Survey of American History
Survey of American History 1903
Arkansas Tech University
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Wisenbaker on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1903 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Pearson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History in History at Arkansas Tech University.
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1. Aztec Indians The Aztec capitol was Techatclan (modern day Mexico City). They were very sophisticated. The Aztec Empire was bigger than the Roman Empire. Their capital was the biggest at the time (520 million people). The empire was ruled by Montazuma II. They did human sacrifices to the sun god. The Aztecs pyramids looked like boxes stacked ontop of eachother. Over a two year period, Cortez conquered the Aztec Empire with 500 men. His strategy was to recruit other Indian tribes to help him. He adopted the saying “ the enemy of my enemy is my friend”. When Cortez got to the city, the emperor invited him in because Montazuma II thought he was an Aztec god. Cortez captured the emperor and used him as tool to more gold. When the Aztecs got tired of this the place people killed montazuma and tried to kill Cortez. When the Spanish came to the new world they brought with them diseases that the Indians were not immune to. One of these diseases was small pox. Biology worked in the favor of the Spanish. The disease spread though the whole village and 90% of the Native Americans died because of European diseases. By the year 1521 the Spanish launched their final attack on the Aztecs. After the attack Cortez made himself the emperor of the Aztecs. All the captions he made war lords and helped them raise up their own armies. 2. The “Holy trinity of Indian Agriculture” The holy trinity of Indian agriculture was corn, beans, and squash. They had different verities of the plants (squash, pumpkins, lima beans, and green beans). 3. Prince Henry the Navigator In 1418, a Portugal prince named Prince Henry the Navigator, want to tap into the spice trade to import a greater quantity of spices for a cheaper price. He wanted to develop a water trade route to cut out the middle man. He opened up a Maritime Academy to try to figure out ways to improve navigation on the open waters of the ocean. They experimented with ship design, sail design, navigation equipment (Magnetic Coumpus) , astrolabe and staff (lets the sailors figure out where they are in the middle of the ocean). 4. Vasco de Gama In 1498, Vasco de Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope, crossed the Indian Ocean, and reached India, where he announced to the natives that he had come to trade. 5. Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus was born in the mid 1400’s in Genute, Italy. He was an apprentice to a sailor, so he grew up sailing. He was a renaissance man. He was a master navigator, spoke many languages, reader, studied Aristotle (Math), and studied Marco Polo. Marco Polo’s family had traveled as far east as China, when he returned back to Italy he brought back riches that Khan had given him. Columbus wanted to find another way to china without following Portugal’s trade route but going in a circle around the world. He believed that China was directly across the sea from Europe. In that time, everything from India to China was known as the Indies. Christopher went to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabelle to ask them to fund his trip. He promised that if they funded the trip that he would bring the Catholic Faith to the Indies. In September of 1492 he set sail. On October 12, 1492 , Columbus and his men spotted land which was named San Salvador (modern day Bahamas). They then started sailing south to Hispaniola (Modern day Hattie and Dominican Republic). This was the first time Columbus saw people. This was the first time in twelve thousand years that someone from Europe made contact with someone from America. The first Indians that Columbus encountered were the Taino, who he thought were Indies. 6. Hispaniola Columbus started sailing south to Hispaniola (Modern day Hattie and Dominican Republic). This was the first time Columbus saw people, the Taino Indians 7. San Salvador Columbus and his men spotted land which was named San Salvador (modern day Bahamas). 8. Taino Indian The first Indians that Columbus encountered were the Taino, who he thought were Indies. When the sailors and Indians came into contact there was culture shock. The Europeans were fully clothed where as the Indians were probably in little or no clothing. There was also no way for them to communicate with each other because they both spoke different languages. Over the next few months, Columbus discovered that the Taino Indians had gold and a working gold mine. Columbus called the Taino’s “Children of Nature”, that they were truly kind and peaceful people. He then decided that they should be slaves in exchange to be taught the Catholic Faith. After a few months, Columbus decided that he needed to go back to Spain. He left some of his men on Christmas Eve. The sailors began to demand tribute from the Indians in the form of gold, food, and women. The Taino Indians rose up and killed some of the sailors. Columbus came back with thousands of Europeans. When he saw what the Indians had done he slaughtered them. He brought back with him guns, cannons, horse, swords, and dogs. The dogs that he brought over were Greyhounds that were trained for war. The Indians had no way to defend themselves. 9. Hernan Cortez Herman Cortez was a professionally trained Spanish soldier. In 1505, Cortez went to the new world. He was involved in the conquest for Porto Rico and Cuba. He learned about the Aztec Empire from a slave girl. She told him that they had tons of gold. He did not have permission to go conquer the Aztecs. But he agreed to do another conquest in Cuba. Once he had won he threatened the caption of a ship and set sailed for Vera Cruse in 1519. He knew what he was doing was treason, when he got to Varecruse, he burned the ships. Cortez and his 500 men would later take over the Aztecs. Over a two year period, Cortez conquered the Aztec Empire with 500 men. His strategy was to recruit other Indian tribes to help him. He adopted the saying “ the enemy of my enemy is my friend”. The slave girl Cortez had brought with him, introduced him to the tribes that were enemies with the Aztecs. When Cortez got to the city, the emperor invited him in because Montazuma II thought he was an Aztec god. Cortez captured the emperor and used him as tool to more gold. When the Aztecs got tired of this the place people killed montazuma and tried to kill Cortez. By the year 1521 the Spanish launched their final attack on the Aztecs. After the attack Cortez made himself the emperor of the Aztecs. All the captions he made war lords and helped them raise up their own armies. Cortez was the model conquistador. He paid 20%of his gold to the Spanish country. 10. John Cabot John Cabot was an English explorer who was hunting for a westward passage to the Orient. First along Newfoundland and a year later farther south along the North America coastline. This gave England a claim to a large segment of what later became the United States. 11. Drying Camps 12. Richard Hakluyt In the 1580’s, Richard Hakluyt wrote a book called “Discourses on Western Planting”. This pamphlet became an argument on why England should colonize the New World. He said that it would first stop the Catholic faith from spreading. Second it would be a way to drain off the excess people in the city. He also thought it would be a revenue source. It would also be a way to keep an eye on the Spanish. 13. Discourses on Western Planting In the 1580’s, Richard Hakluyt wrote a book called “Discourses on Western Planting”. This pamphlet became an argument on why England should colonize the New World. He said that it would first stop the Catholic faith from spreading. Second it would be a way to drain off the excess people in the city. He also thought it would be a revenue source. It would also be a way to keep an eye on the Spanish. 14. Sir Walter Raleigh Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to establish a colony called Roanoke. The first attempt failed because he brought adventurers, not people who just wanted to colonize. He wanted to be an English modern day Cortez. He left when he was about to face a mutiny. The second attempt was in Virginia but was still named Roanoke. It also failed because a war between Spain and England broke out.. Walter Raleigh had personal funned both failed trips. It showed England that no one person or small group could profit from colonization. 15. Roanoke Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to establish a colony called Roanoke. The first attempt failed because he brought adventurers, not people who just wanted to colonize. He wanted to be an English modern day Cortez. He left when he was about to face a mutiny. The second attempt was in Virginia but was still named Roanoke. It also failed because a war between Spain and England broke out. When the war started a ship from Roanoke had been sent back to England to get more supplies. But they were not allowed to leave for three years because they didn’t want the ship to be captured by the Spanish Armada. When the ship finally did return in 1591 everyone and everything was gone. Coratian was the only proof that someone was there. It is know as the “lost colony”. Walter Raleigh had personal funned both failed trips. It showed England that no one person or small group could profit from colonization. 16. Joint Stock Companies In 1604 a joint stock company, London Company, sold stock to investors. In 1607, the London Company sailed three ships up the Chesapeake bay, up the James River, and established Jamestown in honor of King James II of England. This was the first permanent English colony. They established it in a swamp. Out of the 112 men that were brought to Jamestown only 12 were labors. They others listed their jobs a “gentlemen” also known as soldiers. They were not workers. 17. Jamestown The men who came to Jamestown were mostly gentlemen/soldiers. There were very few farmers, carpenters. It was hard for them to survive. Jamestown was lucky because they quickly made contact with the Powhatan Confederacy. The British thought that they were cultural elites, who were too good to grow and harvest of their own food. The British soon demanded tribute from the Indians. When the Indians did not give them what they wanted, the British began to kill, burn, and destroy them and their homes. 18. John Smith John Smith was out patrolling and got captured by Powhatan’s half brother, Opechancanough. Opechancanough was captured some time before by the Spanish. He was brought to Spain and was taught Spanish so that he could become a translator. When he was brought back he ran away back to Virginia. Opechancanough hated the English and he planned to kill Smith. When John Smith got back to Jamestown he made the policy “You don’t work, you don’t eat”. This meant that everyone had to help with all the work. The fort was finally completed because of this. In 1609, Smith was badly burned and had to return to England to heal. 19. Pocahontas Opechancanough hated the English and he planned to kill Smith. Just at the last minute, Pocahontas jumped in front of smith to save him. 20. John Rolfe Jamestown was a corporate colony, there to make a profit for the London Company. John Rolfe noticed that the Indians liked to smoke. The Indian tobacco was way too hard though. In 1612, Rolfe started to experiment with tobacco. In 1616, he planted what he thought would be the best tobacco yet. It ended up selling like crazy in Europe. The people of Jamestown started to plant tobacco everywhere possible. 21. Powhatan/ Powhatan Confederacy Jamestown was lucky because they quickly made contact with the Powhatan Confederacy. Powhatan was anxious to be friends with the English to establish a trade relationship in exchange for steel. All of the tools that the Indians made were from stone. The problem with this, is that it was easily broken. They wanted what we would think of as a butchers knife. One of the most popular trading items was a copper pot. Indians loved soup, but it was hard to make without a pot and the supplies that they had available. The British traded for food. 22. “Political Theater” of Pocahontas and John Smith Opechancanough hated the English and he planned to kill Smith. Just at the last minute, Pocahontas jumped in front of smith to save him. Not out of love but probably as a political theatre. Meaning that the whole thing was staged. This would be a benefit to stop the war and start trading again. The Indians wanted to trade items as a way to be a middle man to sell to other Indians for profit. 23. Starving Times in Jamestown In the winter of 1609-1610, the gentlemen went back to their old ways. They started raiding Indian tribes. This time the Indians laid siege to Jamestown. They made it dangerous to leave the fort. There was around 500 men in the fort at the beginning of the winter. Diseases spread, no running water, starvation, they were very unhygienic, and the winter was extremely cold. This became known as the “winter of starving times”. In April of 1610 when the supply ships arrived there was only 60 people left. There is proof of cannibalism. In 1610 there was another period of peace that lasted about 10 years. 24. Tobacco In 1616, he planted what he thought would be the best tobacco yet. It ended up selling like crazy in Europe. The people of Jamestown started to plant tobacco everywhere possible. This demand of tobacco made it a staple crop. It became so valuable it became a money source. Tobacco led to the start of the plantation agriculture (cheap labor). Cheap labor was needed because it needed a lot of people, maximized profits, and was a labor intensive crop. There was several steps to go from seed to supply. It starts in a “hot house” where each seed is planted in its own pot to germinate. Then after it germinates it has to be planted by hand in the field. Then watch it grow for months. Every flower bud has to be cut off so it doesn’t reproduce. For months farmers watch the plant and cut off the flower buds. At harvest time each leaf has to be cut by hand. The leaves are then put in a tobacco barn where it has to be cured. 25. Indentured Servants Farmers got indentured servants for cheap labor. They were not slaves. They were contract workers. They signed a contract that said they would work for free passage and freedom dues for four to seven years. While they were indentured servants they did not get paid, they only got room and board. The servants were not slaves but they were treated like they were. They were at their master’s mercy; he could do whatever he wanted. Indentured servants became popular in Jamestown because of the head right system. It was instated in 1618, it was there to attract a better kind of colonist to Jamestown. It said if you had the money to buy a share of the company or buy a ticket to Jamestown through the London Company, you would get 50 acres. For every servant you brought with you, you would get an extra 50 acres. 26. Slaves In the year 1619, a Dutch war ship showed up to sell 20 African servants. When the 20 Africans were sold they were not initially seen as slaves, but as indentured servants. As time passed, tobacco prices dropped, people in Jamestown were in deep dept, this is when the colonist became scared, greedy, and then pettie. They began to cut labor cost 20%-30%of the servants die because of the climate. So they were out about 60 pounds of tobacco per servant. The Africans were different, they weren’t Christians, didn’t speak the language, different values and culture. The masters began to keep the Africans and not pay them. They justified it because God marked them as black because they were bad. They bore the “Mark of Ham”. Slavery was justified by their fear. Over the years slavery grew as a way of free labor. 27. Black Codes or Slave Codes Slavery made a slow transition from 1620 to 1680. In the 1670’s Virginia began to introduce the “slave codes”. They were a set of laws regulating the slave trade. It made the slaves a type of property. They became “Chattel”, which means human property. The laws defined what it meant to be black and white. If you were white you were an indentured servant, if you were black then you were a slave. It also said that if the mother was black and a slave then the child was a black slave. 28. Freedom dues A freedom due usually consisted of new clothes, land, seed, live stock, and sometimes more money. The things a person would need to start their own farms. 29. “Seasoning Process” Africans could survive the seasoning process. They were use to the hot climate where as those who came from London were used to cooler climate. London sits on the same parallel as New York, so the weather and air was different to them. Many indentured servants died because of the climate from heat stroke or heat exhaustion. Most Africans slaves came from around the Equator line, so the heat did not bother them. 30. Sample Crop Economy Virginia (the staple crop was tobacco). The main thing manufactured in North Carolina was tar, pitch, and turpentine. In South Carolina the main crop was sugar cane. 31. Head Right System Indentured servants became popular in Jamestown because of the head right system. It was instated in 1618, it was there to attract a better kind of colonist to Jamestown. It said if you had the money to buy a share of the company or buy a ticket to Jamestown through the London Company, you would get 50 acres. For every servant you brought with you, you would get an extra 50 acres. 32. Samuel d’Champain In 1609, Champlain received permission from the king to establish a colony and have a monopoly on the fur trade. He established it in Quebec and later Montreal. He wanted to establish it based on the fur trade with the Indians. By the time Champlain came, European diseased had killed most Indians up in Canada. His business motto was “Let the Indians remain Indians” . The reasoning for this was because they could kill and make high quality fur. Champlain encouraged his traders to change to accommodate the Indian, like learn their language and culture. He also told his men to give the chiefs tons of gifts and to make friends with him and try to marry the chiefs daughter. This would keep strong ties with the tribe and the traders. This was very different from the Spanish approach, who wanted the Indians to become like Spanish. The only thing that Champlain insisted on is that the Indians hate the British. The French mainly did business with the Heron. The Herons became friends with the French and then proceeded to introduce them to their Indian allies. Champlain was very strict on who he let immigrate into the New France. To come to Canada you had to have a letter saying that you were a good person and a good citizen. At its height there were only 60thousand French citizens in New France. Yet the influence of the French spread all over Canada and eventually down to the Gulf of Mexico. 33. Puritans/ Reformers Puritans believe that God should be always on their mind. They believe should in the world but not of it, meaning that the world was good but not so good that it took away from God. They believed in moderation, it was ok to enjoy things but not just too much. 34.Pilgrims/ Separatists The first Northern Colony was established by the pilgrims. They were religious zealous and traveled to the Holy sites. They were not puritans, they were separatists. They thought that the Church of England was still too influenced by the Catholic Church. The Pilgrims cut all ties with the Church of England, left England, and went to first Holland. They believed that their kids were become too Dutch. They then went back to England. By 1619, they left again to cleanse themselves from England. They sailed across the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower in 1620. They were blown off course by storms so it took them three months to make it to the New World. In December of 1620 they spotted Cape Cod, and settled there. They called it Plymouth Rock. 35.Plymouth plantation The supplies that they had brought with them went bad while they were at sea. When the next group from England arrived they only found 50 of the 120 people. They next year 1621 was a better year for the pilgrims. The Wampanoag and Narragansett noticed them and ended up helping them survive. Somoset was the first Indian to talk to the pilgrims because he knew some English but not enough to understand what all was going on. Later he brought back Squanto. He was the reason the pilgrims survived. He also worked out a peace treaties with the surrounding tribes along with trade agreements. He taught the pilgrims how to survive on Cape Cod. He taught them how to catch fish then plant them so that they would neutralize the soil. At the end of the first successful harvest they had the first thanksgiving feast. They served fish and sea food (oyster and scallops), deer, corn , beans, and squash. 36.Massachusetts Bay In 1630 a second group landed around Boston, Massachusetts. They established the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was settled by the Puritans. They were different from the pilgrims because they wanted to reform the Church of England. They wanted to purify the church. To do this they wanted to start their colony based on God’s Rules for Man. Their first governor was Jonathan Winthrop. He said that their colony would be a City on the Hill, that they would be a light to the world. Puritans were never thought to have a good time, they were thought to be buzz kills. They were thought to be judgmental and took every thing that God said very seriously. They story “The Scarlet Letter” shows how people thought of puritans. 37.Squanto He was the reason the pilgrims survived. He also worked out a peace treaties with the surrounding tribes along with trade agreements. He taught the pilgrims how to survive on Cape Cod. He taught them how to catch fish then plant them so that they would neutralize the soil. 38.New England’s Diversified Economy In the North, farming was a smaller enterprise, but they had smaller farm production. They had economic diversity, which meant that they had several sources of income besides farming. In the South the economy is based on the production of staple crops and slave trade. In the North there was a number of different businesses and jobs. Some of the jobs were: Farming, fishing, whaling, ship building and repairing, rigger, rope maker, lumber, store owners, brewers, distillers, lawyers, doctors, coopers, and wheelwright. There has always been more people in the North than in the South because there was more job opportunities. There was also a big shortage of women. Men would send money over to England to buy a wife. A good woman would be from 80 to 100 pounds of tobacco. There were also ship that would bring eligible women from England to be auctioned off to the highest bidder, but the women did have veto power. The North was appealing to find jobs, education, and start family. Eventually the North would outnumber the south 2 to 1. In the 1800’s it was 3 to 1.It attracted a larger immigration population. 39.Jonathan Winthrop The first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony was Jonathan Winthrop. He said that their colony would be a City on the Hill, that they would be a light to the world. 40. “City Upon a hill” Was what Jonathan Winthrop said that the Massachusetts Bay Colony would be to the rest of the world. 41. Religious freedom vs. Freedom of Worship In the colonys they had a state religion. Each colony had the freedom of worship. Only Pennsylvania had true religious freedom where the colonist could be whatever religion they wanted. 42. Roger Williams He started Providence Plantation because he was excommunicated from the Puritan colony. He was kicked out because he said that the king and the colony had committed the sin of coveting neighbor’s goods. He said that the king had stolen the land from the Native Indians. He also claimed that you cannot force someone to join the church. He took all of his followers and created Providence Plantation. 43.Providence Plantation In the 1630’s, New Hampshire became a colony. In 1635 Rhode Island was settled as Providence Plantation by Rodgers Williams. He started Providence Plantation because he was excommunicated from the Puritan colony. He was kicked out because he said that the king and the colony had committed the sin of coveting neighbor’s goods. He said that the king had stolen the land from the Native Indians. He also claimed that you cannot force someone to join the church. He took all of his followers and created Providence Plantation. 44.William Penn William Penn was a noble’s son. His father was an admiral in the Navy. When his father died, William inherited all his dads wealth. The king owed the Penn family money, so when William went to collect it, the king just gave him the land of Pennsylvania. It was established in 1681. He worked out a treaty with the Indians and paid them for the land. He established it for true Religious Freedom, a safe haven for religious minority. 45.Pennsylvania Pennsylvania was established by William Penn. He established it as a safe haven for Quakers. The Quakers were pacifist meaning that they did not believe in violence. They were known as the “Society of Friends”. They did not recognize social classes, they treated all classes the same with familiarity. Pennsylvania became a fright operation center because of where it was located on the bay. It also became the bread basket of America. They were able to grow plenty of wheat, barley, and oats. 46.“Society of Friends” Pennsylvania was known as the society of friends because there everyone had true religious freedom. They did not recognize social classes, they treated all classes the same with familiarity. 47.Sir Isaac Newton The Enlightenment began about a generation earlier. The period that modern science was born, the period where logic, reasoning, and observation of nature replaced superstition. It began with Isaac Newton. Newton using a telescope watched the stars and planets, developed a new form of math which he published in his book Principia. He used this math to conform that the sun was the center of the universe and not the earth. He also used this math to prove gravity. He demonstrated the interworking of the Earth. His book moved people away from superstition. He was trying to prove the working of God. Newton was looking for Natural Laws, they explained how the world worked. Natural Laws were perfect, constant, logical, and rational. His laws impacted people to study everything. 48.Principia or Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy Was written by Sir Isaac Newton. He used this math to conform that the sun was the center of the universe and not the earth. He also used this math to prove gravity. He demonstrated the interworking of the Earth. His book moved people away from superstition. He was trying to prove the working of God 49.Natural Laws Newton was looking for Natural Laws, they explained how the world worked. Natural Laws were perfect, constant, logical, and rational. 50.Adam Smith 51.Voltaire Voltaire studied society and the works of society. He brought religion into society. Voltaire came up with the Watch Maker Theory. 52.Watchmaker Theory This theory was that God was a watch maker and once he was done making the world he put it on a shelf and walked away. 53.Deists This lead to Deists, they were like agnostic. Benjamin Franklin was a deists, he thought that Christ was just a man. They put their faith in the form of Natural Laws (Science). 54.John Locke John Locke published “Two Treaties of Government”. He developed Radical Whig Ideology ( a belief system that was growing in the Whig) Locke said that you couldn’t trust government because it was ran by men who wanted to increase their wealth and power. Also you have to be on alert of the government overstepping its powers. The only way to ensure that the government stays in check is a written constitution. To explain what powers an office does and does not have to keep them honest. America took hold of this type of ideology. 55.Two treaties of Government John Locke published “Two Treaties of Government”. Said that you couldn’t trust government because it was ran by men who wanted to increase their wealth and power. Also you have to be on alert of the government overstepping its powers. The only way to ensure that the government stays in check is a written constitution. To explain what powers an office does and does not have to keep them honest. America took hold of this type of ideology. 56.George Whitefield The Great Awakening began in 1747. It began with George Whitefield, he was a trained Anglican preacher. He gave his speeches were giving outside in a campmeeting type environment. He preached from his heart and not from a book. He preached about personal experience. Up until that point everyone was a Calvinist, that God had already decided on how your life would go. 57.Great Awakening The awakening started in 1741 with Whitfield. He went on speaking tour on personal experience. The way he preached was new to American and the world. They were use to a preacher reading something out of a book for about three hours. People began to divide into “Old” light and “New” light. Old lights were people who stayed with their old churches and rules. New light were people who were part of new religious orders (Baptist and Methodist). They appealed to lower economic classes. The problem was all colonies had official religion except Pennsylvania and the people paid taxes to the church. When the new churches started, people still had to pay taxes to the state churches; this made a lot of people angry and resentful. 58.Jonathan Edwards Ewdwards was an ordained minister. He heard of Whitefield and wanted to give religion an American spin on it. He based his sermons on “sinners in the hands of an angry God”. He was a hell, fire, and brimstone type of preacher. This made people move away from Calvinism (a pre-destined existence). They also believed that there was a limited number of places in Heaven. The kings at that time believed that they were appointed because God favored them. People started to believe that they were the ones who choose their own destiny. This was a dangerous idea because the poor stopped listing to the King. People listened to the King because they believed he was appointed by God. Even more dangerous was it did not just pertain to the white community but also the blacks. This gave them the idea that they could judge their owners. It allowed people to question the status queue. 59.General Edward Braddock A British general named Braddock was offered the help of two Indian tribes, Shawnees and Delaware, in exchange for spoils of war. When Braddock said no he still had to march through their two tribes, where he was ambushed. Of the 1400 men who went in only 400 made it out alive. 60.Fort Duquesne The French built Fort Duquesne which was built on the boarders of the English territory. The English saw this as was to claim the Northwest Territory. The people of Virginia believed that this was their territory. The governor of Virginia sent a young militia officer, George Washington, to politely tell them that they were trespassing. Washington saw that he was heavily outnumbered. So he went back home, later he returned with more troops (300-400 men). He built Fort Defiance. He knew that he was out numbered 3 to 1. But one day there was a French patrol out and Washington and his men captured them. The French soldiers and their Indian allies laid siege to Fort Defiance. They were offered a honorable surrender. 61.Treaty of Paris 1763 The Treaty of Paris in 1763 ended the World War. The French had to surrender all claims in North America. New France became Canada. They gave the Louisiana Territory to Spain. France gave the British everything south of the Great Lakes, north of the Spanish territory, East of the Mississippi, and west of the Appellations. A land bounty was a payment given to a militia soldier in the form of free land in the northwest territory. In order to win the war, the British went into massive dept. The cost of their empire went up with all the new land. Taxes are the governments paycheck, in order to pay for the war taxes were passed. 62.Proclamation of 1763 King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763. It banned all British settlement west of the Appellations Mountains. He removed the reason for the conflict. By doing this he angered the colonists. This set the spark for the American Revolution. They saw this as a violation of their right to private property. 63.Pontiac Neoline was a Delaware prophet, who told the Indians if they drank this poison that they would be cleansed from the white people. Pontiac was from the Ottawa tribe, and he was a war leader. He wanted to help Neolines idea 64.Pontiac Rebellion In 1763, they attacked every British fort and drove them out except for three: Fort Pitt, Fort Detroit, and Fort Macano. This was known as the Pontiac Rebellion. 65.Neolin or the Delaware Prophet Neoline was a Delaware prophet, who told the Indians if they drank this poison that they would be cleansed from the white people. 66.Stamp Act Stamp Act in 1765.The Stamp Act was a tax on all paper products in the colony. Everything from contracts to stationary to playing cards, to dice, all had a new tax on them. Great Britain made this act a way to make revenue to pay for the French and Indian War and the new Administration costs for their North America Colonies. The colonist saw this as a violations of their Rights as Englishman. They saw it as an internal tax meaning that it should be decided in the colony. Also they saw this as a violation of their right to representation in government. They had no representation in Parliament. Their government was on a colonial level. As far as they were concerned Parliament had no right to mess with the inner workings of the colonies. 67.Rights of Englishman Most of the colonist in the mid 1700’s were granted “Rights of Englishmen” meaning that they had all the rights that Europeans had. They believed that it was their God-given right to own private property. Another scared right was the right to have a represented government. They did not want a democracy , the wanted a representative government who would represent their interest to the king. They also believe they had they right to not be taxed without their consent. “No taxation without representation”. In order to have a say in government, you had to own taxable property. They wanted someone just like them who had their best interest and somebody they knew. There were individual governed bodies. In Virginia it was called “House of Burgesses” and in Massachusetts it was called “Qeneral Court”. 68.Internal Taxes vs. External Taxes Internal Taxes were taxes that were just directed towards the colonies. They believed that only the colonies repersenatives had the power to create a tax. An External Tax was then Great Britain taxed all their jurisdiction as a whole. 69.Benign Neglect For about the first 150 years that the colonies existed, they were benign neglected. This meant that they colonies developed on their own without the help of the mother country. There wasn’t involvement in anything including taxation. 70.Patrick Henry Showed people that they should see the taxing as a violation of their right to representation in government. They had no representation in Parliament. Their government was on a colonial level. As far as they were concerned Parliament had no right to mess with the inner workings of the colonies.
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