkey to the east, Greece to the north and west, and the island of Crete in the south. The rugged, barren conditions, without large areas of fertile farmland, meant that crops other than cereals had to be cultivated. Military civilization because of trade routes and richness in artifacts.

-Grapes, olive trees, and sheep flourished on the rocky slopes of the islands. -Inhabitants in the area also must have relied on the sea for fish.

-Seafaring and trade permitted the movement of goods and food between the islands. Crete was strategically located to act as middleman in moving goods between Egypt, Asia, and Europe. -The demand for wine, olive oil, pottery, textiles, and other goods enhanced the economic well-being of the people of the Aegean.

-Bronze was discovered shortly before 3,000 B.C., and most of the early bronze objects were weapons.

-Bronze was discovered shortly before 3,000 B.C., and most of the early bronze objects were weapons. -Crete was a major center of development in the Aegean.

-Minoan civilization reached its peak between 2000 and 1450 B.C. Minoans dominated the Aegean through sea power and the control of trade.

-The Mycenaeans on mainland Greece controlled most of the Aegean between 1600 and 1100 B.C. and took over Crete in 1450 B.C. The Mycenaean civilization was dominated by a series of citadels ruled by powerful warrior kings.

-Episodic alliances among the citadels led to greater political, economic, and military power. -Knossos has an extensive group of ruins, buried under a low mound of soil and collapsed walls. -The first Bronze Age palace at Knossos was erected around 3000 B.C. A series of palaces was built on top of one another, each larger and more elaborate.

-Knossos covered about 6 acres in a complex of buildings that included the palace and several residences. -Palaces were the centers of the Minoan state. They were laid out and built according to a plan, with large, rectangular courtyards, private apartments, and enormous storerooms. The complex of rooms and buildings housed many of the administrative, economic, and religious functions of the government.

-Important craft workshops were also located in the palaces or surrounding areas. -Frescoes and murals decorated the walls of the palace and shrines were scattered throughout the palace.

-Knossos and other Minoan cultures directed an extensive network of trade.

-Many raw materials from abroad were found at the palace.

-These materials were the foundation of the wealth and power in the Minoan state. -The palace of Knossos was destroyed at least twice during its history. The first destruction occurred in 1700 B.C. and was probably caused by a major earthquake. The second period of destruction dates to 1450 B.C., marking the end of Minoan civilization, perhaps at the hands of the Mycenaeans.

SITE 

Mycenae- The early Greeks gained power over Crete and came to dominate the Aegean between 1600 and 1100 B.C., a time known as the Mycenaean period.

-A warrior class emerged at this time.

-A military presence is visible in the Bronze Age citadels of southern Greece. -The citadels, of which the site of Mycenae is best known, were fortified palace towns, located on high, defensible points on the landscape.

-Burials were an important aspect of Mycenae society.

-Early rulers of the citadel of Mycenae were buried in shaft graves.

-Grave goods from the site are among the most spectacular finds from the Bronze Age and include precious metals and stone in the form of weapons, vessels, masks, and other objects. -One of the early graves contained more than 11 pounds of gold.

-By 1400 B.C., beehive-shaped tholos tombs were constructed for major rulers.

-Mycenaean settlements were often heavily fortified.

-Graveled roads for chariots and carts connected the towns and villages.

-Massive walls, some up to 50 feet thick, surrounded many sites.

-The stone walls of Mycenae encircle an area 3,500 feet in diameter.

-Mycenaean palaces combined many of the administrative, military, and manufacturing functions of the kingdom within the residence of the ruler.

-Workshops for crafts, guardrooms, storerooms, and kitchens were attached to the rear of the palace. -Surrounding villages supplied plant foods, meat, men, and materials to the lord of the citadel. -The reasons for the collapse of Mycenaean civilization remain a mystery.

-Drought or outside conquest do not appear to be causes.

-After 1100 B.C., Athens began to assert its importance in Greece and the citadels of Mycenaeans fell into disuse.

SITE 

Borum Eshøj- one of the largest Bronze Age barrows in Denmark.

-The original mound was almost 30 feet high and 130 feet in diameter.

-Three oak coffins were found in the mound, containing an elderly man, a woman, and a younger man.

-Grave goods, including bronze objects, were buried with the individuals.

-Bronze Age barrows were built for the wealthier members of society and placed nearby where the living had died.

-Most barrows in Denmark are located in areas of productive farmland, which is evidence of the important relationship between wealth and the control of agricultural resources.

-The circular mounds were often placed on the horizon to emphasize the importance of buried individuals. -Since all bronze and gold in southern Scandinavia had to be imported, the amount of metal in burials provides some indication of the wealth of deceased individuals.

SITE 

Vix- northern France, is the site of a burial of an Iron Age princess.

-The burial took place around 500 B.C.

-The woman was on the bed of a ceremonial cart, which was placed in a large square chamber in the ground.

-She was buried with a heavy gold collar and the tomb was filled with a wealth of exotic, funerary offerings. -The items found in the grave indicate the extensive trade taking place in Europe at the time. -Major rivers were important transportation routes.

-Mont Lassois, directly above the grave at Vix, dominates the upper Seine Valley.

-This was a main route of commerce between the western Mediterranean and the Atlantic coast of eastern France, the English Channel, and the British Isles.

-The richness of the grave goods suggests that the Greeks were giving gifts to the elite of Celtic society in order to obtain favorable trading status and secure commerce.

SITE 

Maiden Castle-•Maiden castle is one of the largest hillforts in Britain.

-The site enclosed an area of 45 acres.

-The largest settlements from the Iron Age in Europe are defended hilltops, found throughout southern Germany, France, and Britain.

-These fortresses served as both population centers and retreats, distinguished by the fortifications that surround them.

•The hilltop was first used around 3700 B.C.

-An enormous barrow was erected on the site during the same period.

-Maiden Castle was the center of an elaborate landscape of henge monuments and other structures. •During the Iron Age, around 500 B.C., fortifications were first constructed around a growing market center on the hilltop.

-The first fort had one wall and enclosed about 15 acres.

-Such hillforts had administrative, religious, economic, and residential functions.

-Occupation could have been as high as 2,000-4,000 people.

-Large pits were dug for storage, water reservoirs, and other purposes.

•By 50 B.C., shortly before the first Roman invasion of Britain, the fortifications were enormously expanded, and the enclosed area inside the hillfort tripled in size.

-Three enormous concentric banks and two ditches enclosing almost 45 acres were built. -Some of the walls were as high as 65 feet.

-Over 20,000 slingshots were found in caches near the walls of the structure.

-Maiden Castle fell to the Roman legions and their siege artillery in A.D. 43 after intensive fighting.

Chapter 7— 8 sites. Prehispanic South American (Inca & Predecessors)

El Pariso— Peru. Early sedentary village.

-caral, cotton netting, marine diet, textiles. 

-8/9 large stone buildings, ranged from 3 rooms to larger, more massive structures, size differences indicate social stratification.

-Caral is here: largest preceramic sedentary settlement in the area. 6 platform mounds, had plazas, residential buildings.

-Early excavations revealed that one of the stone structures consisted of a series of rectangular rooms, courts, and passageways. Walls were built of large stone blocks cemented together with clay. Stones were plentiful in the highland region.

-function of El Pariso unknown, had both religious and residential artifacts. area may have been used for making textiles.

-diet uncertain. at lest 50% marine. ate some plant foods (beans, squash, tubers) -cotton netting.

-arid conditions allowed textile preservation.

Chavin de Huantar— Peru. Early Andean center.

-chavin horizon, old temple, soft metals, cotton armor. 

-major occupation 850-200 BC, population of several thousand people

-10,000 ft above sea level

-Chavin Horizon Style: stone carving and pottery style featuring people, snakes, jaguars, birds, geocentric & curvilinear designs

-had a complex of rectangular, stone masonry platforms

-Old Temple is here: ceremonial complex. u-shaped, consisted of a main building and two wings that formed an open square. residential areas surrounded the complex. Great Image, pillar with human and animal stone heads.

-New Temple: Castillo. Maze-like rooms.

-soft metals (gold and silver)

-cotton armor

Moche (Moche culture/settlement)— Peru. Largest settlement on north coast.

-lost wax casting, pottery (battle & erotic), huacas del sol/del luna, canals & food storage, metal working. 

-influenced/controlled adjacent valleys; pottery traditions spread to Viru and Santa valleys. -2 major pyramids: Huaca del Sol (domestic), and Huaca del Luna (ritual/ceremonial) -canal systems & public food storage complexes

-known for metal working and ceramic pottery depicting battle and erotic scenes -developed lost wax casting (used for intricate designs)

-subsistence: cotton, maize, corn, potatoes, peanuts, peppers. some marine foods. -socially stratified

Sipan— Northern Peru.

-Rich in archeological artifacts, looting, 3 pyramids/tombs, sacrifice ceremony. -looting

-3 pyramids, smallest built in 6 stages

-3 tombs, containing richest burials in western hemisphere

-central figures in tombs buried in gold, silver, shells, gems

-Sacrifice Ceremony (sacrificed to accompany deceased in afterlife)

-excavations provide clear understanding of Moche social economic organization. burials indicate wealth differences, some depictions on grave goods are of actual events.

Tiwanaku— Bolivia, Lake Titicaca region. Settlement. Wary people.

-gateway of the sun, long distance trade (llama caravans), camelid pastoralism. -Inca association by Incan mythology

-12,600 ft above sea level, still able to use agriculture

-monumental architecture

-50-acre core, stone-faced, stepped platform, had a complex of buildings with a stone drainage system, may have been a palace

-Gateway of the Sun is here: most famous stone structure carved from a single stone. labor for this structure and similar were done as a form of tribute and tax.

-food production & long distance trade present (trade maintained by large llama caravans), trade because they needed food from warmer climates

-grain and tuber cultivation

-camelid pastoralism important for development of economic organization

Chan Chan— Moche Valley, Peru. Andean Civilization.

-Chimu capital, split inheritance, civic-ceremonial core, hydraulic systems 

-capital of Chimu civilization. Later incorporated into Incan empire.

-civic-ceremonial core (2 sq. mi.). had rectilinear compounds (ciudadelas) surrounded by adobe walls. -A large platform-court complex and flat-topped mounds were also part of the central area. -The ciudadelas each had a single entrance though the north wall that opened onto a corridor leading to a broad court. Each compound had many storerooms, smaller courts, and living quarters. -Burial platforms were also included.

-The names of 10 Chimú kings have been found to correspond to the 10 ciudadelas. -Most of the residents of Chan Chan lived outside the compounds.

-small population

-hydraulic system & canal to bring in water

-split inheritance

-1462-1470— Inca linked lands and road systems to Chimu after incorporation.

Cuzco & Machu Picchu— Peru, Titicaca region.

-administrative city, capital of Inca empire, temple of the sun 

-established by Manco Capac (first Inca ruler). Patrilineal inheritance.

-fortified with masonry walls above central area

-Temple of the Sun is here, center of site.

-stone and adobe residences outside of city to maintain administrative nature

-low trade compared to Aztecs

-Machu Picchu— most famous archaeological site in Peru, function unknown -burials present, indicating it is not a military fortress

-ceremonial core, stone gateway

-intihuatana found, alleged ceremonial function, possible sundial

-some astronomical features present

-function of site not clearly established

Nazca Lines— Nazca Desert, Southern Peru. geoglyphs.

-ancient geoglyphs of animals, humans, plants and geometric shapes drawn over acres of land. Desert floor created by removal of rocks and exposure of lighter soil underneath. Evidence of offerings throughout the features suggests ritual landscape usage. Visible from low hills, not necessary to be highly elevated in order to see it. Believed to be a ritual practice, drawn so that the gods could see the images but were also done for the people.

-------------------------------------------END SITES-----------------------------------------

-At the time of Columbus’ departure from Spain, the largest empire in the world was Tawantinsuyu, the Inca empire. The empire was greater in size than any fifteenth- or twentieth-century European state. The Inca controlled the most extensive political domain that has ever existed in the Southern Hemisphere. Cuzco, the capital, governed 80 provinces.

-The earliest experiments with food production preceded the transition to sedentary village life.

-Important differences between prehispanic sequences in Mesoamerica and South America. -South American centers were shorter-lived than those of Mesoamerica.

-The South American region lacked a core region.

-Power shifted between the Pacific Coast and the rugged uplands.

-Animal domestication was more important in South America.

-Land transportation using pack animals was present in South America, while water transportation was more important in Mesoamerica.

-Writing developed in Mesoamerica, Inca only had a numerical system using knots (quipu).

Peruvian Highlands 

-The waters off the coast are one of the world’s richest fishing areas (maritime cultures). The shore is one of the world’s driest deserts, rarely receiving measurable quantities of rain. Streams carrying the snowmelt and rainfall from the Andes provide most of the surface water. -The desert coast of Peru was first settled after 7000 B.C. by mobile groups who exploited various environmental zones. Shellfish, along with deer, small mammals, and birds were hunted. Wild plants were collected in the coastal river valleys.

-After 5000 B.C., groups became more sedentary in the coastal region. Increased reliance on marine and plant products occurred. Cultivated squash and tubers introduced from the highlands (first cultivation took place in the highlands) were consumed. Permanent villages were established shortly after 4000 B.C.

Maritime Hypothesis (p. 381)- Michael Mosely. Proposed that complex societies with monumental architecture and a subsistence regime based on marine resources emerged during the preceramic era on the Pacific Coast of South America. Mosely intended to refute the widely accepted belief that only agricultural economies can support the foundations of civilization. He called his argument the Maritime Hypothesis, noting the abundance of shellfish middens and fishing nets at many coastal settlements, particularly at several sites that were closer to the coast and somewhat earlier than El Paraiso.

The Inca Empire 

-Inca attributed their place of origin to a place called Collasuyu.

-The origin myth may stem from the belief in the sacred nature of Collasuyu’s Lake Titicaca, the largest lake in South America.

-The inhabitants of these communities had a mixed agrarian economy.

-The early villagers subsisted on a range of domesticated species adapted to the torrential rains of the wet season, as well as an extended dry season.

-The most important food sources were potatoes, quinoa, and domesticated animals (alpaca and llama).

-One of the early villages on the southern shores of Lake Titicaca was Chiripa. The center of the site had a large mound constructed around 900 B.C. A series of subterranean houses was arranged around the mound.

-Much of what is known about the Inca comes from written documents filtered through European chroniclers.

chroniclers.

-In 1532, a group of Spaniards led by Francisco Pizzaro came into contact with populations that were part of a giant centralized domain called Tawantinsuyu.

-The capital of the empire was Cuzco.

-The highest-ranked leader was called Inca. Patrilineal inheritance.

-At the time of Spanish contact, a rivalry existed between two brothers, which may have contributed to the loss of the empire to the Spanish.

-According to legend, the rise of the Inca began with hostilities between Cuzco and the neighboring people of Chanca. The Chanca laid siege on Cuzco, however Cuzco’s defenders rallied to defeat the Chanca and drive them away from the Inca homeland. Cusi Inca Yupanqui was crowned Inca after the victory around A.D. 1440. He was renamed Pachakuti. Less than a century later, the empire stretched over 2,600 miles from north to south.

*Most likely responsible for constructing the bridge over the Apurimac River in Peru

The fall of the Inca Empire is due to the Spanish. Combination factors include: -disease: smallpox, measles, tuberculosis, Inca Huayna Capac (disease from animals to humans from Old World to New World via domestication of animals)*

-internal conflict among Inca brothers Atahualpa and Huascar

-spanish ambush and capture of Inca Atahualpa

-warfare: 100,000 Inca warriors in one battle

-enemies allied with Spanish

-superior weaponry and cavalry of Spanish

-greed of Spanish for Inca gold

-last of Inca peoples defeated in 1572

***BE SURE TO KNOW:

1. uses for Inca Highways— mainly military and administrative

2. why discoveries at Sipan were important for understanding ancient South American societies 3. how ancient civilizations of Mesoamerica and South America were similar/different- sedentary villages & agriculture at the same time

a. Mesoamerica was more concerned with the development of trade and market, south america was more concerned with development of storage systems and agricultural/economic/political development. (Haunch Pampa)

b. more societies began to live under a single imperial rule

c. developed more profitable connections with neighboring people resulting in larger political systems than in Mesoamerica.

d. both areas were characterized by differences in wealth and power, evident in people’s clothing, food, housing, etc.

4. which systems and devices were created during the Inca Empire

5. how the Inca came to power

------------------------------END PERIOD NOTES----------------------------

Chapter 8— Asia and Africa

Eridu (‘Ubaid period)— Mesopotamia, present-day Iraq.

-temple institution, potter’s wheel, irrigation farming, monochrome pottery. 

-temple site. most buildings were houses, with one significant non-residential mud-brick building. may have been a temple with possible altar, suggests capacity for construction of public architecture -temple institution shows religious and economic progression

-temples also used for food storage and to house craft goods

-most elaborate houses immediately around temple

-canal irrigation, temple institution, and craft specialization are key features of ‘Ubaid period. also

-canal irrigation, temple institution, and craft specialization are key features of ‘Ubaid period. also identified by use of monochrome pottery with domestic designs.***

-slow-turning potter’s wheel.***

-based on irrigation farming allowing food surplus and storage, delegation of food by temple elites -social stratification at end of ‘Ubaid

Uruk (Uruk period)— Southern Sumer, Mesopotamia. Present-day Iraq.

-First monumental city, earliest writing, ziggurat/white temple, plow & wheel, metal in weaponry, unpainted pottery. 

-first monumental urban center, became major city; political, economic, technological, agriculutural developments

-whitewashed mud brick houses

-The Anu Ziggurat was the earliest monumental architecture at Uruk. A ziggurat is a stepped monumental architecture.

-The structure is composed of a series of building levels, the earliest going back to ‘Ubaid times. -The stepped pyramid is named for the primary god (Anu) in the Sumerian pantheon, dedicated to him.

-The White Temple was built on top of the Anu Ziggurat, elaborately decorated

-The Anu complex is estimated to have taken 7500 man-years to build, indicating the presence of political power to control a large, organized labor force.

-Uruk temples bigger than the ones at Eridu

-Ziggurat and White temple mark a transition occurring in Mesopotamia.

-pottery mostly unpainted & made in mass quantities, increasing uniformity 

-trade along major waterways

-importance of metal— bronze (added to armor and weaponry, Early Dynastic) -developed the plow and the wheel 

-major crops: wheat, barley, flax, dates

-cattle and fish

-earliest written documents, clay tablets, business/economic use, only for higher class, 1500 symbols. clay tokens previously used to record transactions.

-Ur and Uruk were military rivals

-Ur had Royal Cemetery, 2500 burials

-social & political stratification, trade, crafts and writing all highly developed by end of early dynastic period

Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro— Indus valley, present-day Pakistan

-small, mud-brick houses

-plow-based agriculture, craft technologies

-Indus Valley civilization is also known as the Harppan Tradition. 15 Harappan sites, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro are best-known. Similarities between both sites:

-size and population

-both were built with massive mud-brick walls and platforms

-both consisted of several mounded sectors.

-The sites have a high rectangular mound on the west and other large mounds.

-Some of the most important public buildings associated with the Harappan tradition are located on the western mound at Mohenjo-Daro.

1. The “granary”: may have been constructed over brick supports so that air could circulate under the stored grain. This was more than likely done to prevent rot when moisture occurs from changing temperatures during the day.

2. The Great Bath: may have been used for ceremonial ritual bathing.

-Mohenjo-Daro’s other sectors were divided into blocks by streets.

-large housing.

Hierakonpolis— Southern Egypt.

-kilns, pottery industry/surplus, hieroglyph writing. 

-best-known Amratian center. center of a very large pottery industry.

-rectangular, semi-subterranean houses of mud brick and thatch.

-At least 15 Amratian kilns have been identified, the largest of which covered over one quarter of an acre. kilns produced a surplus of pottery.

-Two types of pottery were made: one for everyday use, the other for grave offerings. -Increase in craft activities during Gerzean period (3500-3100 BC, after amratian period)— pottery, metallurgy, stone bowl manufacture

-Artistic representations of key individuals wearing different crowns indicate different polities alone Nile. -Social and economic inequalities increased during Gerzean times, evident from tomb size, grave design, and burial inclusions.

-Written records indicate warfare increased during Gerzean times.

-Narmer (first pharaoh), unified upper and lower Egypt. unification was depicted on a carved stone palette.

-The Egyptian state was far larger and more complex than any city-state in Mesopotamia. -The royal court centralized wealth and power. 

-hieroglyphic writing, different from Southwest Asia writing. (more concerned with rule & kinship) -adoption of irrigation occurred for domestication of crops, allowed large surpluses.

Giza- Egypt. West bank of the Nile.

-major site of the Old Kingdom 

-The Pyramid of Khufu— constructed from over two million stone blocks. Construction involved thirteen million man-days of labor (animal labor also included in construction).

-Two other large pyramids were constructed by Khufu’s successors. The famous Great Sphinx is located close to the pyramids.

-Pharaohs were considered divine, controlled economic exchange, served at the top of the bureaucracy, acted as the heads of the state religion.

-at the end of the Old Kingdom, royal power declined and the Old Kingdom collapsed. A period of decentralization followed.

-2000 B.C., Upper and Lower Egypt were reunited by King Narmer, marking the Middle Kingdom. -The rulers pacified southern Egypt and overthrew the dynasty in power to the north. -The capital was brought back to Memphis.

-During the first half of the second millennium B.C., central authority weakened again. -In 1000 B.C., a third era of unification began, called the New Kingdom (characterized by administrative centralization and stability). 

-During the New Kingdom, kings were considered quasi-divine (not seen as gods themselves but are linked to the gods).

-They adopted new burial customs; their mummies were buried in rock-cut tombs in the Valley of the Kings. -Strong provincial leaders and local army commanders increased their regional power. -A period of foreign intervention followed.

-The Nile Valley was ruled by the Assyrians, Persians, and Alexander the Great.

An-yang- China.

-Highly stratified. bronze working, developed chinese writing, rice & millet. 

-became Chinese capital during Late Shang period.

-large ceremonial and administrative center with monumental architecture.

-Bronzeworking became an increasingly important activity. Warfare and ritual were important as well. -Consisted of three groups of buildings, the largest was about 200 feet long.

-Chinese writing developed during Shang times. By the late Shang era, Chinese written language had

-Chinese writing developed during Shang times. By the late Shang era, Chinese written language had developed to include over 3,000 symbols. Chinese writing was related closely to the political, military, and ritual activities of the upper class.

-Kings were at the top of the hierarchy and were considered divine, had elaborate burials. -Lower class consisted of farmers and craftworkers, then war captives (slaves & sacrificial victims) -Famous for bronze work, was used to make food and drinking vessels, weapons, chariot and cavalry fittings, musical instruments.

-Food: Millet with rice and wheat were main crops. No plows/advanced agricultural methods. -Irrigation may have occurred.

-Importance of agricultural labor may have encouraged rural families to grow

-lords were responsible for collecting taxes and supplying men for public projects. -Armies as large as 30,000 soldiers were assembled to fight “barbarians.”

-Shang dynasty was overthrown by Xianyang.

Xianyang— China. Zhou period.

-wet-rice irrigation, rice farming, iron casting, Shihuangdi. 

-based on rice and rice farming (heavy on rice production and increased the spread of rice) -The society was highly stratified

-wet-rice irrigation became increasingly important.

-Iron casting was practiced and iron agricultural tools were in use.

-Changes in agricultural technology enabled rapid increases in population.

-Shihuangdi was first Chinese emperor (age 13). Unified China into a single imperial kingdom in 221 B.C.

-The Chinese empire was ruled from the capital city of Xianyang.

-Shihuangdi forced over 100,000 royal and wealthy families throughout the empire to move to the city, which weakened their power. The move also concentrated economic and political power in a single capital. -He built the Great Wall by joining walls that had been constructed by earlier states. The wall was a monument demonstrating Shihuangdi’s power and control over Xianyang. 1,500-mile wall built by 700,000 conscripts.

-He established China’s first army (over 1 mil. people) 

-Shihuangdi began building his tomb (Mount Li) as soon as he became emperor. The project took 36 years and was worked on by 700,000 laborers. At one time it was 150 feet tall, 500 acres. -3-acre gallery of terra-cotta soldiers near mount li. symbolizes practice of kings being buried with living warriors women, servants & horses. soldiers are in battle formation.

-Shihuangdi died on a journey to the eastern provinces, was succeeded by his youngest son. His oldest son was given a fake order to commit suicide so that the younger son could succeed as emperor. -Qin rule was succeeded by the Han dynasty

Angkor— Southeast Asia.

-Khmer civilization, bureaucracy, angkor wat. 

-Maritime society, major port region. huge religious ritual site. has the largest temple constructed during its time— Angkor Wat.

-Angkor is the modern name for a large complex of monuments, temples, and other structures that was the political and ceremonial center of the Khmer civilization.

-There are more than 100 temples at the site, constructed by a series of Khmer dynasties. -Each new king at Angkor built a massive religious structure to commemorate his reign; at death it became his mausoleum.

-Angkor Wat is the largest and most elaborate temple at Angkor, constructed by Suryavarman II -The walled complex measures 5,000 x 4,000 feet, has a large moat that is 660 feet wide. -The walls of the complex are covered with scenes in bas-relief that depict the king and his court, processions, and battle scenes.

-Labor provided temples with goods for rituals and for maintaining ruling elite.

-Khmer civilization had no currency. taxation involved rice and other subsistence goods.

-Khmer civilization had no currency. taxation involved rice and other subsistence goods. -Economy of Angkor based on surplus rice agriculture.

-Some argue water reservoirs at site were for irrigation, others say they were for controlling drainage and flooding.

-Angkor was abandoned in A.D. 1431 after it was sacked by the Thai following a long siege.

Jenné-jeno- West Africa. Inland Niger Delta.

-camel transport, major market center, ironworking, long-distance trade. 

-circular houses of straw coated with mud.

-Domesticated rice in the area dates to the first century A.D.

-Exchange and craftworks occurred at Jenné-jeno.

-Craft skills were evident in the earliest materials recovered at the site.

-Significant quantities of well-manufactured ceramics present.

-Camel transport had an important effect on the economy. Camel domestication first occurred in Arabia and spread to the Sahara. Camel transport provided a means of regular long-distance trade across the desert.

-Jenné-jeno developed into an important market center.

-Evidence of blacksmiths and coppersmiths is present.

-began to decline after A.D. 1150 and was abandoned by 1400. Defensive concerns and the spread of Islam may have been factors.

-Modern Jenné was established nearby during the twelfth or thirteenth century.

-The Inland Niger Delta has remained an important thoroughfare for exchange throughout much of the second millennium A.D.

Great Zimbabwe— Central Zimbabwe.

-largest and most famous site of the Karanga.

-site is bounded by a narrow ridge of granite that forms a 300-foot cliff.

-Several types of structures were built:

-Defensive stone structures. 1250 AD.

-Other buildings were constructed on the steep, rocky cliff.

-Structures were also built on the valley floor.

-Large religious buildings.

-At the Maund Ruin, 29 separate stone walls abut 10 circular dwelling huts. The enclosure was a large complex with a perimeter wall over 33 feet high, 16 feet thick, and over 800 feet long. the Conical Tower, a solid circular stone tower, was inside.

-Construction of extensive stone walls required an organized labor force. indicated political/economic power.

-Control of trade links with Indian Ocean polities may have been a significant factor, and Great Zimbabwe became an important commercial center.

-Exotic goods were obtained through trade, were essential for demonstrating prestige and rank. -peaked between A.D. 1350 and 1450. population was as high as 12,000 to 20,000.

-----------------------------------END SITES-------------------------------

Africa & Egypt 

-Significant differences between Indus Valley and Mesopotamian civilizations.***

1. Although the Indus Valley covered a larger area, it had a smaller number of major centers. Whereas Mesopotamia had many city-states, the similarities between Harappa and Mohenjo-daro suggest that Indus centers were closely linked economically and culturally. (fewer numbers of large cities)

2. Indus civilization may have had a more equitable distribution of wealth.

2. Indus civilization may have had a more equitable distribution of wealth.

3. Indus material culture was simple compared to that of Mesopotamia.

4. The Indus elite built no rich tombs, elaborate palaces, or fancy temples.

5. Indus settlements were closer to natural resources than Sumerian sites.

-Writing system different from early Mesopotamian script developed in the Indus Valley. -Over 4,000 seals with Indus script have been found. Seals were used to mark ownership. A seal is melted wax with a symbol/stamp pressed/printed into it.  

-The Indus civilization began to decline around 1900 B.C. Archaeologists now believe that this may have been due to decentralization.

-Elements of Harappan civilization still remain in Hindu traditions today.

-Underlying causes that underpin the emergence of hierarchical social formations vary greatly.

-Such institutions emerge in conjunction with larger, denser populations where consensual methods of decision making do not work effectively. Egalitarianism does not work, stratification is necessary.

-Institutions become self-serving so that those who are privileged remain so.

-Increasing inequality in wealth and power is a hallmark of civilized societies.

-By specially marking the offspring of the privileged from birth, the number of heirs is limited. -The rise of hierarchical polities is generally linked with economic transitions in exchange and production.

-In Eurasia and Africa, beasts of burden could distribute goods inexpensively, leading to the development of large-scale and specialized craft industries.

-As societies increase in size and complexity, the mechanisms of exchange shift to tribute and marketing.

-The sequences of transition are not uniform and the specific organization of different states varies markedly.

-People have been living in farming communities in Southwest Asia for nearly 10,000 years. -Settlements consisted of small, packed mud or clay structures that must be rebuilt every 50-75 years.

-Over the years, structures have been rebuilt on top of earlier ones, leading to mounds of accumulated mud and clay. Thousands of these mounds, called tells, rise above the landscape in Southwest Asia.

-The soils of the alluvial plain are deposited by the annual floods of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The rivers provide water that makes irrigation possible in an area where rainfall is inadequate for farming. -By 6,000 B.C., the first farming villages were settled on the northern fringe of the Tigris and Euphrates floodplain. 

-Communities were generally composed of several houses, containing a few rooms.

-By 5500 B.C., the Halafian pottery style spread throughout a wide area of northern Mesopotamia, suggesting that the villages were linked. Shortly after the appearance of Halafian ceramics in the north, the focus of Mesopotamian settlement shifted to the south, an area known as Sumer. -By 5300 B.C., an economy based on fish, irrigation agriculture, and domestic cattle arose in Sumer. -The ‘Ubaid period (5300–4100 B.C.) begins the sequence and was marked by the establishment of the temple.

-Little is known about Early Egypt. What is known is that the civilization along the Nile River was different in its long-term history from the ancient civilizations that developed in other parts of the world. Egyptian civilization centered on the Nile Valley.

-Its final 800 miles cut through Egypt before fanning out into an enormous delta. Lower Egypt to the north has rich cultivable floodplains that are extremely fertile. Annual temperatures are ideal for the cultivation of a

has rich cultivable floodplains that are extremely fertile. Annual temperatures are ideal for the cultivation of a wide range of crops.

-Soon after 5000 B.C., food production was established.

-Most of what is known about predynastic Egypt comes from the south, where the earliest occupations are called Badarian.

-Badarian settlements consisted of clusters of skin tents or small huts.

-Many of the dead were buried carefully in pits in which grave goods were placed. -In the south, Amratian tradition (3800–3500 B.C.) materials are found directly above Badarian levels. This tradition is characterized by the appearance of more developed craft industries. Copper was used.

-The origins of Egyptian metallurgy have not definitively been determined.

*Giza and dynastic egypt 

-After the unification of Egypt, Narmer moved the capital from Hierakonpolis, in Upper Egypt, to Memphis, in Lower Egypt.

-Memphis remained the political center for 1,500 years.

-The symbol of the pharaoh was the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt.

-A series of pharaohs during the first (3100–2890 B.C.) and second (2890–2686 B.C.) dynasties ruled under the double crown.

-The Egyptian population was less urban than Southwest Asia and was ruled by many dynasties. -Apart from a few large cities, most Egyptians lived in self-sufficient villages.

-A massive hereditary bureaucracy developed (inherited positions of power), devoting energy to tax collection, harvest yields, and the administration of irrigation.

-Trade links were established to other parts of Africa.

-Between the third dynasty in 2686 B.C. and the Persian conquest in 525 B.C., Egypt was ruled by at least 23 dynasties.

-The third through the sixth dynasties are referred to as the Old Kingdom (2686–2181 B.C.), a time of grandiose pyramid construction. 

-The first pyramid was a stepped stone structure constructed by Zoser. Step pyramids were soon followed by pyramids with smooth faces. pyramids were constructed in the desert on the west side of the Nile.

China 

-San dai, or Three Dynasties, of China are the Shang, Xia, and Zhou Dynasties 

-The introduction of rice cultivation changed lifeways in Southeast Asia.

-When rice was introduced from south China, small agricultural villages were established throughout the area.

-Rice rapidly became the staple crop across Southeast Asia.

-The introduction of new technologies transformed some Southeast Asian societies. -Between 1500 and 1000 B.C., bronze casting was adopted.

-After 500 B.C., iron was smelted to make weapons and agricultural tools.

-Settlements began to grow in size, and more hierarchical forms of leadership emerged (because of developments in agriculture)

-Some Southeast Asian societies became highly ranked kingdoms, focused on large centers that were presided over by an aristocratic class.

-Ruling power was based in part on control of agricultural land, rice surpluses, and advantages in access to high-status imported goods.

-Public displays of feasting were important aspects of maintaining power.

Angkor 

-For hundreds of years, small competing polities were often in a state of flux.

-Just after A.D. 800, Angkor arose and became one of the largest and most centralized polities in Southeast Asia.

-After A.D. 550 in the Mekong Valley region of Cambodia, a series of kings tried to establish control over

-After A.D. 550 in the Mekong Valley region of Cambodia, a series of kings tried to establish control over large areas; none, however, was able to hold the kingdom together for long.

-The formation of the large state in A.D. 802 is attributed to Jayavarman II.

-He joined a series of smaller competing polities into a large state by first defeating rival rules and then placing his followers in positions of authority.

-He established a succession of Khmer dynasties whose reign at Angkor endured for more than 600 years. Africa 

-The Sahara Desert has undergone several changes that have affected human settlement in the region. -Prior to 10,000 B.C., the region was very dry and uninhabited.

-Several millennia later, conditions improved and the Sahara consisted of shallow lakes and marshes linked by permanent streams where communities of foragers settled.

-The central and southern Sahara continued to be occupied by pastoralists until about 2500 B.C. -Around 2500 B.C., the Sahara became drier and people migrated south to the Sahel. -By 1000 B.C., pastoralists adopted or domesticated cereals.

-Early West African staples include sorghum and millet.

-Wild foods continued to be important.

-Iron metallurgy was introduced into West Africa during the first millennium B.C.

-The great efficiency of iron tools led to the rapid spread of the technology throughout Africa. -The earliest identifiable iron-using society in West Africa is the Nok culture.

-Egalitarian political formations were present in Southern Africa

-Prior to the third century A.D., the area was occupied by hunter-gatherers.

-Farmers first settled in south-central Africa, in what is now Zimbabwe, during the fourth century A.D. -They grew grain, raised goats and sheep, but continued to rely on hunted foods for meat. -People lived in small, permanent villages.

-Ironworking and other technologies spread to the area around the third century A.D. -Small iron artifacts are found in every village.

-Cattle became important both culturally and economically soon after their introduction. -Mapungubwe was an important early state in southern Africa..

-There were houses and richly adorned burials.

-Mapungubwe quickly became one of the largest towns in the region, controlling settlements up to 35 miles away.

-The base of power for the city came from its intermediary role in coastal trade and wealth of gold and animal products from the surrounding areas.

****Be sure to know:

-how shihuangdi was able to gain and maintain his powering China

-major features of Angkor

-sociopolitical developments in Mesopotamia (Eridu & Uruk)

---------------------------------END PERIOD NOTES-------------------------------

Chapter 9— 10 sites. Prehistoric Europe.

Franchthi Cave— Southern Greece.

-human occupation over 20,000 years ago

-food: land mammals, marine life (50% tuna), plants

-year-round occupation

-provides early evidence for the introduction of agriculture to European continent. After 7000 B.C., domesticated plants and animals were present. Sheep and goats, along

After 7000 B.C., domesticated plants and animals were present. Sheep and goats, along with domesticated wheats and barley, were found. Wild plant and animal species found at earlier occupation levels became less prominent in the diet. Domesticated plants and animals appeared rather suddenly at Franchthi and must have come from the Near East.

This may have resulted from people moving into the area, bringing domesticates to Greece. Another possibility is the adoption of domesticates by the indigenous peoples of southeastern Europe. The domesticated products may have been introduced by seafarers.

-stone blades show sickle polish, indicating that they were used to cut the stems of plants such as grasses and reeds.

-population of 75

Varna— Northeast Bulgaria, Black Sea coast. cemetery. 190 graves. lots of gold & grave goods. -nearby cemetery contained 190 graves. simple rectangular pits. red ochre.

-14 pounds of gold found during excavation.

-limited number of stone, shell, and other grave goods found.

-most were males, lying on backs. some women in flexed position on side. no children. -Several of the graves were distinctive.

-Three empty graves contained life-size clay masks of human faces with some features made of gold. gold pins found with these.

-Another grave contained over a thousand gold objects weighing a combined 4.5 pounds. -Other graves also contained elaborate grave goods, including large quantities of gold. -The graves show stratification.

-The graves may have been made for religious or political leaders.

-location of cemetery points to the role of trade and exchange.

The Iceman (Ötzi)- High Alps. From Stone Age.

-Frozen mummy found in 1991.

-Shortly after his death, he was buried in snow, where his body was mummified through the drying processes of sun, wind, and ice. Preservation of the body was remarkable, with most of the internal organs intact.

-He was 46 years old at his time of death and was about 159 centimeters (5’2.5”) tall. -He had tattoos on his back and right leg.

-X-rays revealed several broken ribs and indicate that he suffered from arthritis.

-His last meal, which he ate at least 8 hours prior to his death, included unleavened bread, some greens, and red deer meat.

-Ötzi died between March and June around 4300 B.C.

-gear: clothing, bow & arrows, copper axe (shows spread of metal use in Neolithic), flint tools, net. -probably came from valleys to the south in Italy

-A piece of charcoal he carried came from trees that grew to the south of the Alps, and pollen from his intestines came from a tree which grew in the same area.

-The food he ate suggest connections to a farming village.

-probably died from armed conflict. had deep cuts to his hand and wrist. There was an arrowhead lodged in his back.

Charavines- Southeastern France.

-Underwater site. lots of info from mud, very developed society, variable diet. -The oxygen-deficient mud of the lake bottom preserved a remarkable array of food remains and

other items.

other items.

-There were two major building phases of occupation at Charavines.

-The excellent preservation of specimens revealed that the diet of the inhabitants of Charavines was varied and nutritious.

-The occupants practiced farming, collecting, hunting, and fishing, with a sizeable portion of their diets coming from wild sources.

-Evidence of meat from both domestic and wild sources was found, although about 90% of the meat by weight comes from the latter.

-Artifacts at Charavines provide information about technology and trade. (flint for daggers indicates trade)

SITE 

Stonehenge- England.

-ceremonial site. animal bones indicate feasts. observatory. built in stages over 1500 years. constructed with scaffolding to elevate the stones and manual labor. artifacts beneath stones tell us about the people who built the structure. initial construction 4000 BC.*  

-Tens of thousands of megaliths are found across Europe.

-Such structures provide evidence of the impact of agriculture on the inhabitants of western Europe. -Megaliths fall into three major categories.

1. Menhirs- large standing stones, erected either individually or collectively in a linear fashion.

2. Henge monuments- or circles, are defined by an enclosure, usually a circular ditch and bank, up to 1,600 feet in diameter.

3. A dolmen- is a megalithic tomb or a chamber with a roof, which may have served “cults of the dead” for ancestor worship.

-The construction of Stonehenge took place over a period of 1,500 years, from approximately 3,000 to 1,500 B.C. and was built in 3 stages.

1. circular bank and ditch, almost 330 feet in diameter.

2. remodeled, added erection of a circle of upright timbers was added.

3. huge columns of sandstone being quarried and dragged to the site.

-Not a residential structure. People who utilized the stonehenge lived in Durington Walls.

SITE 

Knossos- Crete. Minoans. Palace. Shows trade networks. Taken over by Mycenaeans. -Grapes, olive trees, and sheep, fish 

-Crete was strategically located to act as middleman in moving goods between Egypt, Asia, and Europe.

-Crete was a major center of development in the Aegean.

-Minoan civilization reached its peak between 2000 and 1450 B.C. Minoans dominated the Aegean through sea power and the control of trade.

-The Mycenaeans on mainland Greece controlled most of the Aegean between 1600 and 1100 B.C. and took over Crete in 1450 B.C. The Mycenaean civilization was dominated by a series of citadels ruled by powerful warrior kings.

-Episodic alliances among the citadels led to greater political, economic, and military power. -Palaces were the centers of the Minoan state. They were laid out and built according to a plan, with large, rectangular courtyards, private apartments, and enormous storerooms. The complex of rooms and buildings housed many of the administrative, economic, and religious functions of the government.

-Important craft workshops were also located in the palaces or surrounding areas. -Frescoes and murals decorated the walls of the palace and shrines were scattered

throughout the palace.

throughout the palace.

-Knossos and other Minoan cultures directed an extensive network of trade.

-Many raw materials from abroad were found at the palace.

-These materials were the foundation of the wealth and power in the Minoan state. -The palace of Knossos was destroyed at least twice during its history. The first destruction occurred in 1700 B.C. and was probably caused by a major earthquake. The second period of destruction dates to 1450 B.C., marking the end of Minoan civilization, perhaps at the hands of the Mycenaeans.

SITE 

Mycenae- The early Greeks gained power over Crete and came to dominate the Aegean between 1600 and 1100 B.C., a time known as the Mycenaean period.

-A warrior class emerged at this time.

-A military presence is visible in the Bronze Age citadels of southern Greece. -The citadels, of which the site of Mycenae is best known, were fortified palace towns, located on high, defensible points on the landscape.

-Burials were an important aspect of Mycenae society.

-Early rulers of the citadel of Mycenae were buried in shaft graves.

-Grave goods from the site are among the most spectacular finds from the Bronze Age and include precious metals and stone in the form of weapons, vessels, masks, and other objects. -One of the early graves contained more than 11 pounds of gold.

-beehive-shaped tholos tombs were constructed for major rulers.

-Mycenaean palaces combined many of the administrative, military, and manufacturing functions of the kingdom within the residence of the ruler.

-Workshops for crafts, guardrooms, storerooms, and kitchens were attached to the rear of the palace. -Surrounding villages supplied plant foods, meat, men, and materials to the lord of the citadel. -The reasons for the collapse of Mycenaean civilization remain a mystery.

-After 1100 B.C., Athens began to assert its importance in Greece and the citadels of Mycenaeans fell into disuse.

SITE 

Borum Eshøj- one of the largest Bronze Age barrows in Denmark.

-The original mound was almost 30 feet high and 130 feet in diameter.

-Three oak coffins were found in the mound, containing an elderly man, a woman, and a younger man.

-Grave goods, including bronze objects, were buried with the individuals.

-Bronze Age barrows were built for the wealthier members of society and placed nearby where the living had died.

-Most barrows in Denmark are located in areas of productive farmland, which is evidence of the important relationship between wealth and the control of agricultural resources. -The circular mounds were often placed on the horizon to emphasize the importance of buried individuals. -Since all bronze and gold in southern Scandinavia had to be imported, the amount of metal in burials provides some indication of the wealth of deceased individuals.

SITE 

Vix- northern France, is the site of a burial of an Iron Age princess.

-The burial took place around 500 B.C.

-The woman was on the bed of a ceremonial cart, which was placed in a large square chamber in the ground.

-She was buried with a heavy gold collar and the tomb was filled with a wealth of exotic, funerary offerings. -The items found in the grave indicate the extensive trade taking place in Europe at the time. -Major rivers were important transportation routes.

-Mont Lassois, directly above the grave at Vix, dominates the upper Seine Valley.

SITE 

Maiden Castle- Maiden castle is one of the largest hillforts in Britain.

-The site enclosed an area of 45 acres.

-The largest settlements from the Iron Age in Europe are defended hilltops, found throughout southern Germany, France, and Britain.

-These fortresses served as both population centers and retreats, distinguished by the fortifications that surround them.

-The hilltop was first used around 3700 B.C.

-An enormous barrow was erected on the site during the same period.

-Maiden Castle was the center of an elaborate landscape of henge monuments and other structures. -During the Iron Age, around 500 B.C., fortifications were first constructed around a growing market center on the hilltop.

-The first fort had one wall and enclosed about 15 acres.

-Such hillforts had administrative, religious, economic, and residential functions.

-Occupation could have been as high as 2,000-4,000 people.

-Large pits were dug for storage, water reservoirs, and other purposes.

-By 50 B.C., shortly before the first Roman invasion of Britain, the fortifications were enormously expanded, and the enclosed area inside the hillfort tripled in size.

-Three enormous concentric banks and two ditches enclosing almost 45 acres were built. -Some of the walls were as high as 65 feet.

-Over 20,000 slingshots were found in caches near the walls of the structure.

-Maiden Castle fell to the Roman legions and their siege artillery in A.D. 43 after intensive fighting.

first farmers to the Roman conquests.

Included is the introduction of agriculture, innovation and use of metals, growth of regionalism and warfare, and the development of economically and politically powerful groups.

-8th and 7th millennia (8000 - 6000 B.C.)— agriculture and technology (from southwest Asia to Europe) -Pottery and the use of mud-brick houses emerged by 6500 B.C.

-6th millennium (6000 - 5000 B.C.)— settlements, religion, copper mining, extensive trade -5th - 3rd millennia (5000 -2000 B.C.)— technological and societal changes.

-4th millennium (4000 - 3000 B.C.)— bronze, wheel, weapons, warfare, agriculture common, large structure erection, plow and ox cart, horse and chariot, appeared.

-The 2nd millennium (2000 - 1000 B.C.)— Writing, Aegean, craft specialization, taxation, and extensive trade networks emerged.

-Elaborate tombs of elite individuals are found in England, the Czech Republic, Spain, and southern Scandinavia.

-The 1st millennium (1000 - 0 B.C.)— Iron Age, classical civilizations in Mediterranean, Celtic/Germanic tribes in west, Julius Caesar influence

-Bronze Age— conflict & warfare

-Mycenean Period (1600-1100 BC)— greeks take Crete & Agean, warrior class, citadels -A military presence is visible in the Bronze Age citadels of southern Greece.

-Melting and casting of copper began in southeastern Europe and the Near East 5000 B.C.*** -Iron making was discovered in Turkey shortly before 2000 B.C.

-Due to high melting temperatures, sophisticated furnaces and smelting techniques are required for reducing the ore.

-The technology was probably a well-guarded secret for some time in order to gain military advantage.

-Iron was initially used to make stronger, more durable weapons and later for making more practical tools and equipment.

-Copper first appeared north of the Alps around 4000 B.C. and bronze objects began to appear after 2000 B.C.

-The Aegean acted like a magnet for valued raw materials from the rest of Europe. -The Bronze age in Denmark and southern Sweden was marked by the quality of fine metal objects buried in many funerary mounds and caches.

-Bronze Age barrows are found across southern Scandinavia.

-The Iron Age in western Europe can be divided into two phases.

1. -Hallstatt phase (800-500 B.C.) was centered in Austria, southern Germany, and the Czech Rebublic. Salt & Iron mines.

2. -La Tène period was centralized in eastern France, Switzerland, southern Germany, and the Czech Republic.

-The Iron Age ended with Romans

•A distinctive Celtic art style was practiced throughout western Europe during the pre-Roman Iron Age.

-Weapons, tools, jewelry, and everyday equipment were ornamented with the distinctive style. -Both Iron Age phases are defined primarily by styles of artistic depiction and decoration and by types of pottery.

-The art style, along with certain religious practices and beliefs, was shared by several distinct societies in western Europe.

-hunting-gathering makes up most of our history

-biological changes in beginning of our development, cultural at the end.

-archaeology role is to describe the course of human development and tell us about our origins -

Quick Lists of Sites & Periods for Ch. 7 & 8 

Sites & their characteristics

El Pariso— cotton netting, textiles, marine diet, Caral

Chavin de Huantar— old & new temples, soft metals, cotton armor, chavin horizon style (people and animals on pottery)

Moche— influential culture/very developed, controlled adjacent valleys (pottery spread to viru & santa), battle and erotic scenes on pottery, huacas del sol/luna, lost wax, metal working, canals & food storage

Sipan— subject to looting, 3 pyramids/tombs, sacrifice ceremony

Tiwanaku— gateway of the sun, long-distance trade, camelid pastoralism

Chan Chan— Chimu capital, split inheritance, ceremonial core, incorporated into Inca empire Cuzco— temple of the sun, capital of inca empire, administrative city

Machu Picchu— function unknown, ceremonial core, astronomical features present Nazca lines— geoglyphs of animals, humans, plants, geometric shapes by removal of rocks in earth.

*Eridu— ‘Ubaid period, potter’s wheel invention, monochrome pottery, temple site, beginning of temple institution

*Uruk (aka Warka)— Uruk period, first monumental center, ziggurat, white temple, first writing, plow & wheel invention, bronze in weapons

Harapa— “harappan tradition,” plow based-agriculture, craft technologies, mud-brick homes, mounded sectors

Mohenjo-Daro— granary, great bath (important hardpan tradition sites)

Hierakonpolis— Amratian/Gerzean period. 15 kilns, pottery industry/surplus (2 types made), hieroglyphic writing, Narmer, separated/unified 3 times (Old, Middle, New Kingdoms, know their dates).

Giza— major site of Old Kingdom, Pyramid of Khufu (13 mil. man days, shows state power and control), Great Sphinx, pharaohs (know their administrative functions),

An-yang— Chinese capital in Late Shang, writing, scapulimancy, bronze working civic-ceremonial center, overthrown by Xianyang.

Xianyang— Zhou period, wet-rice irrigation, heavily based on rice farming, iron casting, Shihuangdi (know who he was, what he did, & what he was responsible for building)

Angkor— khmer civilization, Angkor Wat temple, maritime society/port region, no currency (rice as taxation)

Jenné-Jeno— camel transport (important for long-distance trade, know domestication), turned into major market center, craft skills, blacksmiths & coppersmiths, iron working

market center, craft skills, blacksmiths & coppersmiths, iron working

Great Zimbabwe— famous site of the Karanga peoples, 4 types of structures (defensive, cliff, valley, religious), Maund Ruin had Conical Tower, trade with Indian Ocean polities made them a major commercial center, exotic goods obtained

Periods & their characteristics

‘Ubaid (5300-4100 BC, Eridu)— spread of canal irrigation, the institution of the temple (indicates that organizational structures necessary to create public architecture were present), widespread monochrome pottery with geometric designs, increases in population and craft work.

*Temple institution allowed for temple elites (civic-ceremonial administrators, limited influence over populace), who organized cooperative projects necessary to  

construct/maintain irrigation channels and delegated food and water dispersal. Temple elite owned land, employed people directly, participated in farming and manufacturing. Temple also supported long-distance trade and served as redistribution centers, aided people after natural disasters.

Uruk (4100-3100, Uruk aka Warka)— monumental architecture that indicated large, organized labor forces, different from ‘Ubaid times; mass quantities of unpainted pottery, developments in writing (earliest written documents found during this time) and agriculture (plow developed during this time), and the wheel. Bronze was now being incorporated into weaponry.

Amratian (3800-3500 BC, Hierakonpolis)— appearance of more developed craft industries, bigger/wider distribution of settlements, copper-working

Gerzean (3500-3100 BC, Hierakonpolis)— increase in Amratian characteristics, gold-working, increase in socio-economic inequalities (grave sizes & goods), increase in warfare.

Egyptian Kingdoms (Old, Middle, New)—

Old Kingdom (2686-2181 BC, Giza)— pharaohs,

stepped/smooth-faced pyramid construction, majority of

population were peasant farmers who maintained egyptian

agricultural base, smaller pyramids near end

Middle Kingdom (2000 BC, Giza)— increased administrative

centralization, turn of grandiose pyramids, pharaohs less despotic,

trade extended

New Kingdom (1000 BC)— more administrative centralization &

stability, pharaohs now quasi-divine, new burial customs

Shang Dynasty (1766-1122 BC An-yang)— highly stratified [kings (divine), nobles, commoners], bronze working, development of Chinese writing (3000 symbols now in use), scapulimancy

Zhou Dynasty (1122- 3rd Century BCE, Xianyang)— beginning of imperial China, highly stratified (royalty at top), all cities were walled, iron casting, large irrigation systems, wet-rice agriculture, interregional trade

Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC, Xianyang)— first emperor Shihuangdi, Qin dynasty mostly characterized by his rule & developments, road building & canal systems

Khmer Empire (9th - 5th centuries AD, Angkor)— majestic temples symbolized rulership, no currency, bureaucracy and it’s subsequent political roles (officials who oversaw taxation, armies, etc.), surplus rice agriculture

TIDBITS

-Significant differences between Indus Valley and Mesopotamian civilizations.***

1. Indus Valley (Pakistan) covered a larger area, had a smaller number of major centers. Mesopotamia (Iraq) had many city-states, the similarities between Harappa and Mohenjo daro suggest that Indus centers were closely linked economically and culturally.

2. Indus civilization had a more equitable distribution of wealth.

3. Indus material culture was simple compared to that of Mesopotamia.

4. The Indus elite built no rich tombs, elaborate palaces, or fancy temples.

5. Indus settlements were closer to natural resources than Sumerian sites.

1. uses for Inca Highways— mainly military and administrative

2. why discoveries at Sipan were important for understanding ancient South American societies 3. how ancient civilizations of Mesoamerica and South America were similar/different- sedentary villages & agriculture at the same time

a. Mesoamerica was more concerned with the development of trade and market, south america was more concerned with development of storage systems and agricultural/economic/political development. (Haunch Pampa)

b. more societies began to live under a single imperial rule

c. developed more profitable connections with neighboring people resulting in larger political systems than in Mesoamerica.

d. both areas were characterized by differences in wealth and power, evident in people’s clothing, food, housing, etc.

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