Unit 1 Review
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Whitney Marie Halaby on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 120-001 at Towson University taught by Partain in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Principals of biology in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
BIO 120 UNIT 1 REVIEW Vocab: Biology: the study of all living things Scientific hypothesis: a question in search of an answer – must be testable and falsifiable – cannot be proven Controlled experiment: makes sure that the experiment is not biased – it DOES NOT get the experimental treatment Primary Sources: a peer reviewed source that usually comes from an academic journal – most people who are not in the field have a difficult time understanding primary sources Secondary Sources: typically a reporting agency like Time Magazine or CNN that shares information from primary sources > information is usually lost from the primary source to the secondary source Double Blind Experiment: where the researcher conducting the experiment and the participant do not know specific details about the experiment – this prevents bias Correlation Studies: studies that go about looking at individual research conducted by independent agencies to see if there is a correlation between two variables – correlation DOES NOT mean causation Alternative Hypothesis: aims to eliminate the differences between groups Statistical Significance: when the result is very unlikely due to the chance difference between the experimental and control groups Scientific Theory: a well supported observation and experiment from several, independent lines of research – if there is an abundance of evidence then the idea may be referred to as a theory pH: used to express the acidity or alkalinity of a solution – measure the strength/weakness of an acid or base Organic Chemistry: the chemistry of carbon compounds – carbon is the basis for all organic molecules – carbon is the basis for all life – Macromolecule: molecules that contain carbon and are either living or were living at some point > 4 important macromolecules: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acid Enzyme: regulates metabolic reaction – breaks down food and liberates energy stored in their chemical bonds – enzymes work for very specific molecules they keep working until they breakdown and need to be recycled – catalyzes reactions Nucleus: protects DNA Ribosomes: produces protein Mitochondrion: provides ATP and energy Chloroplast: site of photosynthesis (the most important biochemical reaction) – takes place in some bacteria and all plants Lysosome: cleans up the cell Cell Wall: provides structure Cytoskeleton: provides structure and movement Simple Diffusion: the process where a substance passes through a membrane without the aid of ATP – the force that drives the substance from one side to another is the force of diffusion – from high oxygen to low oxygen Polar: an asymmetrical distribution of an electrical charge Non Polar: a symmetrical distribution of an electrical charge Hydrophobic: compounds that do not dissolve readily in water ex. oil Hydrophilic: a compound that dissolves easily in water when a hydrogen bond forms from a breaking ionic bond Amphathic: a molecule having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions Methane: non polar H20: polar Facilitated Diffusion: when water soluble molecules enter and exit by passing through proteins – no ATP is required Active Transport: molecules/ions moving against the concentration gradient > exocytosis: exiting endocytosis: entering requires ATP Passive Transport: no ATP required, moving from high concentration to low concentration simple diffusion and Facilitated diffusion Important Concepts: Characteristics of life: 1. Organization > cells/molecules > taxonomy: naming of things 2. Energy > getting and using energy > the sun is the main source of energy 3. Genetic Information > DNA/Inheritance 4. Continuity> similar molecules that have a unity of origin 5. Reproduction > sexual and asexual 6. Homeostasis > constant equilibrium of the internal environment Importance of pH: o It measures the amount of H in a solution o A scale of 014 o Basic> alkaline o 714 consists of OH o 07 consists of H+ o H+ is hydrogen o OH is a hydroxide base Physical Property of Water: o Is a liquid at moderate temperatures o Water molecules cohere ( stick together) this creates surface tension o Water molecules adhere (stick to other things making them wet) o Water is a universal solvent o Can hold a lot of heat relative to its volume o Water expands when it freezes and is less dense than when it is a liquid so it floats Chemical Properties of Water: o Water molecules are polar Polar: an asymmetrical distribution of an electrical charge > molecules like glucose will readily dissolve in water Non Polar: a symmetrical distribution of an electrical charge > molecules like lipids will not dissolve in water – NOT A CHEMICAL PROPERTY OF WATER o Contains negative oxygen electrons and positive hydrogen electrons o A water molecule contains protons, neutrons, and electrons o Hydrogen Bonding: when a weak molecular bond, bonds with a partially positive charge on a hydrogen atom when the hydrogen atom is already participating in a covalent bond (water) o The human body is 60% water o Plants are 65%80% water Adhesion and Cohesion: o Adhesion is when water molecules stick together > think of animals that can glide on water o Cohesion is when water clings to different things around it > think of a meniscus in a water that is in a cup of water Prokaryotic Cells: o Only Bacteria/ Archaea o Always Contains: a plasma membrane, DNA, Ribosomes, Cytoskeletal Elements, and a Cell Wall o Never Contains: a Nucleus, Mitochondria, and Lysosomes o Sometimes Contains: Chloroplasts Eukaryotic Cells: o Animal: Always Contains: Plasma Membrane, Nucleus, DNA, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Lysosomes, and Cytoskeletal elements Never Contains: Chloroplasts and Cell Wall o Plant: Always Contains: Plasma Membrane, Nucleus, DNA, Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, Ribosomes, Cytoskeletal Elements, and Cell Wall Sometimes Contains: Lysosomes o Fungus: Always Contains: Plasma Membrane, Nucleus, DNA, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Cytoskeletal Elements, and Cell Wall Never Contains: Chloroplasts and Lysosomes Carbohydrates: o Macromolecule: Sugars and starches Made from monosaccharaides Disaccharides: table sugar Polysaccharides: complex carbohydrates GLUCOSE Simple carb: sugar Complex carb: starches o Monomer (one unit): Glucose: releases quick energy Sugars: natural and refined o Polymer (many units): A1. Glycogen: provides energy and storage > stored in liver and muscle and fungi A2. Starch: provides energy storage > storage in plants B 1: cellulose plant cell walls – most abundant carb on earth – STRUCTURAL POLYSACCHARIDE B 2: Chitin –exoskeleton of insects, spiders, lobsters, cells of fungi –STRUCTURAL POLYSACCHARIDE B 3: Peptidoglycan – bacterial cell walls –STRUCTURAL POLYSACCHARIDE o Functions: Of the Monomer: quick energy Of the Polymer: 1. Quick energy 2. Energy storage Protein: o Macromolecule: Acts as a catalyst Specific enzymes will break down specific sugars o Monomer (one unit): Amino Acids > 20 amino acids = a lot of variety o Polymer (many units): Polypeptide: a long chain of amino acids Proteins consist of one or more polymers o Functions: 1. Provide Structure 2. Control Cell processes 3. Act as a messenger that moves through fluids > messenger and receptor 4. Protects from diseases > anti bodies (white blood cells) 5. Speeds up the life processes > enzymes Lipids: o Macromolecules: Fats and oils Hydrophobic: compounds that do not dissolve readily in water o Monomer (one unit): NONE o Polymer (many units): 1. Triglycerides walnuts, oil, animal fat when you eat your body converts any calories it doesn’t need to use right away into triglycerides (stored into fat cells) 2. Steroids > differently structurally – no fatty acid tale ( 4 carbon rings) – found in animals, fungi, and plants – 2 types cholesterol and sex hormones ( estrogen and testosterone) 3. Phospholipids o Functions: Long term energy storage Hormones builds cells Cell Membrane Nucleic Acids: o Macromolecules: NONE o Monomer (one unit): Nucleotides > vary between RNA and DNA Differences between RNA and DNA 1. Function 2. Nucleotides 3. Number of strands 4. Sugars o Polymer (many units): DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid RNA: ribonucleic acid o Functions: DNA: stores heredity information RNA: helps DNA process information Plasma Membrane: o Structure: Contains sugar chains, cholesterol, phospholipid bilayer, a head and tail, and protein All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane o Function: The proteins in the plasma membrane help transport different substances across the cell The cholesterol in the cell helps to maintain fluidity in the membrane The sugar chains act as an identifying agent marking cells as a particular cell type Amphathic: when a molecule has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions Aims to protect the cell and promote communication Cell Theory: o Explains the basic units of life o All known living things are made up of cells o The cell is a structural and functional unit of all living things o All cells come from preexisting cells through division Respiration: o A metabolic reaction where glucose is broken down and energy is release for use by cell and life processes o Takes place in the Mitochondria o Oxygen: keeps respiration moving – without oxygen, respiration cycle stops and no energy is generated o Glucose: most common requirement o Enzymes: made by proteins through Ribosomes Metabolism: o All physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy ex. breathing, digesting food, blood circulation o Water: acts as a solvent o Enzymes: control all reactions o Calories: produce fuel for reaction Digestion: o Breaking of food production into smaller and simpler compounds o Macronutrients: water, lipid, protein o Micronutrients: vitamins, minerals, antioxidants o Enzymes ATP: o Releases one if its phosphates and becomes ADP + energy o ATP and ADP are constantly cycling o Nitrogenous base, sugar, 3 negatively charged phosphates > when bonds are broken the stored energy is released Enzymes: o Work in a specific temperature and need vitamins in order to function o If the temperature is too high the enzymes will fall apart o Vitamins assist enzymes in whatever they are doing
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