Nutrition 100 Study Guide
Nutrition 100 Study Guide Nutrition 100
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlyn Pawlak on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Nutrition 100 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Lee Murphy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Unit 1 Nutrition Study Guide Chapter 1 Factors influencing food choices: o Social needs o Social network (friends and family) o Food, customs, and culture o Cost o Education, occupation, income o Routines and habits o Lifestyle, health, nutrition o Food marketing o Food availability, texture and flavor o Psychological needs Hunger- psychical/ biological (internal) drive to find and eat food regulated by internal ques Appetite- A psychological (external) influence that encourages us to find and eat food, often in absence of obvious hunger o Social customs, seeing/smelling tempting foods Satiety- State in which there is no longer a desire to eat; a feeling of satisfaction o Regulated by brain o Feeding center o Satiety center o Fullness= hypothalamus Nutrition is the science that links foods to health and disease. It includes the processes by which the human organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, and excretes food substances o Food provides energy; calories o Provides building blocks- protein (muscle) o Vital for growth and maintenance of bodies Essential Nutrient- Has a biological function o Omission results in decline of function o Replenishing restores biological function o Start feeling sluggish, sick if lacking o Normal function restored when added back Classes and Sources of Nutrients o Six classes Carbs 4kcal/gm simple sugar (monosaccharides and disaccharides, fruits, veggies and dairy products, sucrose and glucose complex carbohydrates (glycogen, starch and fiber), (dietary fiber and breads) Lipids 9kcal/gm fats and oil- both plant and animal sources (triglycerides)- foods and fats/oils, marker for heart disease do not dissolve in water animal fat (solid/ saturated), should be limited Unsaturated fatty acids- oils (liquid), healthier fats Essential fatty acids- omega 3 and 6 Cholesterol and phospholipids Proteins 4kcal.gm component of blood cells, enzymes and immune factors amino acids (9 essential 11 not) Dietary sources include animals and plants Most Americans eat two times as much needed Contains nitrogen Vitamins Enable chemical reactions to occur in body Fat and water soluble o Fat- A, D, E, K o Water- B and C Cooking destroys water soluble more readily than fat soluble No calories Organic- contain carbon Minerals Inorganic substances that do not contain carbon atoms Numerous functions in the body Not destroyed during cooking Major and trace (trace is less than 100 milligrams) mineral Calcium= more major Iron = trace (less) Perform electrolyte functions Produces 0 calories/ energy Water Acts as solvent and lubricant Transports nutrients and waste Medium for temperature regulation Majority of our body weight Recommended intake is 9-13 cups a day found in foods Look at urine color for hydration o Functional Categories Provide calories Growth, development, maintenance tissue Regulate body processes Requires them to work correctly on a cellular level Macro vs Micro Nutrients o Macro Provide calories- needed in gram quantities in a diet Large amounts Provide calories Carbs Protein Lipids/fats Water o Micro Do not provide calories- needed in milligram or microgram quantities Small amounts Vitamins Minerals Phytochemicals o Chemical found in plants; some may contribute to reduced risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease in people who consumer them regularly o Concern that it is being overused in marketing some foods 1,000 calories= 1 kcal= 1 food calorie math calculations o to find calories add grams from each times their kcal and add together o percentage ex: 15% of dietary allowance for iron (8mg) .15 X 8 milligrams = 1.2 milligrams eaten CHAPTER SUMMARY (book) Chapter 2 Variety- Eating many different foods o Choose foods from ALL the food groups o No one food meets all nutrient needs o Eat from the five food groups: Grains Fruits Proteins Veggies Dairy Balance (proportionality)- eating more nutrient dense foods and beverages such as fruit, veggies, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk products, less high in certain types of fats, sugars, cholesterol, salt, and alcohol Nutrient Density- Comparison of protein, vitamin, and mineral content of a food with the total CALORIES o Determines nutritional quality o Watch out for “empty calories” Little to no nutritional content Example: soft drinks o Higher the nutrient density, the better Moderation- refers mostly to portion size o Pay attention to portion sizes and planning your day’s diet so that you do not over consume any nutrients Energy density- comparison of the CALORIE content with the weight of the food o Nuts, cookies, fried foods (high density) o Fruits, veggies, incorporates lots of water during cooking (low dense) o Eating a diet low in energy density can aid in maintain or losing weight MyPyramid - MyPlate o Translates science into practical terms o Helps people meet nutritional needs Carbs, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals o Suggests a pattern of food choices o Incorporates foundations of healthy diet Variety balance and moderation Dietary and Physical activity guidelines o Balance calories with physical activity to manage weight o Consume more of certain foods and nutrients such as fruits, veggies, whole grains, fat-free and low-fat dairy products and seafood o Consume fewer foods with sodium, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, added sugars, and refined grains o Adults should have 150 minutes of moderate physical activity a week o Children and adolescents- 60 minutes of physical activity per day MyPlate o Includes 5 groups: Fruits and veggies should cover half of your plate Dense sources of nutrients and phytochemicals Grains occupy slightly more than one fourth of the plate Protein occupies remaining space on plate Lean meats and poultry, plant sources, fish twice a week A cup of dairy appears next to the plate 2-3 cups per day of low or fat free dairy products and other sources of calcium 2 tbsp. salad dressing, peanut butter, margarine (golf ball) baked potato, fruit, bagel, English muffin (1/2-2/3 cups) (tennis ball) 3oz of meat, poultry or fish (deck of cards) Large apple or orange, cereal (1 cup; baseball) States of nutritional health o Nutritional state- determined by anthropometric measurements, biochemical measurements of nutrients, their by-products in blood and urine, clinical examination, dietary analysis, and economic evaluation, also called nutritional status o Malnutrition Failing health from long standing dietary practices that do not coincide with nutritional needs It is possible to be both over nourished and under at the same time o Over nutrition A state in which nutritional intake greatly exceeds the body’s needs Leads to disease, symptoms and obesity o Desirable nutrition When body tissues have enough of the nutrient to support normal metabolic functions o Under nutrition Nutrient intake does not meet needs. Body’s metabolic processes have slowed or stopped Deficiency= no outward symptoms= subclinical deficiency Clinical symptoms will develop Measuring nutritional state o Anthropometric assessment Body weight, lengths, circumferences, and thickness of parts of the body provides information about the current states of nutrition o Biochemical assessment Related to nutrient’s function Concentrations of nutrient by-products or enzyme activities in blood or urine Specific blood enzymes Blood test fro hemoglobin to determine iron status o Clinical assessment General appearance of skin, eyes, and tongue; evidence of rapid hair loss; sense of touch; ability to cough, walk o Dietary assessment Estimation of typical food choices relying on the recounting of one’s usual intake or record of previous days’ intake Looking at persons’ diet o Environmental assessment Living conditions, education level, ability to purchase, transport, and cook food. Weekly budget for food purchases Nutrient Standards and Recommendations o Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Encompass nutrient recommendations by the food and nutrition board of the institute of medicine RDAs, ALs, EERs, ULs o Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) Nutrient intake to meet needs of 97-98% of the individuals in a specific life stage Above or below is no concern Deviation below 70% or above about 3 times or more for some nutrients, RDA can result in deficiency or toxicity Meet the needs of almost all healthy people similar age and gender o Adequate Intake (AI) Intake amount set for sufficient research; based on estimates of intakes that appear to maintain a defined nutritional state Not enough info on some nutrients like chromium o Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) Estimate energy (kcal) intake needed to match the energy use of an average person in a specific life stage EER needs to be specific, taking into account age, gender, height, weight and physical activity Serves as a starting point for estimating calorie need Based on average person o Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) Max chronic intake level of nutrients that is unlikely to cause adverse health effects in almost all people in specific life stage Problems arise for those who use many fortified foods, excess doses of vitamins and minerals o Daily Value Used on nutrition facts portion of the food label Percent daily value for each nutrient is based on a 2000kcal diet Set close to highest RDA value Set for vitamins, minerals, protein, other dietary components Evaluating nutrition information o Examine the background o Be aware o Characteristics o Examine labels carefully CHAPTER SUMMARY (BOOK) CHAPTER 3 Cardiovascular system o Consist of heart, blood vessels, and blood o Transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormone throughout body o Immune response and regulation of body temp o Hepatic Portal circulation Portion of circulatory system using large vein (portal vein) to carry nutrient rich blood from capillaries in intestines and portions of the stomach to liver Urinary System o Consists of kidneys, urinary bladder, and the ducts that carry urine o System removes waste products from the circulatory system, regulates blood acid-base balance, chemical and water balance Nerve transmission o Signal occurs thru change in concentration of two nutrients, sodium, and potassium o Influx of sodium into neuron and loss of potassium as message is sent o Concentrations are restored to normal amounts after single passes, ready to conduct another message Nutrient needs of brain o Neurotransmitters used brain functions are often made from common nutrients found in foods Amino acids- norepinephrine and epinephrine Glucose, fuel to brain Lipids, protein, B-12 support the myelin sheath covering nerve fibers Endocrine system o Regulation of metabolism, reproduction, water balance Immune system o Skin and intestinal cells Defend body against infection o Nonspecific, innate immunity Stop invasions of pathogens, requires no previous encounter with pathogen o Specific adaptive immunity Function of white blood cells directed at specific antigens Digestive system o Gastrointestinal tract o Digestive organs: liver, gallbladder, pancreas o Mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, elimination of wastes o Order of digestion Digestion- ingested, mechanically and chemically broken down producing basic nutrients that can be absorbed across the wall of GI tract Absorption- substances are taken up from GI tract and enter bloodstream/lymph system Mouth Saliva, amylase (starch digesting enzyme), Lipase (fat digesting enzyme), mucus (thick fluid secreted by many cells throughout the body, contains compound that has both carbohydrate and protein parts, acts as lubricant and protection for cells) Esophagus Tube of GI tract Pharynx (oral and nasal) Epiglottis (flap that folds down over trachea during swallowing) Bolus o Mixed with saliva, food, oral cavity to pharynx Peristalsis o Muscular contractions to propel food down GI tract Components of upper GI LES (lower esophageal sphincter) o Circular constricts opening of esophagus to stomach Chyme o Mixture of stomach secretions partially digested food Pyloric sphincter o Ring of smooth muscle between stomach and small intestine o Controls the rate at which the chyme is released Stomach Large sac that can hold up to 4 cups up to several hours Size varies individually Stomach acid increases as food enters Chyme leaves stomach 1 teaspoon at a time o Enters small intestine through pyloric sphincter very little absorption of nutrients in stomach intrinsic factor o protein-like compound produced by stomach enhances vitamin B-12 absorption Small intestine Duodenum o First segment that receives chyme and digestive juice from pancreas and gallbalder o 10 inches in length Jejunum o Middle segment approx. 4 ft Ileum o Last segment; 5 ft Villi o Fingerlike protrusions that digest and absorb food Absorptive cells o Also known as enterocytes; line villi and participate in nutrient absorption Microvilli o Extensive folds on the muscosal surface of the absorptive cells New intestinal absorptive cells are constantly produced in crypts of small intestine 20-25 ft long (tennis court) Large Intestine No villi or enzymes Mucus-producing cells Absorption of water, some minerals, vitamins Bacteria 5 main segments o cecum o ascending colon o transverse colon o descending colon o sigmoid colon probiotics o microorganisms reside in large intestine; good health benefits o good bacteria prebiotics o substances that increase the growth of (or feed) probiotic microorganisms water is absorbed feces o some water and undigested fiber, tough, connective tissues (from animal foods); bacteria, dead intestinal cells Rectum Last portion of large intestine Muscular movements push feces into the anus Anal sphincters o Internal o External under voluntary control Relaxation allows elimination Nutrient absorption o Passive diffusion Diffusion of nutrients across the absorptive cell membranes Fats, water, minerals o Facilitated diffusion Uses a carrier protein to move nutrients down a concentration gradient Fructose o Active absorption Involves a carrier protein as well as energy to move nutrients (against a concentration gradient) into absorptive cells Glucose o Phagocytosis and pinocytosis Forms of active transport in which absorptive cell membrane forms an indention that engulfs a nutrient to bring into cell Accessory Organs o Gallbladder Organ attached to underside of live, bile storage, concentration, and secretion o Liver Makes bile Enteroheptic circulation Continual recycling of compounds, like bile acids, between small intestine and liver Pancreas Manufactures hormones- insulin and glucagon Produces “pancreatic juice” to counteract acidity of chyme leaving stomach Glucose glycogen Nutrition and genetics o Genetic variation can directly affect proteins encoded by our genes result in different: Nutrient requirements among indivduals Effects of environmental factors on our genes and proteins they make Epigenome- the way that genome is marked and packaged inside the cell nucleus Epigenetics- changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in DNA sequence Ulcers o Erosion of the tissue lining, usually in stomach or upper small intestine Generally referred to as peptic ulcers H pylori Eroded by acid o Treatment Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) Acid-blocking medications called proton pump inhibitors Antacid medications GERD o Heartburn Acid reflux Damage lining of esophagus Results from stomach acid backing up into esophagus Acid irritates the lining of esophagus, causing pain Constipation o Difficult or infrequent evacuation of the bowels o Treatment Increase dietary fiber and water consumption Stimulates peristalsis Drink fluids Dried fruits and high fiber foods Establish a regular bowl routine Relaxation Physical activity o Laxatives can lessen constipation by irritating intestinal nerves Draw water into intestines Hemorrhoids o Swollen veins of rectum and anus o Caused by intense pressure during bowel movements Stress to the vessels from pregnancy, obesity, prolonged sitting, violenten coughing Results in itching and bleeding from anus o Treatment- warm bath IBS o Cramps, gassiness, bloating, irregular bowel function, diarrhea and constipation or alternating episodes of both o Visible abdomen distention o Hard to pinpoint peristalsis o Decreased pain threshold o Treatment Elimination diet, moderate caffeine, low-fat, small frequent meals; stress reduction Gallstones o 10-20% affected of US adults o symptoms upper right ab pain, gas, bloating, nausea and vomiting o treatment potential removal of gallbladder Celiac Disease and Gluten sensitivity o Chronic immune medicated disease precipitated by exposure to dietary protein gluten in genetically predisposed people Found in grains, wheat, rye, barley 1% of population o flattens villi o limits absorption o treatment should include blood test for antibodies to gluten elimination of wheat, rye, barley CHAPTER SUMMARY (BOOK)
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