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by: Andrea

Theories Psy 250


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About this Document

List of theories for second exam chapters 5, 6 and 8
Cognitive Psychology
Elyse Hurtado, Ph.D.
Study Guide
#Psych #cognitive #cognitivePsychology #theories
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andrea on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 250 at University of Miami taught by Elyse Hurtado, Ph.D. in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 02/10/16
Ebbinghaud – early memory reaserch  Used himself as a subject  Used three letter nonsense syllables  Tested memory for periods of time ranging from 20 min to 31 days FINDINGS  Relationship between forgetting and time  Information is lost quickly after it is learned  Factors as how info was learned and how frequently it was rehearsed play a role in how quickly they are lost  Forgetting does not continue to decline until all info is lost  At a certain point, forgetting levels of  Information in long term is surprisingly stable George Miller’s- magical number research  Our short term memory has limited capacity  We are limited in what we can do or pay attention to  Capacity of STM is really between 5 and 9 meaningful items (meaningful: weather the person is abe to fid a way ofrelating the item to what he already knows)  Needs to be familiar with the person and available in long term memory  STM overlaps with and relies upon LTM Atkinson & Schifrin’s standard model of memory 1. Sensory register: sensory information enters memory 2. Short term store: working memory receives and holds input from both sensory register and long term store 3. Long term store: information that has been rehearsed in STM is held indefinitely Brown/Peterson- backward counting and duration of short term memory FINDINGS  The number of items that can be kept in STM rapidly decay with the passage of time  Duration of unrehearsed memory is of 18 sec  Duration of items in STM is related to the number of chunks that are present  A single letter or word in STM shows no loss  The more items or chunks in STM the more opportunities there will be for them to be confused with one another INTERFERENCE Wickens –release from proactive interference  When consective trials involve items from some conceptual category decreased processing of STM  Change the category and performance improves Sternberg- short tem memory scanning – parallel, serial self- terminating and serial exhaustive search  Given a set of up to 7 items  Presented rapidly  One at a time  Over the course of a few seconds  After a few seconds probe presented  Person has to determine if probe was in memory set SERIAL EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH:  We search for every item in out STM in response to a given stimuli  We do not stop reaserching even when we find the item FINDINGS:  Line has a slope  For every new item to be searches in STM, the line goes up 30-40 Craik and Tulving –depth of processing  Participants shown 60 words  Asked to recall words by being shown one of three questions  Three diferent levels of processing, followed by recall test  Better able to recall words that had been processed more deeply PROCESSED SEMANTICALLY  Three times more likely to recall words used in a sentence Goodwin at al- sober and intoxicated encoding  To examine this aspect of state dependency, 48 male medical students performed  memory tasks while sober or drunk  The first major finding was that sober learners (SS and SA) recalled more than  intoxicated learners (AA and SS).  The second major finding was that performance was better when they attempted  to freely recall information under the same body­state conditions as the original  learning (AA and SS). This is called state dependent learning. Learning when  sober has a clear advantage over learning while drunk. Talarico and Rubin­911 vs everyday memory reaserch findings  Tested and retested after various delays about 9­11 and recent events  Similar pattern for flashbulb and ordinary memory  Ratings of confidence declined for everyday event but not for flashbulb memory Deese­Roediger procedure­ critical lure  Oral presentation of a list of related words  Subjects required to remember as many words as possible  Recalled a related but non­present word =LURE  “actually remembered” 72% of the time Loftus­ post event manifestation   car stopping in front of a STOP sign   participants read a description of what they saw  some participants presented with misinformation that stated that the car stopped at a yield sign    participants exposed to misinformation were more likely to report the car  stopping at yiel dign  Ceci –mousetrap   Asked children some questions repeatedly for 11 eeks  All children falsely remembered   Giving excellent detail of what was near mousetrap Zaragoza et al. –Forced to lie  Participands saw a movie  Were then interviewed about Disney movie  Interviewerd affirmed confabulated responses  One week later, participants developed false memories for the events they had  earlier confabulated knowingly.    Increased confidence in those false memories   Recalled 27% of false information when given neutral feedback  Recalled 55% of false information when given positive feedback Roediger and Kapricke – testing effect reaserch  Study study = slight advantage recall 15 min   Study test = great advantage to recall 2 days  Study test= greatest advantage to recall 1 week  Hegearty –pulley system visualization   Spatial questions take longer than visual questions  Increase in error rate with increasing mental animation  Subjects mentally animate only to the degree necessary to answer the question Bower   Compared rote learning, separation imagery and interacting imagery  Interacting group free­recalled twice as many word pairs Kosslyn- image manipulation  Imagine a rabbit next to an elephant and a rabbit next to a fly  Asked questions about rabbit – W/elephant took more time W/fly took less time  The way we access mental images if just how we access pictures if we imagine rabbit next to elephant we have to zoom in and that takes time Cooper and Shepard –Mental rotation -Images not always work as mental pictures -Unable to see that animals turn into other animals after rotating -Only one third were able to identify other animals Reed and Johnsen – hidden components in geometric shapes  Mental images have limitaitons  More accurate on some hidden figures such as C when object was physically present than just a mental image


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