CDFS 111 Study Guide
CDFS 111 Study Guide CDFS 111
Long Beach State
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Rubio on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CDFS 111 at California State University Long Beach taught by Lynda Grosso in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
1. Nature vs. Nurture Nature: Influence of gene we inherit Nurture: Environmental influences that affect development “Nature always affects nature and nurture always affects nature” 2. Grand Theories Psychoanalytic theory •Theory –Proposes that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior •Freud (1856–1939) –Proposes five psychosexual stages during which sensual satisfaction is linked to developmental needs and conflicts. –Suggests early conflict resolution determines personality patterns –Personality has three parts: Id, ego, and superego Psychoanalytic theory •Erik Erikson (1902–1994) –Described eight developmental stages, each characterized by a challenging developmental crisis –Proposed five psychosocial stages build on Freud's theory, but added three adult stages Behaviorism –Argued that scientists should examine only what they could observe and measure –Proposed anything can be learned with focus on behavior –No specific stages proposed •John Watson (18781958) –American psychologist –One of earliest proponent of behaviorism and learning theory Behaviorism •Classical conditioning –Demonstrates that behaviors can be learned by making an association between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus –Also called respondent conditioning •Pavlov (18491936) –Received the Nobel Prize in 1904 for his digestive processes research. –Resulted in discovery of classical conditioning Behaviorism •Operant conditioning –Proposes that reinforcement or punishment may be used to either increase or decrease the probability that a behavior will occur again in the future –Also called instrumental conditioning •Skinner (19041990) –Agreed with Watson that psychology should focus on the scientific study of behavior –Was best known for experiments with rats, pigeons and his own daughter Cognitive theory •Proposes thoughts and expectations profoundly affect actions, attitudes, beliefs and assumption •Focuses on changes in how people think over time Jean Piaget (1896–1980) •Maintained that cognitive development occurs in four major agerelated periods, or stages •Intellectual advancement occurs lifelong because humans seek cognitive equilibrium Cognitive theory (from Piaget) •Assimilation –Experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas •Accommodation –Old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences Information processing theory •Representative newer version of cognitive theory •Compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output Emergent Theories Sociocultural theory •Proposes thoughts and human development results from the dynamic interaction between developing persons and their surrounding society •Focuses on culture as integral to a person’s development Lev Vygotsky (18961934) •Describes interaction between culture and education •Developed concepts of apprenticeship in thinking and guided participation Evolutionary theory •Integrates explanations for many issues in human development •Suggests humans have two longstanding biologically based drives: survival and reproduction •Proposes concept of selective adaptation •Suggests genetic variations are particularly beneficial when the environment changes benefits humanity as a whole 3. Ecological Systems Approach The view that in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life E▯cological Systems (Bronfenbrenner) Each person is affected by many social contexts and interpersonal interactions. Three nested levels surround individuals and affect them. Approach later named bioecological theory. E▯cological Systems Include: ? Microsystems ? Exosystems ? Macrosystems ? Mesosystem ? Chronosystem 4. Critical Period Particular time when a particular type of developmental growth (in body/behavior) must occur for normal development to occur Example: Physical Development of the fetus must occur during pregnancy Sensitive Period A certain time when a certain type of development is most likely, although it may still happen with more difficulty to the person Example: Learning a language Plasticity Suggests abilities, personality, and other human characteristics can change overtime It is particularly evident during childhood, but it can possibly change throughout one’s life Example: Alcoholism. If it can change or not due to genetics 5. Experiment A research method in which the researcher tries to determine the “causeand effect” relationships between 2 variables by manipulating one (called the independent variable) and observing and recording the resulting changes in the other (called dependent variable) Observation This requires a researcher to record participant’s behavior systematically and objectively. This can be in a natural setting, lab, or in searches of archival data Survey Includes information collected from a large number of people by interview or questionnaire. These must be valid answers from the participants rather than having them to lie. 6. Control Group A group of people in a research study who are similar in the experimental group in all relevant ways but who do not to experience the experimental condition (the independent variable) Cohort A group of people who were born at about the same time and thus move through life together, experiencing the same historical events and cultural shifts at about the same age. Longitudinal Study A research design that compares groups of people who are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed. CrossSectional Research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics 7. Ethnicity People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion Race A group of people who are regarded by themselves or by others as distinct from other groups on the basis of physical appearance Culture a way of life of a group of peoplethe behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, generally without thinking about them, and that are passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next. 8. Correlation: 1. Positive a relationship between two variables such that their values increase or decrease together. 2. Negative a relationship between two variables such that one of their their values increase or decrease. 3. Zero There is NO relationship between the two variables. (Correlation is NOT causation) 9. Theorists and Theories I. Psychoanalytical Theory Defined: A grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlies human behavior. A. Sigmund Freud(18561936): • Birth to 1 year – the mouth – the oral stage • 13 years – the anus – the anal stage • 36 years – the penis – the phallic stage • 611 years –“quite time”latency stage • Adolescence and beyond – genital stage ∙ Each stage characterized by sexual pleasure , centered on a particular part of the body ∙ Many of Freud’s patients suffered from mental illness ∙ Early stages provide foundation for adult behavior. ∙ Potential conflicts for each stage: how you experience and resolve conflicts determines personality patterns. ∙ Parentchild relationship is the model for all intimacy: endearing terms “baby” “old lady” “sugar daddy” ∙ Childhood fantasies and memories remain powerful throughout life. B. Erik Erikson (19021994) ∙ Follower of Freud’s ∙ Never knew his own father ∙ Studied students, children at play, and Native Americans ∙ Immersed himself in the study of cultural diversity, social change, and psychological crises. ∙ Eight developmental stages (characterized by a challenging developmental crisis) ∙ Wide range of resolutions of each crisis; leads to development somewhere in between not to the extremes. II. Behaviorism Definition: A grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. ∙ Arose out of opposition to the psychoanalytical theory. Freud’s findings were not scientific enough to some behaviorists. A. John Watson (18781958) ∙ If psychology was to be a science, psychologists should examine only what they could see and measure: behavior, not thoughts and hidden urges. ∙ If psychologists focused on behavior, they will realize anything could be learned. ∙ Behaviorists are also called earning theorists: all behavior is learned step by step. ∙ Learned behaviors become habits that people repeat without much thought. B.Ivan Pavlov (18491936) ∙ Associated with classical conditioning (salivating dogs). ∙ Classical conditioning: The learning process in which a meaningful stimulus is connected with a neutral stimulus that had no special meaning before conditioning. C. B.F. Skinner (19041990) ∙ Associated with operant conditioning (mice and maze). ∙ Operant conditioning: The learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired or by something unwanted. ∙ Pleasant consequences are sometimes referred to as “rewards” and unpleasant consequences are sometimes referred to as “punishments”. ∙ Reinforcement: A technique for conditioning a behavior in which that behavior is followed by something desired, such as food for a hungry animal or a welcoming smile for a lonely person. ∙ Behaviorists believe that if something is learned, it can be unlearned. D. Social Learning: An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a persona’s behavior. Even without specific reinforcement, every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people. ∙ Modeling: The central process of social learning, by which a person observes the actions of others and copies them. ∙ Albert Bandura is associated with this study ∙ Selfefficacy: the belief of some people that they are able to change themselves and effectively alter the social context. ∙ Social learning is connected to perceptions and interpretations. III. Cognitive Theory ∙ A grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time. According to this theory, our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. A. Jean Piaget (18961980) ∙ Trained in biology ∙ Hired to fieldtest questions for a standardized IQ test ∙ Process is more important than product ∙ Observed his own infants ∙ Four stages to his theory: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. ∙ Cognitive equilibrium: state of mental balance in which people are not confused because use of existing thought processes to understand. ∙ Assimilation and accommodation are two ways that people adapt IV. Emergent Theories ∙ Multicultural and multidisciplinary, not only developed my men A. Sociocultural theory: An emergent theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces. ∙ Guided participation: a technique in which skilled mentors help novices learn not only by providing instruction but also by allowing direct, shared involvement in the activity. ∙ Lev Vygotsky (18961934) : psychologist from the former Soviet Union 1. Studied cognitive competency among diverse peoples of his nation. 2. Studied how each person learned from the skilled workers in his community 3. Zone of Proximal development: a metaphorical area surrounding learner that includes all the skills, knowledge and concepts that the person is close to acquiring but cannot yet master without help. B. Epigenetic Theory: Emergent theory of development that considers both the genetic origins of behavior and the direct, systematic influence that environmental forces have, over time, on genes. ∙Selective Adaptation: the process by which humans and other species gradually adjust to their environment. This process is based on the frequency with which a particular genetic trait in a population increases or decreases over generations. 10. SelfEfficacy Created by Bandura on Social Learning Theory. refers to an individual's belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce specific performance attainments (Bandura, 1977, 1986, 1997). Selfefficacy reflects confidence in the ability to exert control over one's own motivation, behavior, and social environment (modeling). 11. Periods of Prenatal Development: Germinal Embryonic Fetus 12. Age of Viability Age at which preterm newborn may survive outside of the mom’s uterus if medical care is available. Approximately 22 weeks after conception The brain is able to regulate basic body functions (Breathing, etc.) 13.Apgar scale Quick assessment of newborn's heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes •Completed twice (1 minute and 5 minutes after birth) •Score of 0, 1, or 2 in each category •Desired score: 7 or above 14. Kangaroo Care A form of child care in which the mother of a lowbirthweight infant spends at least an hour a day holding the baby between her breasts, like a kangaroo that carries her immature newborn in a pouch on her abdomen. 15. Genotype An organism’s whole genetic inheritance, or genetic material from your parents In 22 of 23 of the chromosome pairs, each chromosome is closely matched to each other. Each of these 44 Chromosomes is called an autosome to indicate that it is independent of the 23rd pair of chromosomes which are called the sex chromosomes. Phenotype The observable characteristics of a person, including appearance, personality, intelligence, and all other traits Gamete A reproductive cell Which is a sperm or ovum that can make a new individual if it combines with a gamete from the other sex to make a zygote Contains 23 chromosomes, half of a person’s 46 chromosomes. Zygote Single cell formed from the fusing of two gametes, a sperm and an ovum combined to make a new individual with 23 chromosomes from each parent. 16. Doula A woman who helps with the birth process. Traditionally in Latin America, a doula was the only professional who attended childbirths. Now doulas are likely to work alongside a hospital’s medical staff to help mothers through labor and delivery. 17. Reflexes Newborns seek to protect themselves with three sets of reflexes •Maintaining oxygen: Breathing, hiccupping, sneezing •Maintaining constant body temperature: Crying, shivering, tucking legs to body, pushing •Managing feeding: Sucking, rooting, swallowing •Other reflexes are not necessary for survival but signify the state of brain and body functions: ● Babinski reflex When infants’ feet are stroked, their toes move upward ● Stepping reflex When infants are held upright with their feet touching a flat surface, they move their legs as if to walk. ● Palmar grasping reflex When something touches their palms, they grip it tightly ● Moro reflex When someone startles them, perhaps on banging on the table they are lying on, infants fling their arms outward and then bring them together on their chests, as if to hold on something, while crying with wide open eyes.
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