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Astronomy Test #1

by: Austin Copeland

Astronomy Test #1 Astr 1345

Austin Copeland
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

A general overview of notes taken in class and important points as specified in class
Intro to Astronomy
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Austin Copeland on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Astr 1345 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Veerabathina in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Intro to Astronomy in Astronomy at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 02/10/16
Highlighting Legend: Important Principal          Important Concept         Key Term  Astronomy is the basic fundamental science of space and also tries to answer the questions of who we are and where we are in the comic perspective  Looks at the universe to discover where we are and where we have come from  Universe: the total sum of space, time (past, present, and future), matter and energy  Rotation vs. Revolution o Revolution is going around another object o Rotation is something that spins on its own axis  Day Month Year o Year: 1 full revolution of the earth around the sun o Day: 1 full rotation of the earth on its own axis o Month: Comes from month, based on the lunar cycles, the revolution of the moon around moon  Religion o Religious days are based on positions of celestial bodies  Artificial satellites: o The concept of launching satellites comes from astronomy  Event predications  Navigation  Possible resources  Imagination  Are we alone in the universe SETI  Human curiosities  Fastest speed, speed of light o 300,000 km/s o 186,000 mi/s  Light takes 8 minutes to reach the earth from the sun 8 Lt Min  The next nearest star is Proxima Centuri o 4 .2 light years away  The milkyway galaxy is 100,000 ltyrs across Chapter 1:  Rotation vs. Revolution o Yearly changes are revolution o Day to day changes are rotation  The sky changes throughout the year due to the revolution  The revolution of the earth also changes the season due to its position in orbit around the sun  Ecliptic: Plan on earth’s orbit around the sun or the apparent path of the sun, relative to the stars on the celestial sphere/sky over the course of the year  Zodiac: the 12 (actually 13) constellations through which the sun appears to pass as it moves along the ecliptic  The reason that you cannot see your own constellation in the night sky during your month is because it passes during the daytime  Jan 4 is when the sun is closest to the earth Formation of seasons  The north pole always points towards Polaris  Where the light hits the earth almost directly that is called the direct light  In direct is when the light hits at an angle and the light is diffused.  During the time with equal light there is spring and fall on different parts of the earth  On June 21 , summer solstice, the sun is highest in the sky. o Longest day of the year  Winter solstice, the sun is the lowest point in the sky o Shortest day of the year  Sept 21 , Equinox, equal day and night for everywhere on the earth st  December 21 , Winter solstice in the northern hemisphere o Longest night of the year  March 21 , spring equinox, equal day equal night o Fall equinox in the southern hemisphere st  Near the north pole of the artic regions, on June 21 the sun does not set o In the south pole the sun does not rise o 66 degrees north – 90 degrees north is the artic region o 66 south – 90 south is the ant-artic region  Earth’s tilt and revolution around the sun, are the cause for the seasons  Vernal equinox is the spring equinox  At any given time half of the moon is always lit. o True, at any time half of the moon is lit. However, on earth we only see the unlit  portion as it becomes the lit half of the moon.   Moon Phases o New moon o Waxing Crescent 0­90 Degrees o Waxing Half 90 o Waxing Gibbous 90­180 o Full 180 o Waning Gibbous 180­270 o Waning Half 270 o Waning Crescent 270­360 o New moon 360  Shadow of the earth has nothing to do with the phases  Eclipse: Is an event which one body passes in front of another, such that the light from the  obscured body is blocked o These can only occur during new or full moons o Lunar Eclipse only possible during a full moon, anytime from sunset to sunrise o Solar Eclipse only possible during a new moon, anytime from sunrise to sunset  Shadows cast o Penumbra lunar eclipse o Umbra, partial lunar eclipse o During a total eclipse, the moon looks red  Solar Eclipse o Happens during a new moon o When the moon passes in front of the sun o Partial solar eclipse depending on position on earth o Total solar eclipse is when on the earth the moon’s shadow directly passes over o Annular solar eclipse, is when the moon is far away and blocks the sun, no corona  during this  Light o Electric and magnetic flares that vibrate together make light o It is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum  o The electric and magnetic fields vibrate PERPINDICULAR to each other o Light behaves both as a wave and a particle  Important people o Isaac Newton  o Max Planck  They concluded that light behaves like particles o Christian Huygens o Thomas Young  Transfer of energy without physical movement called a radiation  Light vs. Sound waves o Light waves do not need a medium to travel o Sound waves need a medium to travel through vibrations o Light can travel through a vacuum o Light is faster  o Radiation doesn’t need a medium to travel o All waves have wavelength and frequency  Wavelength o Distance form peak to peak o Trough to trough  o Any two corresponding points on a wave o Units: Meters  Frequency o How many waves are passing through at any given point per unit time o Cycles per second o Unit: Hertz Hz  They share an inverse relationship  In a vacuum the speed of light is always constant   C = speed of light  Ole Romer’s Observation  o He used two eclipses of one of Jupiter’s moons to show that light does not travel  infinitely fast and measured its speed  Spectrum of light o ROY G BV o Red has the longest wavelength: 700 nm o Violet has the shortest wavelength: 400 nm o Violet has the highest frequency  o Red has the lowest frequency   Is visible light the only light  We all give out heat radiation, infrared light


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