BZ 101 Test 1 Review
BZ 101 Test 1 Review BZ 101
Popular in Humans and Other Animals (GT-SC2)
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by AlliSlaten on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BZ 101 at Colorado State University taught by Karen M Raines in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Humans and Other Animals (GT-SC2) in Biology at Colorado State University.
Reviews for BZ 101 Test 1 Review
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/10/16
CHAPTER 1 1. Describe the characteristics of living things. Characteristics of living are organized, acquire materials and energy, reproduce, respond to stimuli, are homeostacic, grow and develop and also have the capacity to adapt to their environment. 2. List the levels of biological organization. See ﬁg 1.2 Atom, Molecule, Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ system, Organism, Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biosphere 3. Deﬁne or describe: population, community, ecosystem, biosphere, biodiversity. Population- Organisms of the same species in a particular area Community- Interacting populations in a particular area Ecosystem-Acommunity plus the physical environment Biosphere- Regions of the Earth’s crust, waters, and atmosphere inhibited by living things Biodiversity- The variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem 4. List the steps in conducting an experiment. Follow the scientiﬁc method (See ﬁg 1.8). What is a control? Observation, Hypothesis, Experiment/ Observations, Conclusions, Scientiﬁc theory Control-Apart of the experiment that is the base line so you can see the change from the dependent variable 5. What is systematics? List the 3 domains of life. What types of organisms characterize each domain? Systematics is the discipline of idnetifying and classifying organisms according to speciﬁc criteria. The 3 domains of life are domain archaea, domain bacteria, and domain eukarya. The types of organisms characterized in each domain are the domain archaea and domain bacteria contain unicellular prokaryotes, which they lack the membrane-bounded nucleus found in the cells of eukaryotes in the domain eukarya. 6. What is taxonomy? What is the scientiﬁc name for humans? Scientiﬁc names are in what language? List each classiﬁcation category in order beginning with the most inclusive (domain). Taxonomy is the branch of science that is concerned with classifcation, especially of organisms. Homo sapiens Domain, Kingdom, Phylu, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species 7. How does a principle or law differ from a theory? the theory and practice of grouping individuals into species, arranging species into larger groups, and giving those group names, producing a classiﬁcation for each. CHAPTER 2 8. Deﬁne or describe: organic molecules, inorganic molecules, monomer, polymer, dehydration reaction, hydrolysis reaction. Organic molecules- always contain carbon and hydrogen bonds Inorganic molecules- a molecule not consisting of carbon atoms, molecules that is not considered organic, or not of a biological origin. Monomer- simple organic molecules that exist individually Polymer- large organic molecules formed by combining monomers Dehydration reaction- an -OH and -H are removed as a water molecule Hydrolysis reaction- water splitting, the components of water are added. The chemical bond that is holding the monomers together are split by adding water. This reaction happens in the chemical breakdowns in the small intestine. 9. Characterize carbohydrates. List and describe structural and storage carbohydrates discussed in class. Carbohydrates- function for quick fuel and short term energy storage. Simple carbohydrates are also known as monosaccharides. They play a structural role in plants, bacteria, and arthropods. Polysaccharides- long polymers that contain many glucose subunits Starch- the storage form of glucose in plants Glycogen- the storage of glucose in animals Cellulose- Found in cell walls of plants 10. Why can humans not digest cellulose? Why should we eat it if we can digest it? The way the oxygen is linked in cellulose make us unable to digest foods containing this type of linkage. Crab related animals? 11. Characterize lipids. List and describe the 3 major categories of lipids. Know examples of each. Lipids- contain more energy per gram than other biological molecules and we have the ability to store the lipids long term Phospholipids- comprised of 2 fatty acids + a phosphate group + glycerol. They spontaneously form bilayers that can either e hydrophilic or hydrophilic. Steroids- all have a backbone of four fused carbon rings 12. How does a saturated fat differ from an unsaturated fat? What is a trans fat? Saturated FattyAcids- have not double covalent bonds between the carbon atoms Unsaturated FattyAcids- have 1 or more double bonds between carbon atoms. Trans FattyAcids- chemical addition to hydrogen to convert the fat into a solid and is often found in processed food 13. Which portion of the phospholipid molecule is hydrophilic? Hydrophobic? The polar head created by a bilayer 14. List functions of cholesterol in our bodies? In animal cell plasma and precursor of other steroids like bile salts and sex hormones. 15. Deﬁne or describe: bile, emulsiﬁcation Emulsiﬁcation- fat droplets disperse in water that were clumped together. Bile- produced by us, it emulsiﬁes fats in our small intestine 16. Characterize proteins? Describe levels of protein structure. Polymers composed of amino acid monomers. Generally, are very ling and contain many monomers 17. How many amino acids exist in nature? 20 exist in nature 18. List functions of proteins discussed in class. Structural- keratin and collagen Enzymes- a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a speciﬁc biochemical reaction Hormones- Insulin Transport molecules- hemoglobin (found in red blood cells and transport oxygen) Antibodies- a blood protein produced in response to and countering a speciﬁc antigen.Antibodies combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as an alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood. 19. Deﬁne or describe: peptide bond, denaturation. Peptide bond- can be used interchangeably with protein and joins two amino acids Denaturation- a protein loses structure and function due to heat or pH. Generally is permanent. 20. Amisfolded protein leads to abnormal function. How is this related to Alzheimer’s disease? When the protein’s shape is changed, they are no longer able to do their function because of the altered organization of the protein. Scientist believe that this is related to the development ofAlzheimer disease. 21. Characterize nucleic acids. List components of a nucleotide. Both are polymers of nucleotides Components- phosphate, pentose sugar, nitrogen containing base (1 of 5) 22. Discuss differences between DNAand RNA. DNA- stores genetic information in the cell and in the organism (4 bases) RNA- ribonucleic acid, ribosomal DNA(4 bases) CHAPTER 3 23. List and describe components of the cell theory. All organisms are composed of one or more cells, cells are the basic living unit of structure and function in organism, all cells come only from other cells 24. Discuss contributions of van Leeuwenhoek, Hooke, Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow. Van Leeuwenhoek contruibted by recognizing the earliest microscopes and observing things that no one had seen before. Robert Hooke contruibted by conﬁrming Leeuwenhoek’s observations and was the ﬁrst to use the term “cell.“ Matthias Schleiden contruibted by stating that plants are composed of cells. Theodor Schwann contruibted by stating that animals are also made up of living units called cells. Rudolf Virchow contruibted by coming up with a conclusion that cells come from preexisting cells. 25. Characterize prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Which type of cell is structurally more complex? Prokaryotic- lack a membrane bound nucleus Eukaryotic- have a nucleus. Contain 3 domains- Bacteria, archaea, eukarya Eukaryotic is more structurally complex. 26. List and describe structural components of a prokaryotic cell. See ﬁg 3.3 Ribosome- site of protein synthesis Flagellum- rotating ﬁlament present in some bacteria that pushes the cell forward Fimbriae- hairline bristles that allow adhesion to surfaces Necleuoid- location of the bacterial chromosome Plasma membrane- sheath around cytoplasm that regulates entrance and exit of molecules Cell wall- covering that supports, shapes, and protects cell Capsule- gel like coating outside the cell wall 27. Which eukaryotes have cells with cell walls? Plant cells 28. Describe functions of the following eukaryotic organelles: nucleus, nucleolus, ribosomes, smooth and rough ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, chloroplasts, mitochondria, centrosomes, centrioles, cilia and ﬂagella. Nucleus- Stores genetic information, synthesis of DNAand RNA Ribosomes- Protein synthesis Smooth ER- Lipid synthesis in some cells Rough ER- Finding, modiﬁcation of proteins and other substances.And distribution by vesicle formation Golgi apparatus- processing, packaging, and distribution of proteins and lipids lysosomes (animal cells only)- intracellular digestion Chloroplasts (plant cells only)- photosynthesis Mitochondria- cellular respiration Centrosomes- Where microtubules are organized Centrioles- Formation of basal bodies Cilia and Flagella- movement of the cell 29. Brieﬂy describe: photosynthesis and cellular respiration. See your notes or p. 55 in your textbook. Photosynthesis- Changing sunlight into energy Cellular respiration- chemical energy of carbohydrates is converted to ATP the common energy carrier in cells 30. Why is Tay-Sachs disease characterized as a lysosomal storage disease. See p 43 in your textbook. Because the lysosome is not able to perform its function of breaking down toxic substances and fatty acids that accumulate in the cell 31. List and describe components of the cytoskeleton. See ﬁg 3.13 Be sure to know functions of each component. Actin Filaments- Structural, form a dense web under the plasma membrane which are anchored by special proteins. Produce movement. Intermediate Filaments- rope like assembly that support the nuclear envelope. Microtubules- Helps with cell division and maintains the cells structure 32. Describe evidence to support the endosymbiotic theory. See p. 60. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are similar to bacteria in size structure and they both are bounded by a double membrane. Their DNAis also similar in structure. Their RNAbase sequence suggest that they have prokaryotic origins. CHAPTER 4 33. What is the ﬂuid-mosaic model? The pattern created by the proteins, steroids, and phospholipids make the ﬂuid-mosaic model structure. The membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer in which proteins are embedded or associated with he cytoplasmic side. Steroids help regulate the ﬂuidity of the membrane. Cytoskeleton ﬁlaments are attached to the inside surface by membrane proteins. 34. List and describe the functions of 5 types of membrane proteins. See ﬁg 4.2 Channel proteins- allows a particular molecule to move freely though the plasma. Carrier proteins- Selectively interacts with speciﬁc molecules or ions so that it can cross the plasma membrane. GLUT carriers transfer glucose in and out of the body. Cell recognition protein- cells have certain MHC and if they are foreign to the body white blood cells ﬁght them off. Receptor proteins- shaped in such a way that only certain molecules can bind to it. Enzymatic protein- Catalyzes a speciﬁc reaction in the body. 35. What human disease is associated with an abnormal chloride channel protein? Cystic ﬁbrosis, a recessive gene from both parent’s cause this 36. Deﬁne or describe: differentially permeable, concentration gradient, diffusion, osmosis, facilitated transport, active transport, tonicity, isotonic solution, hypotonic solution, hypertonic solution, exocytosis , endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor- mediated endocytosis. differentially permeable- factors that determine how a substance may be transported across a plasma membrane Concentration gradient- going down is going from an area with higher concentration to lower concentration and does not require energy, and going up is the opposite and requires energy diffusion- movement of molecules from some areas of higher to lower concentration (perfume molecule example) osmosis- diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane. The higher the pressure in an area the higher the chance that the water will go there. Facilitated transport- requires a carrier to move the molecule across, passage of molecules across the plasma membrane even though they are not lipid- soluble Active transport- molecules and ions move through the plasma membrane accumulating either inside or outside the cell. Tonicity- refers to the osmotic pressure or tension of a solution Isotonic solution- no net gain, sodium level is 0.9%, remains neutral when a solute is added to the solvent hypotonic solution- cell gains water hypertonic solution- solutions that cause cells to shrink or shrivel due to loss of water exocytosis- a vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane as secretion occurs. Hormones, neurotransmitters and digestive enzymes are secreted from cells in this manner. endocytosis- cells take in substances by vesicle formation phagocytosis- When the material taken in by endocytosis is large, such as a food particle or another cell, this is the process pinocytosis- occurs when the vesicles form around a liquid or around very small particles. receptor mediated endocytosis- a form of pinocytosis that is quite speciﬁc because it uses a receptor protein shaped so that a speciﬁc molecule, such as a vitamin 37. What is the extracellular matrix? Outside of the animal cells 38. Describe or deﬁne: adhesions junctions, tight junctions, gap junctions. Know what types of cells in our bodies are associated with each type of junction. Adhesion junction- formed by proteins that attach two cells that are side by side, common in epidermis of our skin tight junction- form impermeable barriers between cells, bladder cells Gap junction- proteins that form channels between cells, cardiac cells, allow for ions and molecules to move rapidly from one cell to another CHAPTER 5 39. Deﬁne or describe: somatic cell, apoptosis, mitosis, cytokinesis, proto- oncogenes, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, diploid, haploid, chromosomes, sister chromatids, centromere, spindle, centrioles, benign, malignancy, cancer, metastasis, p53 gene, RAS protein. Somatic cell- cells are the body cells that continue to undergo cell division even as an adult. Apoptosis- is called the programmed cell death, dereases the number of cells. Mitosis- is the division of the nucleus and genetic material. Cytokinesis- the division of the cytoplasm Proto-oncogenes- encodes proteins that promotes the cell cycle and cell division and prevent apoptosis. Oncogenes- proto-oncogenes mutate, they become cancer-causing genes Tumor suppressor genes- inhibit cell division and promote apoptosis Dipoloid- (2n) cells have two (a pair) of each type of chromosomes Haploid- (1n) cells have half the diploid number of chromosomes Chromosomes- a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. Sister chromatids- genetically identical, they contain the same DNA sequences. Centromere- a duplicated chromosome is composed of two sister chromatids held together in a region Spindle- brings about an orderly distribution of chromosomes to the daughter cell nuclei. Centrioles- are found in the centrosomes of animal cells, they are also involved in the process of microtuble assembly and disassembly. Bengin- something that does not metastasise and treatment or removal is curative. Malignancy- tending to become progressively worse and to result in death. Cancer- a general term for more than 100 diseases that are charcterized by uncontrolled, adnormal growth of cells. Cancer cells can spread locally or through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body. Metastasis- the development of secondary malignant growths at a distance from a primary site of cancer. 40. List the 3 most common causes of death due to cancer inAmerican males and females. #1- lung for both #2- men is prostate, women are breast #3- colon and rectum for both 41. Describe the eukaryotic cell cycle. Characterize each phase of the cycle. G1- a cell is growing and is functioning as it normally does. Produces proteins needed for reproduction S- DNAis duplicated G2- cell is still growing and is making preparation for cell division (mitosis) M(Mitosis)- Prophase, Late prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis 42. List and describe the stages of mitosis. Why is mitosis necessary? Prophase- when chromosomes have no particular arrangement Late prophase- when the chromosomes are attached to the spindle ﬁbers Metaphase- when the chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate Anaphase- when the chromatids separate, becoming daughter chromosomes that move toward the poles Telophase- when new nuclear envelops form around the daughter chromosomes Cytokinesis- the cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of the mitosis, bringing about the separation into daughter cells. 43. Why is apoptosis important? Apoptosis is important because is called the programmed cell death. It reduces cell numbers and prevents cancer. 44. Describe checkpoints for the cell cycle. See ﬁg 5.1 G1 & G2 checkpoint- is the cell cycle checkpoint, if the DANN is damaged, apoptosis will occur. Otherwise, the cell is committed to divide if growth signals are present and nutrients are available. M checkpoint- is the spindle assembly checkpoint, mitosis will not continue if chromosomes are properly aligned. 45. Deﬁne or describe: karyotype, homologues, homologous chromosomes, synapsis, crossing over, independent assortment, interkinesis, nonsister chromatids, oogenesis, spermatogenesis, fertilization, zygote, polar body. Karyotype- the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species Homologous chromosomes- the pairing of one chromosomes, one from mom and one from dad. Contain information for the same information. Synapsis- When the chromosomes line up side by side and get ready for crossing over Crossing over- When each chromosome over lap and switch part of themselves.Asource of genetic variation (a piece of the red chromosome on the blue and vice versa) Independent assortment- Interkinesis- period of time between meiosis 1 and meiosis 2, no replication of DNA Non-sister chromatids- are homologous chromatids form chiasma to exchange genetic material during meiosis (Prophase I) Oogenesis- occurs in the ovaries and produces eggs Spermatogenesis- meiosis in human males, occurs in the testes and produces sperm Fertilization- When the sperm penetrates the egg Zygote-After fertilization, the egg and the sperm cell Polar body- is a nonfunctioning cell 46. Characterize meiosis I and meiosis II. Meiosis 1- Prophase 1 (homologous chromosomes pair during synapsis), Metaphase 1 (homologous chromosome pair align at the metaphase plate),Anaphase 1 (Homologous chromosomes separate, pulled to opposite poles to centromeric spindle ﬁbers), Telophase 1(Daughter cells have one chromosome from each homologous pair), Interkinesis (Chromosomes still consist of two chromatids) Meiosis 2- No replication of DNAoccurs. Centromeres divide and sister chromatids migrate to opposite poles and become individual chromosomes. 47. List and describe sources of variation in sexually reproducing organisms. Meiosis occurs in any life cycle that involves sexual reproduction. The end result of meiosis is daughter cells with the haploid number of homologous chromosomes. In some life cycles, the daughter cells become gametes, upon fertilization, the offspring have the dipoloid number of chromosomes, the same as their parents. Crossing-over and independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis I ensure genetic variation in dauhter cells. 48. How do oogenesis and spermatogenesis differ? Humans meiosis is a part of spermatogenesis and oogensis. Spermatogensis in males produces four viable sperm, whereas oogenesis in females produces one egg and polar bodies. Oogenesis does not go on to completion unless a sperm fertilizes the secondary oocyyte.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'