Bio Sci 150 Exam 1 Review of Macromolecules
Bio Sci 150 Exam 1 Review of Macromolecules Bio Sci 150-402
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stege Notetaker on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio Sci 150-402 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by Selvakumar Ramakrishnan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Biosci150 in Biological Sciences at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
PROTEINS 20 amino acids Have at least one amino group (--NH2) and one acid carboxyl group (--COOH) 4kcal/g energy Methionine o The amino acid that begins every protein on earth CARBOHYDRATES Linking sugar monomers (monosaccharides) to form polysaccharides (CH2O)n 4kcal/g energy hydrophylic organic molecule, fuel for cell activity, food reserve, part of DNA/RNA, component of cell membranes Glycogen o Storage form of energy Monosaccharides o 3-7 Carbon atoms o Glucose, Galactose, Fructose Disaccharides o Sucrose Glucose/fructose o Lactose Glucose/galactose o Maltose Glucose/Glucose Polysaccharides o Starch (only one digestible in humans) o Cellulose (fiber, cannot digest) o Glycogen- made in liver and other areas, stored in muscles for energy LIPIDS Non covalent forces maintain interactions between monomers Carboxyl acid group at one end, and methyl group at the other end 4-24 carbon atoms We synthesize about 85% of needed lipids and fat but rely on diet for the rest of the 15% 5 primary types o Fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, eicosanoids, steroids Triglycerides o 3 fatty acids covalently bonded o Glycerol Saturated o C atoms saturated with hydrogens Unsaturated o C=C bonds without hydrogens Polyunsaturated o Contains many C=C bonds Cholesterol o Parent steroid o Required for nervous system and cell membranes o Synthesized in liver 9 kcal/g energy Fats, oils, waxes, steroids, cholesterol, phospholipids (make membranes) Insoluble in water Structural component of cells and energy source Insulation, shock absorption Eicosanoids o 20 carbon compounds derived from a fatty acid called arachidonic acid o Hormone like o Includes prostaglandins—produced in all tissues Role in inflammation, blood clotting, hormone action, labor contractions, blood vessel diameter NUCLEIC ACIDS Formed from 4 kinds of nucleotide monomers Nucleotides consist of a o Pentose o Phosphate group o Nitrogen-containing base (purine or pyrimidine) Nucleosides consist of a o Pentose o Nitrogen-containing base Two nucleic acids found in living organisms o RNA Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine, Guanine Has ribose Single-stranded A hydrogen bonds with U C hydrogen bonds with G o DNA Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine Has deoxyribose Exists as a double helix A hydrogen bonds with T C hydrogen bonds with G ATP o Adenosine triphosphate o Has ribose, adenine, and 3 phosphate groups o Energy is released when ATP is hydrolyzed Primary- polypeptide chain, peptide bonds Secondary- folding or coiling amino chains into particular patter, hydrogen bonding (alpha helix or a pleated sheet) Tertiary- folding of protein into globular shapes or fibrous threadlike strands, covalent bonding, disulfide bonds Quaternary- association of several tertiary structured polypeptide chains, 2 or more polypeptides join to form a single protein
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