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Intro to Sociology, Study Guide for Exam 1

by: Rebecca Smith

Intro to Sociology, Study Guide for Exam 1 SO 1003

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > History > SO 1003 > Intro to Sociology Study Guide for Exam 1
Rebecca Smith
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About this Document

These notes include chapter 1, chapter 2, and chapter 3 along with a brief overview of the "A Class Divided" video.
Intro to Sociology
Robert Montgomery
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Smith on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SO 1003 at Mississippi State University taught by Robert Montgomery in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in History at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 02/10/16
Intro to Sociology (Vocab words are underlined) Chapter 1 Sociological Imagination  Sociology- study of human society  C. Wright Mills- said sociology is where your personal story crosses with the larger story of history  Sociological Imagination- created by C. Wright Mills; aids us in: o Connecting our own life experiences with that of the larger society and other historical facts o Questioning the habits and behaviors that are normal to us Social Institutions  Social institutions- systems of units in society that help groups of people in these units socialize with each other  Examples: o The family o The military o The educational system o The labor market o The legal system  Social identity- how people describe themselves according to groups they choose or not choose to be a part of History of Sociology  Auguste Comte- invented social physics or positivism which uses scientific laws that control behavior to understand society  Harriet Martineau- first person to put Comte’s books into English; one of the first feminist sociologist  Karl Marx- created the theory of historical materialism which means social change is a result from class conflict  Max Weber- used term “verstehen” which means understanding; wrote “The Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism; emphasized subjectivity to be the base of interpretative sociology  Emile Durkheim- founded positivist sociology; created the theory that social unity is sustained through the division of labor; conducted a suicide study to discover the effects of community, individual, and religion on individuals; used the term “anomie” which means normlessness  Georg Simmel- worked with sociology of numbers called formal sociology; looked at how groups of two people is different from groups of three Divisions within Sociology  Microsociology- focuses on nearby interactions, personal encounters, and collecting information through observations and interviews  Macrosociology- focuses on social behaviors over complete societies or large parts using surveys and analyzing statistics  Interpretive sociology- looks at the connotations people use with certain social events  Positivist sociology- discovers social factors that contribute to social life by creating and testing hypotheses formed from theories; called “normal science” model of sociology  Modern sociological theories include: o Functionalism o Conflict theory o Symbolic interactionism o Feminist theory o Postmodernism o Midrange theory o Social construction American Sociology  Early American sociology stood out at the University of Chicago which became known as the “Chicago School”  Chicago thinkers: o Jane Addams o W. E. B. DuBois o W. I. Thomas o George Herbert Mead o Charles Horton Cooley  The Chicago School concentrated on empirical research and believed that people’s environments, both social and physical, determine their behavior and personality  Double consciousness o Created by W. E. B. DuBois o People have two different ways of behaving, seeing the world as is and seeing the world through the opinions of prejudiced people  Sociology tries to find patterns in different things to make a hypothesis about the functionality of societies  Sociology observes how people and large and small groups interact with each other Chapter 2 Research Methods  Research methods are guidelines to how to conduct research when trying to understand the relationship between two things by collecting information through a study o Quantitative methods  Want to collect information that is easily converted to a number o Qualitative methods  Look at opinions and stories that can’t be in numbers so it uses words and interviews instead Approaches to Research  Deductive approach (starts big and goes smaller) o Starts with theory o Formulates hypothesis o Does research and makes observations o Analyzes date to affirm, reject, or change theory  Inductive approach o Begins with information and observations o Creates theory o Then conducts research to see if theory holds true Causality vs Correlation  Causality o “Cause and effect” o One thing happens to cause something else to happen  Sociologists are always trying to answer questions and find causes which creates more questions  Correlation o Has to be found in order to explain the cause  Reverse causality o You thing one thing cause another but really that another thing causes the first thing Variables  Dependent variable o Is dependent on something else o Wants to know if it is going to change  Independent variable o Put in to see if something is going to change because of it o Affects dependent variable  Hypothesis o Idea that something is going to affect something else o Data will prove or disprove o Null hypothesis  Contains a negative statement  Reject it or prove it o Alternative hypothesis  Isn’t always negative  Results reject or prove it  Operationalization o How you use a certain method to measure something that is being studied Good Research Should Have:  Validity o Is it studying what we say it is o Asking questions and getting answers to what we think we are studying o Be more specific so it is only one thing to study and ask about  Reliability o If someone else comes to study it, they will get the same results  Generalizability o Will findings of study be significant and able to be applied to large groups  Reflexivity o Thinking about the role and effect you contribute in your own research Feminist Methodology  Feminist methodology o Is different because women sees data differently and applies it differently o Helps with women policies and other minorities Research terms  Population o Everybody that the experiment can affect or tell about  Sample o Portion of the population that you take data from  Case study o Deep research that tries to figure out how something behaves the way it does Types of Data Collection  Historical methods  Content analysis  Experimentation (experimental methods)  Comparative research  Survey research  Interviews  Participant observation Chapter 3 What is culture?  Culture is a way of life for a group of people  It’s a set of beliefs, traditions, and practices  The concept of culture is always changing and has evolved and expanded throughout history  The oldest understanding of culture focuses on the distinction between: o Natural environment o Things to do with humans Ethnocentrism  When we come into contact with other cultures, we think our culture is the best and knows everything and don’t want anything to do with any other culture  Ethnocentrism o Judging other cultures based on superiority of own culture Cultural relativism  Developed by Ruth Benedict in 1930s  Idea to seek to understand where each culture comes from and to not judge their differences Subculture  Everybody belongs to several different cultures  We belong to smaller groups within society known as subcultures  They have their own set of values, norms, and way of living Values and Norms  Values are beliefs like right and wrong  Norms are rules based on values  Socialization is how we learn the values and norms of our culture in order to fit in as a member of that society Other terms from this chapter  Nonmaterial culture o Values, norms, beliefs, and behaviors  Material culture o Everything that is part of the constructed, physical environment we are a part of  Ideology o How things relate to each other  Cultural scripts o Types of behavior that is not the same across the world  Reflection theory o The idea that culture is a projection of social relationships and structure  Media o Anything that communicates a message  Hegemony o When a group in power uses its superiority to get the masses to agree  Consumerism o buying more things in order to fell happy  Culture jamming o When media is turned against themselves A Class Divided  Theme o Prejudice and discrimination  Experiment o Take group of people and tell them that one half is better than the other half  Results o Everybody quickly takes sides o The better side actually feels smarter and more behaved than others o The worse side feels dumb and misbehaves Don’t forget to review your syllabus!


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