Study bundle of main concepts and points
Study bundle of main concepts and points ISB 201
Popular in Insects, Globalization, and Sustainability
Popular in Entomology
This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by chloegrignon on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ISB 201 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Gabe Ording in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Insects, Globalization, and Sustainability in Entomology at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Study bundle of main concepts from homework and quizzes New York strip steak full cost pricing Internal costs: external costs: cost it takes to feed cow cow population could decline land and pasture land could be overgrazed supplies for cutting trees/transportation GMO’s and antbiotics in meat Environmental economics Subsidy: A subsidy is a benefit or break given by the government to people as money or a tax reduction. This relates to the tax system because it gives tax breaks to people, an example could be farmer, which will help them sell products at a lower cost, but receive more from the consumer. Identify two different types of businesses or corporations that receive subsidies, through which it could be argued that environmental damage is a result A subsidy may be given to farmers for their irrigation use, such as pulling water from a certain source. This is good for the farmer, but can cause problems within the economy (maybe that water was used for drinking or something that gave a higher percent yield). It could also lead to depletion of the water supply for animals or possible contamination. The relative age of the geology location of A is newer compared to location B. As new rock forms, it pushes outward, making location B the older of the two. The paleomagnetic alignment of A could be different from alignment of location B because of the distance from the source by the magma, making location B less forceful. Magnetic field reversals (as represented in the figure above) have been occurring roughly every 200,000 years. If you were to observe iron crystals embedded in oceanic geology that were pointing neither northward or southward, based on plate tectonic theory, what would potentially explain this? Distance from the source, and the convection current theory gradually dragging the plate tectonics, changing the layout of the geology/geography. This can be attributed to how the iron crystals were pointing in neither north nor south directions. Oceanic crust is made of basalt, which is denser than continental crust (granite). This leads to oceanic crust moving under continental crust when they meet. Therefore, the oceanic crust subducts and leads to newer crust. Different diversity in oceans can be attributed to global temperature changes and the depth of the oceans. Insect life cycle Insects go through three life cycles when growing maturing; Ametabolism, Hemimetabolism, and Holometabolism Each cycle has different complexities and steps, and Ametabolism is the simplest of the three, and often only used by a few insects. In this cycle, young insects, called nymphs, have the same body as the adult insect. When this insect comes out of the egg, it will change its size as it matures, but not its shape The next cycle is Hemimetabolism, which includes Metamorphosis. This cycle is slow, and the visible change occurs when the larva stage starts to feed, which leads to instars and molts (growth and change, and shedding of skin, respectively), then gradually phases into adult life where it can reproduce The next cycle is Holometabolism, which also uses Metamorphosis, like Hemimetabolism, but this is more complete and is the most common. The insects come out of the egg as larva and feed while going through instars and molts. The body may have little distinction in its parts, then becomes a pupa, which metamorphosis changes it body by liquefying itself to a new body structure, dissolving other parts, eventually breaking from its container. Holometabolism is a more “complete” metamorphosis, and includes a development plan that must be followed for correct insect growth. It is a more complex cycle and could have more problems along the way, but can rapidly adapt to mutations. Colony Collapse Disorder event that occurs when the Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera, workers suddenly disappear and abandon the Queen Bee, save for lots of food, and some other nurse bees that help the immature and adolescent bees There have been many theories as to why this is happening, and documented data to prove the occurrence of sudden loss or dead bees around the colony Some scientists suggest that the Varroa Mite (a pest to the Apis Mellifera), or new diseases have to do with the CCD. Others suggest a change in the habitat, or poor nutrition play a role, as well as pesticide poising from local crops No definitive answer is given as to why CCD is occurring, but many scientists agree on the role of pathogens. Economic implications of CCD include the agriculture industry, as bees give us more the 15 Billion in increased revenue, as well as specialty crops like almonds. They also give us pollination for a variety of diverse flowers. Plate tectonic/ convection current theory Magma heats up in the core due to uranium, moves up, drags plate tectonics, cools, falls back down, and repeats (like a lava lamp) Phosphorus and Hubbert’s peak oil in finite, and used graphs to represent his data, that when Hubbert’s peak is reached, so is the midpoint, which means half of our high quality oil that we ever had on this planet will be depleted which is called the ultimate of oil production When ultimate is equal to the cumulative production plus reserves plus undiscovered oil, we find that the new discovery of oil matches the production of oil, which means we can no longer benefit from oil production, and exhaustibility is realized. Phosphorous is an important element in the production of fertilizers, which we use on our crops. The phosphorous we use is taken from phosphate rock, which is nonrenewable. This demand in phosphorus is increasing as our society looks for more production, phosphate rock is decreasing, leading to a problem of when the peak of phosphorus production is expected to occur. Many people agree the peak of phosphorus is likely to occur in the next 15 years. Similar to Hubbert’s Peak in oil, the peak in phosphate can also signal bad times to come. If we reach the point of half depletion in the phosphate stock, our very phosphate dependent agriculture practices could tumble down, since there are no alternatives to meet the demand.
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