PSYS001-Study Guide for Exam #1
PSYS001-Study Guide for Exam #1 PSYS 001
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This 34 page Study Guide was uploaded by Adele on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYS 001 at University of Vermont taught by Rudiger in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychological Science in Psychlogy at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
PSYS 001 Exam #1 Study Guide Unit 1:Learning Strategies Metacognition-awareness of self as learned as ability to regulate said learning o 5 skills-assess task, evaluate own strengths/weaknesses, plan approach, apply strategies and monitor own performance, reflect and adjust if necessary Unit 2: Introduction Module 1 goals: to classify topic with general themes of psych o differentiate types of goals for application of psych in the real world psychology-comes from Greek psyche + logia o life/mind/spirit + the study of psychology studies: biological foundations, mental life, change, self and others, potential and dysfunction what psychologists do: o basic research-test theories of thinking, learning and behavior. Answering: Why does this happen? o mental health-work with patient to ameliorate or mediate functions so as to improve quality of life o applied psychology –work with businesses, sports franchises, and other entities to help employees become more motivated and productive Module 2-History and Perspectives over time there has been a shift from speculation to objective/scientific research Four main questions: o Nature V nurture (gene V environment) o Mind V Body o Automatic V controlled processing o Differences V similarities-addressed by personality, social and cross-cultural psychologists Earliest psychologists: o Plato-knowledge is innate (nature) o Aristotle-knowledge is acquired through sensory learning and experiences (nurture) Renaissance o Descartes Mind controlled by body via pineal gland in brain (this later shown to be incorrect) Mind-body dualism Allows for free will in terms of behavior Belief in innate natural abilities o John Locke Empiricism Child is born as a blank slate and their accumulation of experiences turns them into their individual person Main issues: had few methods of collecting data and testing their ideaspush for experimental study of behavior Later 19c o mid 1800s-stray from philosophy as researchers development laboratories to test human sensations and perceptions first two prominent research psychologists were Wilhelm Wundt and William James o early schools of psychology that are no longer active: structuralism-use of introspection to categorize and break down sensations into basic elements th appeared in the late 19 c Associated psychologists: Wilhelm Wundt, Edward B Titchener functionalism what is the purpose of a certain behavior? Inspired by Darwin’s work Attempt to explain behavior, emotion and thought as active adaptations to environmental pressures Idea later influences behaviorism evolutionary psyche th Appeared in later 19 c Associated psychologists: William James, John Dewey o Early schools of psych that are still active/have advanced Psychodynamic psychology Focus on role of unconscious thoughts, feelings, memories and early childhood experiences to determine behavior Modern versionbuilt of Freud and influenced by modern neuroscience Early late 19 c or 20 cth Associated psychologists-Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson Behaviorism Observable behavior and objectivity Based on premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind. Therefore you should study the behavior Contemporary version is more integrated with cognitive neuroscience Early 20 ch Associated psychologists-Ivan Pavlov, John B Watson, BF Skinner Cognitive Development How people process information Study of thinking, memory and judgment Emphasize uidea that children are not simply incompetent adults but rather are creative thinkers and effectively based in limited world experience 1920s Associated Psychologists: Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky Human Psychology Emphasizes development of a healthy, effectively functioning person Rejects notion that clinical psych should only focus on problems/disorders Developed ideas of self-actualization, personal responsibility and human potential Strong influence on modern psych 1950s Associated professors-Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers Structuralism Wundt’s research on nature of consciousness, he believed it was possible to analyze basic elements and then classify conscious experiences scientifically. Goal was to create a periodic table of the elements of sensations Discovered a difference btwn sensation of a stimulus V perception of said stimulus Used introspection-limited by the fact that you cant describe all things Rigorous and scientific Marked start of psych as a science (mental events are quantifiable) Titchener o Using introspection, claimed to identify over 40,000 sensations Functionalisms: The Influence of Biology Goal is to understand why animals and humans have developed the particular psych aspects that one currently possess Thinking is relevant only to one’s behavior Developed into evolutionary psychology o Early Schools of Psychology: Early 20 c th Four main schools: Psychodynamic Psychology, Behaviorism, Cognitive Development, Humanistic Psychology Psychodynamic psychology Freud Focus on role of unconscious thoughts, feelings and memories in understanding human behavior Problems of patients=result of painful memories that the person could no longer remember Freud’s idea are extended via Erik Erikson Modern thought=possible to help patient if unconscious drives can be remember mostly via person/s early sexual experiences and current sexual desires. Explorations are revealed via talk therapy and dream analysis Central ideas that remain crucial: unconscious of human behavior, critical nature of early childhood experience, concept of therapy as a manner of improvement Behaviorism: How we learn Reaction to difficulties of introspection in study of behavior Belief that its not possible to study mind and therefore study behavior Believe that it is possible to develop locus of learning that explains all behavior Cognitive Development: The Brain and How it Thinks Study how people think, learn and rememberbecame cognitive psychology Piaget-egocentrism of childrenchild’s thinking is centered around their view of the world Vygotsky-scaffolding-something that helps the child reach beyond own current level of thinking by creating supports Both focus on the mental development of the child Humanist Psychology: A new Approach Developed on idea that humans are inherently good, have free will and are motivated to improve themselves Came out of psychodynamic school which focuses on the fact that humans are not perfect and want to change Maslow o Theory of self-motivation which is a desire for self-actualization. Rogers-client centered therapy. The person is not the patient bur rather an equal level than the therapist Foundations of early school of humanism turned into positive psychology-scientific study of optimal human functioning. o Contemporary Psychology: Interconnected Perspectives View point of study=perspective All perspectives are interconnected Contemporary perspective on psych: Behavioral Neuroscience-uses neuroimaging Biological-relationship btwn body systems, chemicals and how influence behavior and thought Cognitive-thinking, decision-making, problem-solving, memory, language and information processing Social-concept of self and social interaction and how differ across cultures and shape behavior Clinical-diagnosis and treatment of mental, emotional and behavioral disorders + promotion of psych. health Individual Differences/Personality-uniqueness and differences of people an well as consistencies in behavior across time and situations Developmental-how and why people change over time or remain the same from conception to death Unit 3: Methods Module 3 Two Types of Research: Basic and Applied Statements made my psychologist=based on an empirical study -empirical study: results of verifiable evidence from a systematic collection and analysis of data that has been objectively observed, measured, and undergone experimentation. basic research-research that answers fundamental questions about behavior. Reason for studying=to get more info on how these processes occur. o Does not seek to promote change in that behavior/mental state Applied research-research that investigates issues that have implications for everyday life and provides solutions to everyday problems o Ex. More effective methods for reducing depression Both types help/influence each other The Research Hypothesis Theory-integrated set of principles that explains and predicts man, but not all, observed relationships within a given domain of inquiry o 4 main characteristics: 1. general-summarized different outcomes 2. parsimonious-provides simplest possible account of those outcomes 3. provides ideas for future research 4. falsifiable-variables of interest can be properly measures and relationships btwn variables predicted can be shown to be incorrect via research research hypothesis-precise statements of the presumed relationship among specific parts of a theory. o Specific and falsifiable prediction about the relationship between or among two or more variables Variable=any attribute that can assume different values among people or amount different times or places o States existence of relationship between variables and the specific direction of said relationship Conceptual variables-abstract ideas that form the basis of research hypothesis Measured variables-variables consisting of numbers that represent conceptual variables o First step in research hypothesis is to turn conceptual variables into measured variables Operational definition-precise statement of how a conceptual variable is turned into a measured variable o Hypothesis only becomes testable when operational definition of variables is put in place Scientific method-set of assumptions, rules and procedures scientists use to conduct research o Must be empirical o Must be objective –free from personal bias or emotions of researcher o steps: (cyclical form since results lead to new questions) 1. form a hypothesis 2. conduct research 3. analyze data 4. interpret data and draw conclusions-make recommendations for future research 5. publish results (in a scientific journal) replication-process of repeating previous research Conducting Ethical Research Institutional Review Board-committee of at least five people whose goal=to deterimine cost-benefit ratio of research conducted within an institution Ethical concern of scientist=to prevent harm Ethical concern of scientist=to guarantee that participants have free choice as to whether or not they want to participate Protect privacy Extent to which researchers employ deception Deception occurs whenever research participants are not completely and fully informed about the nature of the research project before participating in it Informed consent-explain the research procedure and inform the participants of his or her rights during the investigation o Occurs before participant begins a research session o Is a form Debriefing-procedure designed to fully explain the purposes and procedures of the research and remove any harmful aftereffects of participation o Occurs after experiment Module 4: Research Designs Research design-specific method a researcher uses to collect, analyze and interpret data o Three main types: i. Descriptive ii. Correlational research iii. Experimental research Descriptive Research-designed to make snapshot of current thoughts, feelings or behaviors of individuals.. o Often used to get estimate of prevalence(incidence) of psychological disorders o Disadvantage: no control group o Three Types: i. Case studies-descriptive records or one or more individuals’ experiences and behavior ii. Surveys-a measure administered through either a face-to-face or telephone interview, or a written or computer-generated questionnaire- to get a picture of the beliefs of behaviors of a sample of people of interest. Involves sample-people chosen to participate and population-all the people that the researcher wishes to know about iii. Naturalistic observation-research based on the observation of everyday events occurring the in natural environment of people or animals. a. Observer bias-individual observing behavior is influence by own experiences, expectations, or knowledge about the purpose of the observation/study. b. Observer effect-interference with/modification of the subject’s behaviors by the process of observation. Can lead to a distorted image being created. c. Interrater reliability-when have two or more people observe and calculate between both observations. Allows estimate how much agreement there is between two observers about what the subjects were doing and can identify bias. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research Independent variable-what is altered in experiment Dependent variable-expected to change based on the independent variable Experimental design: o Guarantee independent variable occurs prior to measurement of dependent variable. Therefore no reverse causation. o Influence of outside variables is controlled therefore there is initial equivalence between participants. Most common way of creating equivalence is through random assignment to conditions Quasi-experimental design-compares two groups that already exist in the population and uses quasi-independent variables o eliminates possibility of finding causality o pre-existing variables: quasi-independent variables Correlational Research Correlational Research involves measuring relationship between/among two or more variables o when two variables are involved one is called the predictor variable and the other the outcome variable scatter plot-visual image of relationship between two variables linear relationship-when association between variables on scatter plot can be easily approximated by a straight line o positive linear/negative linear nonlinear relationship-cannot be describes by a straight line independent-no relationship between the two variables Pearson correlation coefficient-the most common statistical measure of the strength of linear relationships among variables o Ranges between r=-1.00 and r=+1.00 These types of experiments cannot be used to determine causality o Reverse causality o Common-causal variable-a variable that is not part of research hypothesis but causes both the predictor and outcome variable and therefore produces the observed correlation between them Spurious relationship-relationship between two variables is produced by a common-causal variable Threats to the Internal and External Validity of Research Internal validity -extent to which it is possible to trust the conclusions drawn about causal relationships between independent and dependent variables o Confounding variables-variables other than the independent variable where the participants in one group differ systematically from those in another group. o Experimenter bias-situation where the experimenter subtly treats participants in different groups differently, resulting in incorrect confirmation of the hypothesis o Double-blind experiment-both researcher and participant are blind to the condition External validity-extent to which the results of research design can be generalized beyond the specific way the experiment was conducted o Generalization-extent to which relationships among conceptual variables can be demonstrated in a wide variety of people and wide variety of manipulated variables Unit 7: Memory Module 16: Types and Stages of Memory Memory-capacity to acquire, store and retrieve the information and habits that guide our behavior Information can be accessed through association and activation via related concepts The brain multitasks Synapses operate using electrochemical process Existing memory=used to keep and interpret incoming info. Retrieval of a memory changes the memory itself. Memories are constructed and therefore not exact replicas Types of memory Two main types: o Explicit-semantic, episodic o Implicit-procedural, priming, classical conditioning Explicit Memory o Knowledge/experiences that can be intentionally and consciously remembered o Episodic memory: firsthand experiences/episodes that have regularly o Semantic memory: knowledge of facts and concepts concerning the world Ways to measure memory o A recall test-measure of explicit memory that involves retrieving information that was learned before. Requires a search strategy to recall the information Ex. Use on an essay test o Recognition test-measure of memory that involves figuring out whether or not info has been seen/learned before Ex. Multiple choice test o Recall tends to be more difficult than recognition as recall involves both generating an answer and determining whether or not it is correct o Relearning (or savings)-assess how much faster info is processed/learned when it is studied after it has been previously learned but forgotten Allows people to access memory in quantity/speed VS correct Implicit memory o Influence of experience on behavior (may not be conscious) o Three types: procedural memory, classical conditioning effects and priming Procedural memory: unexplained knowledge of how to do things Walking/motor and cognitive skills Classical conditioning effects: learn (mostly without effort/awareness), to associate neutral stimuli with another stimulus. This creates a natural/automatic response. Priming-changes in behavior as a result of experiences that have happened frequently or recently. Ex. Word fragment test/enhanced identification of objects or words o Implicit memories are often formed and used automatically Stages of Memory: Sensory, Short-Term, and Long-Term Memory starts as sensory memory, moves to short-term memory and then to long-term memory Whether or not a memory will be kept depends on how it is attended and processed Sensory memory: brief storage of sensory info o Purpose is to allow humans to see world as unbroken stream of events and not fragments. Gives the brain processing time o Iconic memory-visual sensory memory o Echoic memory-auditory sensory memory Echoic memories can last up to about four seconds VS iconic which last only instants o Eidetic memory-“photographic memory”-people can report details of images over an extended period of time. They often have other psychological disorders. o Echoic imagery-like photographic memory but with sound Ex. Ability to remember a song and play it back after hearing it only once. o Short-Term Memory (STM) Where small amounts of info can be kept for a few seconds at a time (normally less than a minute) Can store between 5-9 pieces of info at a time. Usually the number is 7 Working memory-process we used to decipher, modify, interpret and store info in STM Where we make sense of information Not store of memory like STM but =memory procedures Central executive-part of working memory that directs attention and processing. Chooses process that will be best for a given task. Way to prevent deterioration of info in STM=to use working memory to train it. Maintenance rehearsal-repeating information mentally/out loud in an attempt to keep it in the memory Chunking-organizing information into smaller group so at to try and increase the number of items that can be held in STM Does not increase speed of working memory Info that makes it through STM may go into long-term memory (LTM)-memory storage that can keep info for extended periods of time (daysyears) Limitless Module 17: How We Remember: Cues to Improving Memory Explicit memory: When stop using information-it slowly fades from long-term memory Implicit memory: less likely to fade with disuse but eventually will happen. relearning How do we process information we want to remember? o Encoding, storage and then retrieval Encoding and storage: o Encoding-process in which we take events and turn them into memories. o Elaborate encoding-process new info in a way that makes it more meaningful/relevant. Therefore, we are more likely to remember it. Normally involves making it more relevant to ourselves Ex. Relate things to that which you already know Organize information Self-reference effect-relate material to own experiences/self Shown during work done by Rogers, Kuiper and Kirker Hermann Ebbinghaus: His Study of Memory o He was the only subject in his research o Tries to memorize list of nonsense syllables (ex. DIF) o Findings: retention drops in the beginning but levels out over time. Called the Forgetting Curve Levels out around 20% at approx. day 30 o Spacing effect-learning is improved/more efficient when the same amount of studying is broken up into smaller chucks and spaced out. Distributed practice-done over time Massed practice-all at same time (in one block) o Overlearning-should keep practicing/studying after we think we already know the material. Often think mastery has been achieved when truly has not. Retrieval –process of reactivating info that has been stored o Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon-when we know we know something but can’t exactly think of it o Context-dependent learning-increase in retrieval when external situation/environment in which the info was originally learned matches the situation when it is being remembered o State-dependent learning-superior retrieval of memories when person is in same mental state/physiological state as when info is being encoded o Serial position curve-shows variations in ability to retrieve info More likely to remember info presented at start and ending of list Serial position effect-only memorizing things at start and end of list. Cause by: primacy effect-tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented at the start of a list. when hear words tend to start practicing them- maintenance rehearsal. recency effect-tendency to better remember stimuli presented at end of list. can be explained by maintenance rehearsal in STM. o Retroactive interference-learning something new impairs ability to retrieve information stored previously o Proactive interference-earlier learning inhibits ability to encode new info The Structure of Long-Term Memory o Categories-how memories are stored in LTM-in networks of associated memories that have commonalities Associated concepts are connected via spreading activation (activating one element in category activated associated things) Some have defining features (things that are true of ALL memories in the category). Hard to define. Prototype-member of category that=most average or typical Other memories within category can be compared to this one. Mental categories=occasionally referred to as schemas-patterns of info/knowledge in LTM that aids up in memory organization Ex. Stereotypesgroup schemas Maintenance rehearsal STM Elaborate encodingLTM Module 18: The Biology of Memory Best to think of brain as having two levels o Neurons o Brain areas Long-term potentiation (LTP)-slow strengthening of synaptic connections btwn neurons due to frequent stimulation o Suggests that chemicals are involved in memory o Glutamate=very important neurotransmitter in context of memory Period of consolidation-time period when LTP occurs and memories are stored. Aka neural pathways are reinforced o Tends to happen during sleep Memory occurs via interactions between old and new brain structures o Hippocampus-preprocessor and elaborator of information Important to explicit memory Helps encode info concerning spatial relationships, context of event experienced and associations between memories Aids in transition of memory from STM to LTM Organizes explicit memories o Cerebellum-implicit memories Cerebellum-more active when learning associations and priming Involved in learning procedural tasks o Amygdala-emotional memories Related to storage of emotional memories-mostly fear. When damaged, lose ability to associate new events and things with positive or negative correlations. o memory is stored throughout brain, not just in one place Module 19: Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Memory and Cognition Source Monitoring: Did It Really Happy? Cognitive biases: errors in judgment or memory that are due to inappropriate use of cognitive processes. Misinformation effects-errors in memory that happen when new info changes or influences existing memories o Makes it so that can no longer tell what info comes from actual event and influences o Makes it so sometimes remember thing that never actually happened Source monitoring-ability to accurately identify source of a memory. o Sleeper effect-attitude change over time due to fact that forget the original source of information Overconfidence-people tend to be overly certain about their ability to properly make judgments and remember events o Flashbulb memory-emotional and vivid memory of strange event that people remember better than usual. It is created when the remembered event occurs at the same time as intense emotion. Schematic Processing: Distortions Based on Expectations Confirmation Bias-tendency to confirm and rationalize existing memories instead of challenging them. Created in part of schemas. o Schemata (pl. form of schema)-mental representations of earth as are created and changed using assimilation and accommodation as a person experiences more Assimilation-using already created schema to interpret new info Accommodation-altering an existing schema to fit new info Functional fixedness-happens when individual’s schemas prevent from using objects in a new way Salience and Selective Memory o Tend to remember things that are more salient (that attract our attention) Ex. Things that are colourful, moving, unexpected o People tend to ignore base rates (probability of events occurring across a larger population) o Selective memory-remember events because they are more salient o Cognitive accessibility-phenomenon in which a person’s 1 st person POV makes them overestimate degree to which they played a part in an event/project Heuristic Processing: Availability and Representativeness Heuristics, Probability, and the Gambler’s Fallacy o Heuristics-strategies used to process information that are often useful but can lead to errors if not used properly o Algorithms-formula type strategies to process information that can always ensure a correct answer o Representativeness heuristic-ignoring more relevant statistical information and basing judgments on info that we see to best represent what we believe will happen Gambler’s fallacy-see something happen many times in a row and assume the next time the same thing will happen Probability-true likelihood of something happening. Calculated by dividing number of possible favorable outcomes and dividing it by the total number of outcomes o Availability heurist Tendency to make judgments about the probability of an event happening based on how readily available the information is to access Counterfactual Thinking Counterfactual thinking is the human tendency to experience and think about events using the hypothetical “what could or might have been” idea. Psychology in Everyday Life: Cognitive Biases in the Real World: Accessibility bias can be mitigated by teaching people to consider various alternatives rather than a single one Belief in the Paranormal (Psi) Psi-used to refer to range of strange aspects of human cognition/perception o Two types: Psi-gamma-phenomena that involve information exchange or transfer (ex. ESP) Psi-kappa-phenomena that involves transfer of matter/energy (telekinesis) Unit 4: Brains, Bodies, and Behavior Module 5: Neurons: The Building Block of the Nervous System Neurons are Specialized Cells Designed for Communication Neuron-cell within the nervous system that receives and transmits info o Nervous system contains around 100 billion neurons Neurons are composed of three major parts o Soma-cell body which contains nucleus and keeps cell alive o Dendrite-collects info from other cells and sends said info to the soma Made up of a branching fiber o Axon-transmits info away from soma to neurons/muscles/glands Made up of a long and segmented fiber Each is specialized Often surrounded by a myelin sheath Myelin sheath is a fatty tissue later that functions as a insulator and increases the speed of electrical signal transmission At the end of each axon is a terminal button o If signal reaches terminal buttons they are signaled to emit chemicals known as neurotransmitters o Synapses-spaces between neurons Neurons Communicate Using Electrochemical Processes Electrical signals in neurons move due to changes in electrical charges within the axon Resting potential-the state the axon is normally in o Where interior of neuron has a larger number of negatively charged ions than the area outside the cell When part of axon that is closest to body cell is stimulated by electric signal from dendrites + this signal is strong enough to pass a certain threshold then the cell membrane opens and allows sodium ions with positive charges to enter. Once this happens then positive charges between greater than negative charges. o The electrical change described is called action potential Axon is segmented by breaks/gaps, each of which is called a node of Ranvier o As each segment passes on impulse, one behind goes back to negative resting potential o Axon potential=all or nothing. Therefore neurons can more energy by increasing sped but cannot fire more strongly. Also cannot fire repeatedly due to a refractory period-brief time when cannot fire again because has not returned to resting potential Neurotransmitters: The Body’s Chemical Messengers Synapses allows axon to communicate with many dendrites in neighboring cells Neurotransmitter-chemical that relays signals between neurons via synapses o Travel between terminal button of one neuron to dendrites of others Their release is triggered when the electrical impulse from the action potential reaches then end of the axon. Receptor sites and neurotransmitters are specialized to recognize each other o May cause either excitatory or inhibitory Neurotransmitters that are not accepted must be removed from synapse in order to the next stimulation to occur o Occurs partially via enzyme breakdown and partially via reuptake (neurotransmitters in synapse are reabsorbed into transmitting terminal buttons) Drugs: o Agonist-binds to receptor sites in dendrites to excite neuron (acting like neurotransmitter) Ex. Cocaine o Antagonist-reduces or stops normal effects of neurotransmitters. Binds to receptor sites and blocks it. Major Neurotransmitters o Acetylcholine (ACh)-used in spinal cord and motor neurons to stimulate muscle contractions Also used by the brain to regulate dreaming, memory and sleeping o Dopamine-involved in learning, makes feeling of pleasure in brain’s reward system, involved in motivation, emotion, and movement o Endorphins-natural pain relievers. Released as a response to orgasm, eating spicy food and vigorous exercise o GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain o Glutamate-most common neurotransmitter (release in 90% of brain’s synapses) o Serotonin-many functionsmood, sleep, aggression and appetite Module 6: Brain Regions The Old Brain: Wired for Survival old brain (innermost structures)-regulates survival functions- moving, breathing, feeding, emotion, resting cerebral cortex-outer layer of brain that humans have brain stem-oldest/innermost regions o controls most basic functions of life such as attention, motor responses and breathing o begins where spinal cord enters the skull and forms the medulla which is the area of the brain stem that control breathing and heart rate o spherical shape about the medulla is called the pons which helps in controlling the body’s movements (mostly walking and balance). Also plays a bit roll in dreaming, waking, sleep and arousal o The reticular formation is a network of neurons that runs through the pons and medulla. Its job is to filter out some stimuli that =coming into the brain from spinal cord and to pass on the other info to other areas of the brain Plays big role in eating, walking, sexual activity and sleeping. attention and alertness o Thalamus-sits about brain stem (egg shaped) Filters more of sensory info coming from spinal cord + reticular formation. Passes on remaining signals to higher brain levels Also receives some of the replies and passes them to the cerebellum and the medulla. Helps in sleep as shuts off incoming signals from senses o Cerebellum Coordinates voluntary movement Has two wrinkled ovals behind brain stem The Limbic System Brain stem’s primary function is to regulate the most basic aspects of life Limbic system’s primary function is responsibility for emotions and memory o System of brain structures around and beneath the thalamus Include: amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus and others Pituitary gland is controlled by the limbic system Amygdala-made up of two almond-shaped clusters o Primarily responsible for reactions to/perception of aggression and fear o Connected to sympathetic nervous system, processing of smell, facial response and release of neurotransmitters that are related to aggression and fear. Hypothalamus-under thalamus o Helps regulate hunger, thirst, body temperature, sex drive, response to satisfaction of all the above needs by creating feelings of pleasure Hippocampus-has to horn-shaped structures that curve away from the amygdala o Helps store info in LTM The Cerebral Cortex Intelligence cannot be measured by ration of brain weight to body weight Human intelligence can be attributed to the fact that we have larger cerebral cortexes. o Cerebral cortex is a outer layer that is barklike in nature and allows us to use language, create tools, live in social groups and acquire complex skills. It is about 1/10 of an inch think but makes up 80% of brain’s weight. o Humans have a folded cerebral cortex, which gives it a greater surface area and increased capacity for remembering, thinking and learning. This folding is called corticalization. o Glial cells-support neurons, Link to neurons/surround them, protect them, absorb unused neurotransmitters and provide neurons with nutrients Come in many different forms-ex. Myelin sheath is a kind of glial cell o Cerebral cortex is divided into two hemisphere(left and right), each hemisphere into four lobes (temporal, frontal, occipital and parietal) , each of which is separated by folds (called fissures) frontal lobe-behind the forehead primary responsibility is for planning, thinking, judgment and memory houses motor cortex parietal lobe-middle to back of skull primary responsibility is processing info about touch occipital lobe-back of skull primary responsibility is processing visual info temporal lobe-in front occipital lobe (~between ears) primarily responsibility is for language and hearing Functions of the Cortex o Contralateral control-brain is wired so that (a majority of the time) one hemisphere of the brain controls and receives signals from the opposite side of the body o Motor cortex-runs across top of the brain from ear to ear in frontal lobe. Controls and executes movements of the body by sending signals to cerebellum and spinal cord Sends messages to specific parts of the body and the somatosensory cortex receives messages from the different parts of the body. It is right behind the motor cortex in the front of the parietal lobe. For both, the most complex/sensitive the regions controlled, the more space is allotted to it in the cortex o Visual cortex- in occipital lobe. Processes visual info o Auditory cortex-within the temporal lobe(which also processes visual info that allows us to name objects) Responsible for language and hearing o the rest of the cortex is made up of areas where motor and sensory info is combined with stored knowledge Random note: brain has no sensory receptors Neuroplasticity, Neurogenesis, and Brain Lateralization Neuroplasticity –brain’s ability to change structure and function in order to adapt to experience and/or damage o Most plastic when young Neurogenesis-formation of new neurons o These new neurons form deep in the brain and then can later migrate Brain lateralization-left and right hemisphere are specialized to perform different functions Corpus callosum-connects two hemispheres of the brain Results of split brain experiment o left hemisphere houses ability to write, speak and understand languages. Also better with math, time and rhythm. Also better at coordinating complex movements o right hemisphere is better at perceptual things such as puzzle, draw, faces, melodies and patterns Module 7: Methods for Studying the Brain Cadaver and Lesion Studies cadaver o benefit-can study entire brain o drawback-brain no longer active/alive o lesions-damages in brain caused by various things (rarely by surgery) lesion studies: allow to study loss of brain function that may occur. Used to study damaged part of brain to determine functioning utility o a lot of social decision-making abilities originate in frontal lobe now often use nonintrusive imaging Noninvasive Techniques noninvasive techniques o lesion studies=done using neuroimaging o single-unit recording method-thin microelectrode is surgically inserted in or near an individual neuron (mostly used with animals) records electrical response/activity in specific neuron o EEG (electroencephalograph)-instrument that records electrical activity produced by brain’s neurons via electrodes placed on surface of person’s head. Looks at brain waves Benefits: person can move around Does not provide clear photo of structure of brain o PET scan (positron emission tomography scan) Invasive imagining technique that provides colour- coded of brain activity by tracking brain’s use of radioactively tagged compound (glucose, oxygen, injected drug) Person lays in scanner and completes mental task o fMRI (Functional magnetic resonance imaging) type of brain scan that uses magnetic field to form images of brain activity in different areas of the brain detects amount of blood flow in each brain region (more oxygen needed shows more activity) noninvasive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) o magnetic pulses are applied to the brain of living people with goal of safely/temporarily deactivating a small region of the brain electrical stimulus=applied before or during a task, effects are assessed. Main benefit: allows person to draw causal conclusions concerning influence of brain structures on thoughts/feelings/behaviors Module 8: The Nervous System and the Endocrine System The Central Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) o Involves the brain and spinal cord o Main controller of body’s functions o Receives signal, processes it, and responds it o Nerves are differentiated according to their function Sensory neuron-carries info from sensory receptors Motor neuron transmits info to muscles and glands Interneuron-most common types of neuron. Responsible for communicating among neurons. They allows the brain to combine multiple sources o Spinal cord-long, thin, tubular bundle of nerves and supporting cells that extend down from the brain. When quick response is needed, brain can be bypassed and cord takes care of everything on its own o Reflex-involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus Triggered when sensory information is powerful enough to reach a certain threshold and interneurons in spinal cord act without the brain, sending info through motor neurons The Peripheral Nervous System Peripheral nervous system (PNS)-links CNS to body’s sense receptors, muscles, and glands o Divided into two subsystems-one controls internal responses and the other external responses Autonomic nervous system (ANS)-the one that govern the internal activities of human body-heart rate, breathing, salivation, digestion, urination, perspiration and sexual arousal. This system can also be divided into two parts Sympathetic division of the Ans-preparing the body for rapid action in response to stress from threats or emergencies by activating organs + glands in the endocrine system. Bodies entire changes=fight or flight response. Parasympathetic division of the ANS-tends to calm body by slowing heart, breathing and allowing body to recover from reactions triggered by the sympathetic system. Works slower than the sympathetic system but eventually returns the body to homeostasis. Somatic nervous system (SNS)-control external aspects of the body-skin, skeletal muscles, and sense organs The Endocrine System Primary function of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems=to interact with the endocrine system-secretes chemical messengers called hormones that influence emotions and behaviors. System=made up of glands(groups of cells that secrete hormones into the bloodstream). System works closely with the nervous system Secretion of hormones=regulated by the hypothalamus o Main link between nervous system and endocrine system o Directs release of hormones by interactions with the pituitary Pituitary-controls body’s growth but also has other influences o Controls ovulation/menstrual cycle o Influence response to pain o Influences hormones that signal ovaries/testes to make sex hormones Pancreas-secretes hormones that are designed to keep the body supplied with fuel so at to be able to produce and maintain energy stores Pineal gland-in middle of brain o Secretes melatonin-helps the wake-sleep cycle Adrenal glands-located on top of each kidney. Triangular in shape. o Produce hormones that regulate salt/water balance. o Involved in metabolism, sexual development/function and the immune system o Secrete epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine Unit 17 Module 57 Introduction to Consciousness Introduction Mentalism-performing art where performer appears to read the mind of someone else-all it is is a combo of psych, misdirection and suggestion Consciousness-subjective awareness of self and our environment Dualism-idea that the mind/soul and body are separate entities Monism-consciousness and the mind are biologically based in the brain o Psych assumes monism is correct Distinction between autonomic behaviors, controlled behaviors, implicit memory and explicit memory Freud: o Denial-rejecting info that one finds too uncomfortable to accept o Phobia-persistent fear of something that can results in distress if fear is realized o Freudian slips-error in speech, physical act or memory that is thought to have to occurred due to a wish, conflict or train of thought o Repression-exclusion of memory, desire of though from one’s consciousness Module 58: Sleeping and Dreaming Revitalize Us for Action Sleep Stages: Moving through the Night Biological rhythms-regularly occurring cycles of behavior o Circadian rhythm –guides daily wake and sleeping cycle Sleep=influenced by surrounding light Ganglion cells (Retina) sent signals to the suprachiasmatic nucleus which = body’s main circadian regulator. It analyzes the strength/duration of light and then signals the pineal glad when the strength/duration is short or low. The pineal glad then secretes melatonin. Brain is active when people sleeping. Sleeping pattern have been recorded by EEGs Each sleep stage tends to last about 90 minutes and each has specific brain activity associated to it. o Two major stages: REM (dreaming) and slow-wave (deep sleep. Slow wave is part of the broader category called NREM (non-REM) that is divided into N1, N2 and N3 respectively o REM=occupied by about 20-25% of total sleep time and are concentrated normally towards the end of the cycle Low muscle tone (don’t move much) Tend to be sexually aroused o Alphawaves when person is awake but drowsy o First fall asleep and when person is awake and activebeta waves o N1theta waves o N2theta waves with random bursts of brain activity called sleep spindles o N3 (slow wave sleep)Delta Waves First period of REM happens 90 min after falling sleep o Increase in activity in the limbic system REM period increases from about 5 to 20 min as night goes on and dreams tend to become more and more elaborate Sleep Disorders: Problems in Sleeping Most sleep disorders occur during NREM sleep Insomnia-persistent difficulty falling/staying asleep o Most cases are temporary Sleep apnea-sleep disorder characterized by paused in breathing that last a minimum of ten seconds during sleep o Normally treated by an air machine with a mask Narcolepsy-extreme daytime sleepiness and frequent episodes of falling asleep o Can be also be accompanied by cataplexy-person loses muscle tone and it results in them partially or completely collapsing Somnambulism-sleep walking o Most common among children around the age of 12 o When motor/cognitive processes are not turned off/reduced in magnitude during sleep Sleep terrors- o More frequently in childhood o Person cannot wake up even if they are trying to. Bruxism-grinding teeth during sleep Restless leg syndrome-person reports uncomfortable feeling in legs that is exacerbated when resting/asleep Periodic limb movement disorder-sudden/involuntary movement of limbs REM sleep behavior disorder-when people engage in strange physical activities during REM sleep due to violent/intense dreams The Heavy Costs of Not Sleeping Newborns sleep 16-18 hours a day Preschools 10-12 hours School-ageteenagers about 9 hours Adults should get about 7-9 hours Costs: o Increase in anxiety o Decreased performance o Obesity o Hypertension o Memory impairment o Severe cases: death o Suppression of immune responses Dreams and Dreaming Dreams-succession of thoughts, images, emotions and sounds that passes through the mind while sleeping o Normally relates to fears, failures, concerns and everyday experiences Freud: o Primary function of dreams=wish fulfillment-idea that dreams allow us to act out the desires that we repress during the day o Manifest content-literal actions in dream o Latent connect-hidden psychological meaning of the dream o Psychoanalysis Payne and Nadel o Argue that we dream about things that we are moving into long-term memory therefore dreaming may be an important part of learning Activation-synthesis theory-dreams are our brain’s interpretation of random firing of neurons in the brain stem Essentially the pathways to skeletal system are disconnected during REM and the cortex doesn’t know how to interpret them anymore. Therefore it puts the random neuron firings together in a form it understandsa story Lecture Notes-Week 1 Psychology-scientific study of mind and behavior Meta-cognitive awareness -knowing what you know -knowing what you don’t know -being able to distinguish between the two Overconfidence phenomenon -assuming one knows something (being overconfident) when they don’t -humans tend to have a weak relationship between accuracy and confidence -this is a general tendency of human cognition -it is seen at all levels (notice expert) -can be minimized with practice Psychology -has evolved from philosophy (historical origin) to a rigorous science -research covers a wide range of behavior -research is done and applied via forms of therapy, training, teaching and coaching Big Questions of Psychology/Psychological Science 1) Nature V Nurture a. This is the question most commonly seen-the issue is that it tends to bring focus only to the parents rather than the whole environment. A better question would be “Genes V Environment”. b. A second complication follows in that it is rarely a situation of either/or. Most of the time is it a combination of the two. Depending on the environment, genes can be turned on and off (epigenetics) which results in different behavior. 2) Mind V Body a. Is the mind distinct from the body? Is there free will? What are the implications of free will not existing? i. Concepts of monism (mind and body being one) and dualism (mind and body being separate beings). Scientists focus on the monist concept 3) Automatic V controlled processing a. The ideal of the conscious and the subconscious (one of Freud’s few ideas that has not been debunked) b. How conscious are we of the causes of our behavior? In other words-why do we act the way we do? What unconscious thought processes are we engaged in? 4) Differences V Similarities a. To what extent are humans similar and/or different? What do we all have in common? Human traits/human nature. Research Designs Research Design: Descriptive Goal: create an image of current happenings Advantages: to try and give a somewhat complete picture of what is happening in a given period of time. It allows for the asking of questions. Foundational. Disadvantages: It does not evaluate relationship between variables. It could be deemed unethical if the subjects are not aware that they are being observed. Research Design: Correlational Goal: to find some sort of relationship between two or more variables Advantages: allows a hypothesized relationship to be tested and predictions to be made. Disadvantages: Does not establish causality Research Design: Experimental Goal: investigate causal effect of the independent on the dependent variable Advantages: ability to establish/assess causality Disadvantages: it is not possible to manipulate a lot of variables or it may be expensive/time consuming. Quasi-Experiment-an experiment that lacks the randomization of subjects into control/treatment groups. It is therefore less reliable in establishing causality. It still allows for one to compare groups, how
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