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ECU / Communications / CSDI 2020 / What are the forms of public speaking described by aristotle?

What are the forms of public speaking described by aristotle?

What are the forms of public speaking described by aristotle?

Description

School: East Carolina University
Department: Communications
Course: Fundamentals of Speech Communication
Professor: Eric shouse
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: COMM 2020 Study Guide and COMM 2020
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide
Description: A study guide that is comprised of questions with detailed answers from both class notes and book descriptions.
Uploaded: 02/10/2016
21 Pages 28 Views 4 Unlocks
Reviews

Kavon Carter (Rating: )

If you want to pass this class, use these notes. Period. I for sure will!



Exam 1 Review Sheet: Communication 2020 


What are the forms of public speaking described by aristotle?



∙ Forms of public speaking described by Aristotle  (places also)

 1. Forensic - arguing in court

 2. Deliberate –arguing in public assembly

 3. Epideictic- ceremonial speaking

∙ Which classical Greeks believed rhetoric was just a  “knack”?

 Socrates

∙ Who believed everything could be argued?

 Protagoras

∙ Which 3 modes of persuasion did Aristotle think was most  important?

 Logos

∙ Who believed rhetoric was awesome and equated it with  magic?

 Gorgias

∙ 5 cannons of rhetoric


Who believed everything could be argued?



 1. Invention – creative act of identifying the best  arguments for your case in a given situation

2. Arrangement - most effective way to organize your case for a  topic and audience

3. Style- involves choice of words and how formally and  informally you phrase things

4. Delivery – how you physically and vocally present your  speech

5. Memory – memory id important when you forget a name,  fact, or stumble over words

∙ What did Quintilian say were the ethical duties of a  speaker?

 -defend truth

 -protect the innocent

 -prevent criminal behavior

 -inspire the military

 -inspire the public  

∙ Difference between ethos, pathos, and logos


Who believed rhetoric was awesome and equated it with magic?



 -

∙ Biggest way to reduce anxiety

∙ Different types of poor listening behaviors

∙ How many words (per minute) can we listen to and  comprehend?

∙ Know the different reasons people have for listening  ∙ Know the major ethical considerations in a speech  (look in “Listening” chapter) If you want to learn more check out What theory explains drivers of human behavior?

∙ How does being excited about your topic improve the  nonverbal components of your speech?

∙ #1 reason speakers fail to meet objective in a speech ∙ Different types of plagiarism

∙ Why don’t professors like plagiarism?

∙ What type of information should you look for and include  in your presentations?

∙ Best posture for public speaking

∙ Most nonverbal behaviors are associated with what part of  the body?

∙ Best gestures are  

∙ How should you dress for a speech/interview? ∙ Question about mental illness video

∙ Key to a good delivery when presenting memorized speech  ∙ Different types of speech delivery  If you want to learn more check out When did the archean era begin and end?

(e.g. memorized, impromptu)

Exam 2 Review Sheet 

1. 1st thing to consider when making visual aids

 If it helps achieve your goal use it, if not then don’t

2. How to determine how many visual aids are appropriate in a speech of a given  length? (formula) Don't forget about the age old question of What are the steps in transcription in prokaryotes?

 (Length of speech) 1

 2

3. What should you do while presenting visual aids?

 Continue to make eye contact with the audience

4. What visual aids did Han Rosling use (HIV Speech)?

 Graphs to explain stats

 White background to bring out different color  

5. Difference between balance, form, depth, movement

 Balance: the position of elements within the image

 Form: how an item appears in terms of its representation, size, and texture

 Depth: the graphic nature of an item that involve both the level of detail and the  amount of background provided for the image

 Movement: appearance of or actual activity depicted with an image 6. 3 keys elements in an rhetorical situation

 Exigence: imperfection marked by urgency (problem you want to go away)  Audience: those who are listening and are capable of change

 Constraints: persons, events, objects and relations which can constrain the decision  and action needed to remove the exigence

7. Kind of problems can/can’t be saved with rhetoric If you want to learn more check out What is the synthesis of glucose from non­carbohydrate precursors?
We also discuss several other topics like Who is the founder of liberalism?

Can be solved: pollution, racism, sexism, drunk driving, rain forest/environmental  Can't be solved: death, taxes, winter, stds. These things cannot be solved with a speech.

8. What did Nancy Duarte say was the secret structure of great talks?

 To use your speech to show “What is and then what could be” 9. What do audiences expect from a commencement speech?

You’re not expected to say anything negative

10. Most important thing to do for a group presentation

 Practice

11. Steps to fix being interrupted by a heckler

 Be friendly until you realize they are hostile then let the audience recognize the hostility to  make sure they are on your side (audience is your security when there is none) If you want to learn more check out What is the purpose of offering an argument?

12. What does the book say about spectacles?

 Spectacles are symbolic events where the small pieces (details) send a deeper message 13. In audience analysis, what sorts of things fall under “situational information”?

Size of audience, their knowledge about the topic, their opinions about you and your  topic

14. #1 reason speeches fail to meet goals

Lack of careful audience analysis

15. What countries do speakers find eye contact bad?

 India  

16. Different groups that make up VALS framework

 Values Attitudes Lifestyles

17. Know different audiences (hostile vs friendly)

Friendly: heard you before, heard positive things about you, likes topic, looking forward  to your speech

Neutral: people consider themselves open to what you have to say, but they are looking  for reasons to believe you

Uninterested: plan on zoning out while you speak, pull them in and connect them

Hostile: don’t like you and/or your topic. If you remain calm and support what you say  with expertise

18. What demographic category does the book say is most difficult to ascertain just by  looking?

 The most difficult category to judge just by looking is what motivates a person or  population

19. Difference between repetition, alliteration, parallelism, antithesis, and assonance Repetition: continuous use of a word/phrase

Alliteration: repetition of consonants (same first or last letter of words)

Antithesis: two parallel but contrasting ideas contained in one sentence (Give me liberty  or give me death)

Assonance: repetition of vowel sounds (Eminem song)

Parallelism: two similar ideas presented in succession (Ask not what America can do for  you but what you can do for America  

20. What should you avoid in order to be clear when you speak?

 Avoid ambiguous words and euphemisms (makes unpleasant realities such as collateral  damage in miltary)

21. Components of forceful language

 Effective use of volume, emphasis, and pitch

22. Question about famous example of parallelism watched in class

 Ask not what America can do for you but what you can do for America (JFK) 23. Question about narrative paradigm

 1. People are essentially storytellers

2. We make decisions bases off good reasons

3. History, biography, culture, and character determine what we consider good reasons

4. Narrative rationality is determined by the coherence and fidelity of stories

5. World is set of stories that we choose make sense of our experiences and try to live the  “good life”  

24. Question about identification  

Identification is based on sharing of substance, physical characteristics, trusting and believing in  what people say

25. Question about Burke’s Pentad

The Pentad was his method to determine people’s motives

 -Act: What was done

 -Scene: Where

 - Agent: Who

 -Agency: how

 -Purpose: why

9. What are the steps in Monroe’s Motivated Sequence?

1. Attention Getter

2. Need (clearly lay out the need for change)

3. Satisfaction (Explain how to solve problem)

4. Visualization (use imagery, ask audience to see themselves solving the problem) 5. Action (use emotionally stirring language to call audience to action)

10. Question about Satisfaction Step

“ That’ll work”, explains how to solve problem/offer enough detail for clear understanding

11. Know different form of Introductions ( What’s it called when you don’t immediately  lay out your case? )

12. Question about video using Monroe’s Motivated Sequence

 Justin Bieber Proactiv Video

13. What are the steps to an acceptance speech?

1. Thank the donor and the presenter

2. Demonstrate w/o being overly modest “I’ll try my best to live up to this award” 3. Thank other people who contributed to your success but keep list short 4. Regardless of the award, express pleasures in receiving it (NEVER mock award) 5. Express appreciation in your conclusion

14. Question about Jimmy V’s Speech

“I’m not worried about the time”  

 Laugh, Think, Cry,  

 Where you started, Where you are, Where you’re going

15. Keys to doing well with speeches of introduction

1. Tell audience who you are (if they don’t know)

2. Tell audience enough about a person that they know their qualifications and why were asked  to speak

3. Encourage audience to listen by telling them what’s in it for them

4. Generate interest by telling a positive story about speaker

5. Recognize the reason for the occasion

6. Express gratitude to the speaker for coming

7. Welcome featured speaker to the stage by giving the title of the presentation and ending by  clearly stating person’s name  

16. Question about graduation speech from class

In Steve Jobs Graduation address, the speaker didn’t introduce himself or what they could learn  from the speech and took too long  

17. Question about toasts/rules for toasts

Don’t read speech Avoid clichés

Have something prepared Sincerity and eye contact is crucial  

18. How did Shouse suggest ending a toast?

Better if personal account followed by good quote  

19. How many sentences in the set up for a joke?

 1 to 2 sentences max

20. Elements expected in eulogies

1. Recognize the death/sorrow 2. Try to temper grief by explaining how person “lives on”

3. Reassure audience that life will continue (explain to audience how death should effect their  own life/ realistically praise the dead

21. First rule of toasts  

 Keep it brief

22. What do you never do when asked to do a toast?

 Never wing the speech

23. Question about eulogy given to grandfather

 Hit all the elements and made everyone laugh with jokes about grandfather 24. What advice did I give about After Dinner Speaking?

 

25. Question about Peter McGraw’s speech

 Hurl

 Benign Violation Theory of Humor can be applied to complex forms of humor that go  beyond traditional jokes

Communication 2020 Exam 3 Review 

1. Know the 5 cannons of rhetoric

 1. Invention – creative act of identifying the best arguments for your case in a given  situation

2. Arrangement - most effective way to organize your case for a topic and audience 3. Style- involves choice of words and how formally and informally you phrase  things

4. Delivery – how you physically and vocally present your speech 5. Memory – memory id important when you forget a name, fact, or stumble over  words

2. How do you make sure an informative speech doesn’t become a persuasive? 3. Know the patterns of organization (similarities and differences) 4. When is a definition a good attention getter?

5. What do you need to do if you ask a question as an attention getter?   Make sure you pause long enough after t give the audience time to think of  an anwer,

6. Know outlining principles from the book (subordination, coordination, and  division)

7. Know the goals of a good introduction in order

∙ Choose an attention getter

∙ State a thesis/argument (simultaneously introducing topic and make  relevant to audience )

∙ Establish Credibility by explaining why you’re an expert and/or why topic is  important to you

∙ Preview main points discussed in body of speech

∙ Smooth transition to body of speech

8. Question about a bad speech video that used too much jargon  Used too much specific jargon and the activity but had a cool helicopter

9. Question about speeches about processes and how they are organized  

 -Follow a chronilogical order bc sequence is important

 -Can also be used to explain social processes

 -Must explain how each step leads to next

10. What needs to be accomplished in an informative speech about an event?  Goal: Detail importance of an event

 1. Explain the parameters of the event

 2. Explain who the key players are

 3. Establish background to an event

 4. Use active voice and vivid description

11. Question about amateur rocketry (What was good about this speech?) 12. Differences between speeches about objects, processes, events, and concepts 13. What suggestions were given for helping audiences remember your speech? 14. What is the first step in an informative speech?

15. What speech did we watch that showed the power of emotional examples? 16. What part of speech is written first?

17. Know order of the parts of a good conclusion

18. How well can we listen if we try our best

19. Question about how long it takes to learn something based on the video 20. When would you use a topical arrangement?

21. Know difference between fact/ value/ policy

22. Question about Sample Persuasive Outline from class 23. Question about ethos/ pathos/ logos and Aristotle’s view of them 24. What 1 quality do North Americans find most important in a speaker? 25. Why did Daniel Kahneman win a Noble Peace Prize?

Exam 1 Review Sheet: Communication 2020 

∙ Forms of public speaking described by Aristotle  (places also)

 1. Forensic - arguing in court

 2. Deliberate –arguing in public assembly

 3. Epideictic- ceremonial speaking

∙ Which classical Greeks believed rhetoric was just a  “knack”?

 Socrates

∙ Who believed everything could be argued?

 Protagoras

∙ Which 3 modes of persuasion did Aristotle think was most  important?

 Logos

∙ Who believed rhetoric was awesome and equated it with  magic?

 Gorgias

∙ 5 cannons of rhetoric

 1. Invention – creative act of identifying the best  arguments for your case in a given situation

2. Arrangement - most effective way to organize your case for a  topic and audience

3. Style- involves choice of words and how formally and  informally you phrase things

4. Delivery – how you physically and vocally present your  speech

5. Memory – memory id important when you forget a name,  fact, or stumble over words

∙ What did Quintilian say were the ethical duties of a  speaker?

 -defend truth

 -protect the innocent

 -prevent criminal behavior

 -inspire the military

 -inspire the public  

∙ Difference between ethos, pathos, and logos

 -

∙ Biggest way to reduce anxiety

∙ Different types of poor listening behaviors

∙ How many words (per minute) can we listen to and  comprehend?

∙ Know the different reasons people have for listening  ∙ Know the major ethical considerations in a speech  (look in “Listening” chapter)

∙ How does being excited about your topic improve the  nonverbal components of your speech?

∙ #1 reason speakers fail to meet objective in a speech ∙ Different types of plagiarism

∙ Why don’t professors like plagiarism?

∙ What type of information should you look for and include  in your presentations?

∙ Best posture for public speaking

∙ Most nonverbal behaviors are associated with what part of  the body?

∙ Best gestures are  

∙ How should you dress for a speech/interview? ∙ Question about mental illness video

∙ Key to a good delivery when presenting memorized speech  ∙ Different types of speech delivery  

(e.g. memorized, impromptu)

Exam 2 Review Sheet 

1. 1st thing to consider when making visual aids

 If it helps achieve your goal use it, if not then don’t

2. How to determine how many visual aids are appropriate in a speech of a given  length? (formula)

 (Length of speech) 1

 2

3. What should you do while presenting visual aids?

 Continue to make eye contact with the audience

4. What visual aids did Han Rosling use (HIV Speech)?

 Graphs to explain stats

 White background to bring out different color  

5. Difference between balance, form, depth, movement

 Balance: the position of elements within the image

 Form: how an item appears in terms of its representation, size, and texture

 Depth: the graphic nature of an item that involve both the level of detail and the  amount of background provided for the image

 Movement: appearance of or actual activity depicted with an image 6. 3 keys elements in an rhetorical situation

 Exigence: imperfection marked by urgency (problem you want to go away)  Audience: those who are listening and are capable of change

 Constraints: persons, events, objects and relations which can constrain the decision  and action needed to remove the exigence

7. Kind of problems can/can’t be saved with rhetoric

Can be solved: pollution, racism, sexism, drunk driving, rain forest/environmental  Can't be solved: death, taxes, winter, stds. These things cannot be solved with a speech.

8. What did Nancy Duarte say was the secret structure of great talks?

 To use your speech to show “What is and then what could be” 9. What do audiences expect from a commencement speech?

You’re not expected to say anything negative

10. Most important thing to do for a group presentation

 Practice

11. Steps to fix being interrupted by a heckler

 Be friendly until you realize they are hostile then let the audience recognize the hostility to  make sure they are on your side (audience is your security when there is none)

12. What does the book say about spectacles?

 Spectacles are symbolic events where the small pieces (details) send a deeper message 13. In audience analysis, what sorts of things fall under “situational information”?

Size of audience, their knowledge about the topic, their opinions about you and your  topic

14. #1 reason speeches fail to meet goals

Lack of careful audience analysis

15. What countries do speakers find eye contact bad?

 India  

16. Different groups that make up VALS framework

 Values Attitudes Lifestyles

17. Know different audiences (hostile vs friendly)

Friendly: heard you before, heard positive things about you, likes topic, looking forward  to your speech

Neutral: people consider themselves open to what you have to say, but they are looking  for reasons to believe you

Uninterested: plan on zoning out while you speak, pull them in and connect them

Hostile: don’t like you and/or your topic. If you remain calm and support what you say  with expertise

18. What demographic category does the book say is most difficult to ascertain just by  looking?

 The most difficult category to judge just by looking is what motivates a person or  population

19. Difference between repetition, alliteration, parallelism, antithesis, and assonance Repetition: continuous use of a word/phrase

Alliteration: repetition of consonants (same first or last letter of words)

Antithesis: two parallel but contrasting ideas contained in one sentence (Give me liberty  or give me death)

Assonance: repetition of vowel sounds (Eminem song)

Parallelism: two similar ideas presented in succession (Ask not what America can do for  you but what you can do for America  

20. What should you avoid in order to be clear when you speak?

 Avoid ambiguous words and euphemisms (makes unpleasant realities such as collateral  damage in miltary)

21. Components of forceful language

 Effective use of volume, emphasis, and pitch

22. Question about famous example of parallelism watched in class

 Ask not what America can do for you but what you can do for America (JFK) 23. Question about narrative paradigm

 1. People are essentially storytellers

2. We make decisions bases off good reasons

3. History, biography, culture, and character determine what we consider good reasons

4. Narrative rationality is determined by the coherence and fidelity of stories

5. World is set of stories that we choose make sense of our experiences and try to live the  “good life”  

24. Question about identification  

Identification is based on sharing of substance, physical characteristics, trusting and believing in  what people say

25. Question about Burke’s Pentad

The Pentad was his method to determine people’s motives

 -Act: What was done

 -Scene: Where

 - Agent: Who

 -Agency: how

 -Purpose: why

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