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by: Deaundra Myers


Deaundra Myers
GPA 3.1

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Intro to Linguistics
Karen Dykstra
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Deaundra Myers on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 24565 at Eastern Michigan University taught by Karen Dykstra in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Intro to Linguistics in Foreign Language at Eastern Michigan University.

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Date Created: 02/10/16
LING 201: INTRODUCTION TO LINGUISTICS Practice Test #1 on Linguistic Basics, Phonetics, and Phonology Part 1: Linguistic Basics 1. T / F  Linguists define grammar as the “do’s and don’t’s” of proper usage.   2. T / F  Performance errors (like slips of the tongue) signal serious problems in a person’s  linguistic competence.  3. T / F  Descriptive rules don’t have to be taught; children acquire them naturally without  instruction.  4. T / F  Human language is both arbitrary and systematic. 5. The ability of human beings to talk about things that are not present, or about the past and the  future is called _____________________ a) arbitrariness b) recursion c) displacement d) grammar 6. Linguistic competence refers to our ability to ___________________.  a) acquire our native language and generate grammatical sentences in it. b) use and interpret body language correctly c) use language politely, sarcastically, casually, or respectfully depending on the social  situation. d) present speeches and speak articulately in public in formal situations. 7. Linguists believe that speech is primary and writing is secondary for which of the following  reasons:  a) Not all modern languages have a written form. b) Spoken language has much more variety than written English.  c) Writing must be taught, while speech is acquired without explicit instruction. d) all of the above 8. The part of the grammar, and sub­field of linguistics, that deals with word formation (suffixes  and prefixes, compounds, etc.) is called a) morphology b) syntax c) semantics d) phonetics 9. Which of the following statements about English is descriptive?  a) Never end a sentence in a preposition. b) In Standard English, saw is the past­tense of see. Other dialects use seen, sawn or seed. c) Using double negatives is just plain ignorant. d) Using ‘hopefully’ as a sentence adverb is bad English.  1 Part 2: Phonetics 10. T / F   Vowels can be described by their place and manner of articulation and whether they  are voiced or not.  11. T / F   A sound made by constricting the airflow with both lips is called labiodental. 12. T / F   A natural class is the same thing as a sound inventory. 13. T / F   Voiceless sounds are produced when the vocal folds are vibrating. 14. T / F  There are 4 sounds in the word shoot. 15. Consonants produced by constricting the airflow with the tip of the tongue on the bump  behind your front teeth are called _______________. a) alveolar b) glides c) palatal d) stops 16. A person lowers their velum in the production of which sounds? a) /t, d/ b) /m, n, ŋ/ c) /s, z, ʃ/ d) /f, v, ð/ 17. Which of the following is a mid vowel? a) [a] b) [i] c) [e] d) [u] 18. What English word is transcribed [ma ɪs]? a) mace b) Mays c) mess d) mice 19. Which of the following words is incorrectly transcribed? a) bee [bi] b) coach [kotʃ] c) droop [drup] d) this [θɪs] 20. Which English word could be transcribed as /pat/? 2 a) pat b) pot c) pate d) pit 21. The sound /ʒ/ is in the English word: a) station b) leisure c) conscience d) zebra Part 3: Phonology 22. T / F   Native speakers are not aware of the phonemes of their language. 23. T / F   Minimal pairs identify distinctive sounds in a language. 24. T / F   In English, [tiθ] teeth and [tið] teethe are a minimal pair. 25. T / F  There is evidence that we are sensitive to features like voicing in the sound substitutions people make, such as substituting [t], [s], or [f] for [θ] and [d], [z], or [v] for [ð]. 26. What do the following sounds have in common? [t, d, s, z, n, l, r] a) They are all voiced b) They are all voiceless c) They are all alveolar d) They do not compose a natural class 27. Which of the following groups represents the natural class of voiceless stops in English? a) [p, b, t, d, k, g] b) [b, d, g] c) [p, t, k] d) [p, k] 28. If English, for example, lacks a phoneme [p ], English speakers  a) probably won’t hear it correctly b) might not be able to pronounce it correctly c) both a) and b) d) neither a) nor b) 29. Which of the following pairs is NOT a minimal pair in English?  a) sit / sat b) there / their c) cat / caught d) ship / sip 30. The word memory is generally pronounced [mɛmri] even though the spelling suggests a  different pronunciation. What rule applies to produce [mɛmri]? 3 a) deletion b) insertion c) assimilation d) dissimilation 31. The Kenyan language Bukusu has the word [mbala] I count. Since English doesn’t have [mb]  at the beginning of words, we are likely to pronounce this word as [əmbala]. What kind of rule  are we applying when we do this? a) assimilation b) insertion c) metathesis d) deletion 4


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