Popular in Psychology of child development
Popular in Psychlogy
This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Janiese Northern on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 221 at Western Illinois University taught by Mary McGuire in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Psychology of child development in Psychlogy at Western Illinois University.
Reviews for Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/10/16
PSY 221 Child Development Exam 1 Study Guide (Chapters 1 – 3) Chapter 1 ● Be able to define the field of child development, including: o Covered domains of development physical, cognitive, emotional and social o Periods of development prenatal conception‐birth, most rapid time of change infancy and toddlerhood birth‐2 years old, changes in brain and body. Develop motor, perceptual and intellectual capacities early childhood 2‐6 years old, body becomes longer and leaner, more self‐controlled and more self‐sufficient middle childhood 6‐11 years old, improved athletic abilities, logical thought processes, understanding of friendships adolescence 11‐18 years old, puberty, becoming abstract and idealistic, emerging adulthood 18‐25 years old o Basic issues in development ▪ Continuous vs. discontinuous continuous development process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with. Discontinuous Development process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times. ▪ Stability vs. change ▪ Nature/Nurture controversy nature= inborn, biological, based on genetics, experience (moment of conception) nurture=based on our surroundings (before and after birth) ● Identify the contexts of development ● Define stability vs. plasticstable, associated with heredity, lifelong characteristics, see skills at a young age, remain the same. plasticity=(flexible) responsive to experience, practice builds skills, open to change ● Be able to define resiliency and provide examples of protective factor resilient children ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development ● Be able to differentiate between different historical views of childhood o Medieval Era childhood was regarded as a separate phase with special needs medieval era th o 16 Century/Puritans puritan "child depravity" views original sin, children were born evil and they had to be civilized 16th century o 17 Century/John Locke john locke "tabula rasa" or blank slate view, nurture emerged 17th century th o 18 Century/Jean Jacques Rousseau jean jacques rousseau's "noble savages" view. Positive view, you are born to grow, introduced the idea of maturation. 18th century ● Know the key principles of Darwin’s theory of evolution Darwin ‐ constructed his theory of evolution, which emphasized natural selection and survival of the fittest. Species have characteristics that are adapted to their environment, individuals best adapted survive to reproduce, their genes are passed to later generations. ● Know the following early scientific study of development o Normative approach The normative approach large numbers of individuals and agerelated averages are computed to represent typical development. o Mental testing movement Binet and Simon constructed the first successful intelligence test. The test captured the complexity of children's thinking which measured abilities on judgment, planning and critical reflection. o James Mark Baldwin Baldwin believed that children's understanding of their physical and social worlds develops through a sequence of stages. Stage, nature and nurture ● Be able to define and differentiate between main developmental theories o Psychoanalytic perspective Pscyhoanalytic perspective (Freud and Erikson), behaviorism/social learning theory, Piaget's cognitivedevelopmental theory, ▪ Freud’s psychosexual theory how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives is crucial for healthy personality development. ● Three parts of the personality (id, ego, superego) Id the source of basic biological needs and desires. Ego conscious/rational, redirect id's impulses in acceptable ways. Superego conscience, develops through interactions with parents, who insist that children conform to the values of society. ▪ Erikson’s psychosocial stages (e.g., basic trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame/doubt, etc.). Psychosocial theory in addition to mediating between id impulses and superego demands, the ego makes a positive contribution to development. Erikson pointed out that normal development must be understood in relation to each culture's life situation. o Behaviorism and social learning Strengths: Behavior modification conditioning and modeling can eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses. Limitations:The theory offers too narrow a view of important environmental influences. Underestimates children's contributions to their own development. ▪ Classical conditioning (US, UCS, UR, UCR)/Watson and Pavlov’s role ▪ Operant conditioning/ Skinner’s role ▪ Social learning/ Albert Bandura o Piaget’s stages of cognitive development and Piaget’s role in developmental psych Children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world. Structures of the mind develop to better fit with the external world. Sensorimotor (birth‐2yrs) cognitive development with baby's use of sense and movements. Preoperational (2‐7yrs) illogical thinking Concrete operational (7‐11yrs) organized, logical reasoning Formal operational (11yrs+) abstract, systematic reasoning system of the adolescent and adult o Recent theoretical perspectives ▪ Information processing Information processing ‐ a field of cognitive psychology that views human mind as a symbol‐manipulating system through which information flows. Info to sense (input) ‐‐> behavioral response (output) Flowcharts are used to map the precise steps individuals use to solve problems and complete tasks. Children actively make sense of their experiences and modifying their own thinking response to environmental demands. ▪ Developmental cognitive neuroscience researchers from psych, bio, neuroscience and medicine study the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing child's cognitive processing and behavior patterns. Methods for analyzing brain activity while children perform tasks have enhanced knowledge of relationships between brain functioning, cognitive capacities and behavior. ▪ Ethology and “sensitive period” The adaptive or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history. Imprinting is a behavior pattern that promotes survival. Critical, sensitive periods. John Bowlby applied ethological theory to the understanding of the human infantcaregiver relationship. o Evolutionary developmental psychology the adaptive value of species‐wide cognitive, emotional and social competencies throughout change in age. Evolutionary psychologists are not just concerned with genetic and biological roots of development but also interested in learning. They want to understand the entire organism‐environment system. o Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory Vygotsky believed that social interaction is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture. He agreed with Piaget that children are active, constructive beings but he views cognitive development as a socially mediated process. Continuous and stagewise, many courses, nature and nurture o Ecological systems theory Bronfenbrenner came up with view that the child develops within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment. Microsystem ‐ activities and interaction patterns in the child's immediate surroundings. Behavior is bidirectional. Mesosystem ‐ connections between the microsystems, such as home, school, neighborhood, day care ‐ places that includes children. Exosystem ‐ social settings that do not contain children but still affect children's experiences in immediate settings, such as parents' workplace, health services, extended family, friends. Macrosystem ‐ cultural values, laws, customs and resources. ● Know the definition of social policy and the US’ place in international rankings on child development Social policies are essential for protecting children's well‐being. Child development research has become concerned with applying its knowledge base to solving social problems. ● Be able to define “individualist” and “collectivist” as it applies to societies Indiviualism (vs collectivism societies) is a reason that the public is slow to endorse government‐supported benefits for all families
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'