Interpersonal Communication Study Guide
Interpersonal Communication Study Guide 20113
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MTH 261 - 004
verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
Taylor Van Roekel
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This 34 page Study Guide was uploaded by madisonhill on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 20113 at Texas Christian University taught by Adams Richards in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Communication Studies at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Int. Comm. Exam #1 (Ch. 1-4) 02/09/2016 CHAPTER 1 ▯ ▯ Interpersonal communication Communication b/w 2 people in context of their relationship and that, as it evolves, helps them negotiate and define their relationship ▯ ▯ Intrapersonal communication With self ▯ ▯ Mass communication Little/no room for feedback Small group communication More than 2 people involved ▯ ▯ (1) Why we communicate (pg.4) ▯ Physical needs Human contact o (touch is critical for infant survival & healthy development) Social interactions o (more likely to get colds, have heart attacks ect.. if you lack this) ▯ Relational needs Rich social life = powerful predictors of level of happiness & depression (marriage is #1 predictor) o Meaningful conversations happiness o “small talk” reduced well-being ▯ Identity needs the way you comm. with others & the way the comm. with you everything you consider yourself as is in comparison to others helps express personal identity and CULTURAL identity ▯ Spiritual needs (not necessarily religion) involves peoples beliefs about the meaning of life provides means to express/share spiritual ideas & practices ▯ Instrumental needs (practical needs) Short-term tasks and long-term goals Important bc we have many of these & must use all the time Many of them have to be met before other needs ▯ ▯ (2) The nature of communication (pg. 9) ▯ 3 Models of Human Communication: Action Model o 1-way process/ linear o source -> encode message channel decode receiver noise o Interaction Model o (update of action) o 2 way process o add feedback to model verbal responses non-verbal responses o add context (environments) physical psychological Transaction Model o Both people are simultaneously sources and receivers o Suggests comm. is also effected by our culture, experience, gender, social class, and history of relationship ▯ ▯ 6 CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNICATION: 1. Communication relies on multiple channels o channel-rich contexts involves many channels at once (i.e. face-to-face) o channel-lean contexts involves few channels at once (i.e. text message) 2. Passes through perceptual filters o we all filter incoming communication by our perceptions experiences biases beliefs o perceptual filters can help people understand their own world 3. Given meaning by people o language is arbitrary (words/symbols (rep of an idea) mean whatever a group decides) 4. Has literal meanings and relational implications o content dimension literal info being communicated o Relational dimension Signals about the relationship in which is message is being communicated o Meta-communication Communication about communication How we distinguish b/w content and dimensional comm. 5. Sends messages, whether intentional or not o some say only deliberate, intentional messages are comm. o others say “you cant not communicate” o we say – unintentional messages are forms of comm. Bc they still convey meaning 6. Governed by rules o Explicit clearly articulated (taught or told) o Implicit Understood rules (not formal) ▯ 5 MYTHS about communication a. Everyone is an expert b. It can solve any problem c. Comm. can break down d. Comm. is inherently good a. More comm. is always better ▯ ▯ ▯ (3) How we Communicate Interpersonally: ▯ Characteristics of Interpersonal communication: b/w 2 people evolves over time helps negotiate and define a relationship ▯ Why interpersonal communication maters: Pervasive o All the time all day Has benefits for relationships Has benefits for health ▯ ▯ (4) Building your communication competence: ▯ Communication competency: Communicating effectively and appropriately ▯ 5 characteristics Competent communicators typically have: High self awareness/ “self-monitoring” Adaptability Empathy Cognitive complexity o Ability to understand a situation in multiple ways Ethics ▯ ▯ ▯ CHAPTER 2 ▯ ▯ (1) Understanding Culture and Communication ▯ Defining Culture: system of learned and shared o symbols o language o values o norms that distinguish one group of people from another culture is learned “enculturation” “culture of honor” o white men in south wanting to seek justice when character attacked ect.. ▯ Components of Culture Symbols Language Values Norms ▯ ▯ Cultures and Co-cultures: Co-culture: o Groups of people who share values, customs, and norms related to a mutual interest or characteristic o Mutually existing with in 1 culture Should use co-culture >> “minority” or “subgroups” Ethnocentrism : o We prefer people of our own culture o EX: 3 grade class eye color experiment Learned vs. Biological explanation Inclusive fitness: o We’re inclined to want people we’re related to, to succeed to the degree we’re related ▯ ▯ Communicating with cultural awareness Paying attention to one’s own cultural values and biases and remembering that others don’t always share them Similarity assumption o Presume most think the same way we do, without asking ourselves whether that’s true ▯ ▯ (2) How culture affects communication ▯ (7 cultural differences influence how people interact with each other) ▯ ▯ 1. Individualism & Collectivism individualistic culture o primary responsibility to self collectivistic culture o primary responsibilities to others (family, companies, & communities) ▯ ▯ 2. Low & High Context Cultures low context culture o verbal comm. Expected to be explicit and interpreted literally o (Canada, Israel, northern European countries) High-context cultures o verbal comm. Often indirect o relies heavily on non-verbal cues ▯ ▯ 3. Low and High Power Distance Cultures High-power distance culture o Concentration of powers in hands of certain groups o (Mexico, India, Philippines) Low-power distance culture o Basic equality of all people, no group allowed to acquire too much power o (Isreal, New Zeland, Denmark, Austria) ▯ 4.Masculine and Feminine Cultures Masculine o Ambition and achievement Feminine cultures o Sensitive and nurturing ▯ ▯ 5. Monochronic and Polychronic Cultures Monochronic o Time as finite resource o Values promptness Polychronic o Time as infinite resource o Expectations for promptness vary according to relationship ▯ ▯ 6. Uncertainty Avoidance Uncertainty-avoidance Culture o avoid situations that are unstructured, unclear, or unpredictable Uncertainty-accepting Culture o Open to novel situations o Accept diff. people’s opinions, ideas, and behaviors ▯ Uncertainty reduction theory o Stereotypes as short cuts o Says people are motivated to reduce uncertainty because it makes them uncomfortable Uncertainty-manage theory o Sometimes it’s better to be uncertain ▯ ▯ 7. Cultural Communication codes idioms figurative phrase (can only understand the meaning if you’re part of that culture) “throw shade” difficult to interpret Jargon o Idiomatic comm. that separates co-culture o EX: doctors speaking Gestures ▯ ▯ Culture shapes communication ▯ Communication shapes culture ▯ ▯ (3) Understanding Gender and Communication ▯ Gender: A broad term encompassing the influences of gender roles, biological sex, and sexual orientation ▯ Gender roles Culturally created Differ by culture Change overtime o Masculinity Strong, dominant, competitive, logical o Femininity Expressive, nurturing, caring o Androgyny Have both ▯ ▯ Biological sex differentiates men vs. women influenced by o Psychological factors Transgender Feel as if they identify with the other sex better and that is who they truly are Transsexual take hormones or have had a sex change o Genetics EX: Klinefelter syndrome (child has XXY chromosomes) (3 of them) Turner syndrome Women have X chromosome only (XO) o Anatomical factors born with both types of organs “Intersex” ▯ ▯ Sexual orientations Heterosexuality Homosexuality Bisexuality Asexuality o General lack of interest in sex o Japan herbivore men (60% of men in their 20s, 70% in 30s) ▯ ▯ Why men and women are so different: 1. Parents/society encourage it and thereby create differences 2. Biologically/inherently different and society simply reinforces it (4) How Gender Affects Communication Gender influences verbal communication Talk o expressive talk To express closeness o instrumental talk To solve problems and accomplish tasks Power o more-power speech talking more, interrupting, directions, and opinions o less-power speech asks more questions, using hedges (“sorta/kinda”) Linguistic styles o Masculine linguistic style Shorter sentences, more fragments, more references to “I” and “me,” more references to quantity o Feminine linguistic style “we” “they” inclusivity, longer sentences ▯ ▯ Gender influences Non-verbal Communication Touch/body movement o Men more likely to initiate in opposite sex BUT o In same sex pairs women touch more o Among adults, other sex touch more common than same sex Emotional Communication o Women express more positive emotion, and more emotion in general (exception: men in pub) o Men express more negative emotion Nonverbal affection o Women use more affection behaviors than men o Could be because of?: Amount of affection received as a child Perception that it’s feminine Difference in hormones ▯ ▯ Chapter 3 ▯ ▯ (1)Understanding the Self: ▯ Self concept The set of stable ideas a person has about who they are Identity (self concept) 1. Multifaced 2. Partly subjective/ partly objective 3. Enduring but changeable ▯ ▯ 1. Multi-faced Collection of smaller selves We define ourselves in many ways: o By name o Relationship to others o Physical/social categories o Skills/interests o Self-evaluations ▯ Johari Window (known to self) (UNknown to self) ▯ (known to others) OPEN BLIND ▯ (UNknown to others) HIDDEN UNKNOWN ▯ ▯ 2. Partly subjective & partly objective sometimes based on impressions (subjective) sometimes based on facts (objective) ▯ 3. Enduring but changeable significant change in self concept is difficult a healthy concept is flexible ▯ ▯ Factors that influence the development of self concept: Personality and biology o Patterns of behaviors and ways of thinking o Made up of personality traits (EX: study of twins separated) Cultural and gender roles Reflected appraisal o Imagine how others see you, you see yourself that way o Self concept is influenced by how we think others perceive us o The more important someone is the more their judgment will effect the way we see ourselves o Effects last long after childhood o Cooley’s “looking glass self” Social comparison o Comparing oneself with another o Depends on reference groups o How does advertising/ social media affect social comparison & self concept? ▯ ▯ Self Concept can shape communicative behavior through Self-monitoring o Awareness of how you look/ sound and how your behavior is affecting others o High self monitors Aware and adapt “What you see is what I want you to see” o Low self monitors Less aware “what you see is what you get” Self-fulfilling prophecy o Prediction causes behavior that causes prediction to occur ▯ ▯ (2) Valuing the Self: ▯ Self Esteem Subjective evaluation of your value and worth as a person. o High Outgoing Aggressive Will end bad relationships Not related to drinking and drug use Emotional intelligence o Low Social anxiety Loneliness depression ▯ ▯ self esteem in Ethnic groups Appear to differ in self-esteem Minority women > minority men Caucasian women< men ▯ ▯ 3 Fundamental needs that effects self-esteem ▯ (Shultz’s Interpersonal Needs Theory) 1. Control 2. Inclusion 3. Affection ▯ ▯ (3) Presenting the Self ▯ Image The way you want others to perceive you ▯ ▯ Image management Process of projecting one’s desired public image ▯ ▯ Principals of Image Management It’s collaborative o Others help manage it too We manage multiple identities o Show different parts of ourselves to different people It’s complex o Dialectic Theory Sometimes we are conflicted as people because we want opposites a lot EX: want to be independent and included in groups ▯ ▯ Face needs (3 kinds) Fellowship Face o Need to feel liked/accepted by others Autonomy Face o Desire not to be imposed on Competence Face o Need to be respected and viewed as competent and intelligent ▯ Humble bragging Will NOT help fellowship face or competence face ▯ ▯ Politeness Theory (Brown & Levinson) Positive face o Desire to have self image approved by others Negative face o Desire not to be imposed on ▯ ▯ Face-threatening acts Behaviors that threatens one or more face needs Can lead people to use defense mechanisms Threats to positive face o Threats receiver Threats, insults, belittling o Threats sender Apologies Threats to negative face o Threats receiver Advice, requests, warnings o Threats sender Thanks, acceptance of offer ▯ ▯ Types of request messages (politeness theory) Based on relationships, we use message strategies to respect people’s faces 1. Bald on record o no attempts to minimize threats to receiver o “don’t forget to wash the dishes” 2. Positive politeness o minimizes threats to receiver’s positive face o “if you will…. I will…” 3. Negative politeness o minimizes threats to receiver’s negative face o “do you know if the dishes are done 4. Off-record (indirect) o “do you smell that?” ▯ (4) Communicating the Self principals of self-disclosure: Intentional and truthful Social Penetration theory ( “onion” ) o Process by which relationships develop and people are known Varies in Breadth Range of topics Varies in Depth Intimacy of those topics Varies among relationship Is a gradual process Different pattern online o Encourages more self disclosure Is usually reciprocal “norm of reciprocity” Serves many purposes Influenced by o Sex o Culture ▯ ▯ Benefits of self-disclosure Enhancement of relationship and trust Probability of reciprocity Emotional release o “stranger on a plane” people enjoy and sometimes need an emotional release and can feel better by simply saying a secret out loud Provision of assistance to others ▯ ▯ Risks of self-disclosure Rejection Chance of obligating others Potential to hurt other’s feelings (rejecting them) Violation of another’s privacy Some risks increase when online! o “Postcyberdisclosure panic” o “disinhibition effect” people do things online they wouldn’t in person ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter 4 ▯ ▯ (1) The process of Perception ▯ perception Process of making meaning from the people and the relationships we experience ▯ ▯ Interpersonal perception: Applying that process to people and relationships ▯ ▯ The stages of perception process: 1. Selection stimuli for attention 2. Organizing them into relevant categories 3. Interpreting their meaning 1. Selection choose certain stimuli to attend to Begins when 1 senses are stimulated characteristics make stimuli more likely to be selected (3): o 1. unusual/ unexpected o 2. repetition “mere exposure effect” liking for stimuli will increase with exposure o 3. intensity subliminal message so subtle you don’t consciously notice it “Limin” you can notice 50% ▯ ▯ 2. Organization categorize the selected stimuli helps make sense of info by revealing how sim./diff. it is to other things you know Perceptual schemas (4): (can use 1+ at same time) o Mental framework for classifying/ organizing the stimuli 1. Physical constructs (objective/subjective) 2. Role constructs (social/ professional) 3. Interaction constructs (behavior) 4. Psychological constructs (thoughts/ feelings) ▯ ▯ 3. Interpreting assigning meaning to the selected and organized info Factors to interpret (3): (don’t always suggest the same interpretation) 1. Personal experience Helps assign meaning to behavior 2. Knowledge of the person Helps interpret their actions 3. Closeness of the relationship Influences how you determine their behavior ▯ Influences on perceptual accuracy (3) o 1. Physiological Mechanical/ biological ways your body works states temporary conditions, always changing traits on-going conditions biological rhythm cycle of daily changes we go through in body temps, alertness and mood o 2. Cultures & co-cultures culture influences perceptions and interpretations of other’s Co-cultures can influence perceptions o 3. Social roles ▯ ▯ (2)Fundamental forces in int. perception (7) ▯ 1. stereotyping process of applying generalizations about a group to a person we perceive to belong to that group Three Part Process o 1. Identify group we believe another person belongs to o 2. Recall some generalization o 3. Apply that generalization to the person ▯ selective memory bias o remembering info that supports our stereotype but forgetting other o both male and females tend to remember stereotypical behavior of opposite sex ▯ To deal with stereotyping o Awareness o communication ▯ ▯ 2. Primacy effect st Says 1 impressions are more powerful than any other 3. Recency effect Says the most recent impression we have formed will overshadow the impressions that came before it ▯ ▯ 4. Perceptual set Causes us to perceive only what we want or expect to see o Guides how we perceive/ interact with newborns o Influences how we make sense of people and circumstances o Can shape the way we interpret social situations ▯ ▯ 5. Egocentric Lack the ability to adopt another person’s perspective Assume others experience the world the same way hat you do Normal for kids Adult thinking a child is being egocentric IS egocentric Altercentric: o Focused on perspective of another > your own ▯ ▯ 6. Positivity bias Encourages us to focus on a person’s positive aspects “rose-colored glasses” ▯ ▯ 7. Negativity bias Encourages us to focus on a person’s negative aspects “glass half empty” ▯ ▯ the more we know about perceptual errors, the better we can think critically and question our judgment to form more accurate perceptions of the people around us ▯ ▯ (3) Explaining what we perceive ▯ Attributions explanations for behavior vary according to 3 elements: o locus is the cause internal or external? o Stability Is the cause (un)stable? (temporary or long term) o Controllability Is (s)he in control of the behavior? (solvable or not) ▯ Examples: ▯ “Nicholas cage is a tool” internal, stable, controllable ▯ “Shia LaBeof’s psychological issues make him a little off” internal, stable, uncontrollable ▯ ▯ ▯ Common attribution mistakes (3): 1. self-serving bias error o own success = internal o own failure = external 2. fundamental attribution error o other’s behavior is internally, not externally, caused 3. over-attribution error o one characteristic accounts for all behaviors ▯ ▯ ▯ (4) Improving your perceptual abilities ▯ being mindful of your perceptions focus of aspects of o yourself o others o context ▯ ▯ checking the accuracy of your perceptions Separate interpretation from fact Generate alternative perceptions o build cognitive complexity Engage in direct and indirect perception checking o EX: counselor’s “parroting” o 1. Acknowledge behavior observed o 2. Interpret behavior o 3. Ask if interpretation is correct or not Revise your perceptions as necessary ▯ ▯ Chapter 1 ▯ ▯ Why do we communicate? ▯ 1. physical needs relational needs identity needs spiritual needs instrumental needs
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