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UMB / Economics / ECON 365 / umd econ requirements

umd econ requirements

umd econ requirements

Description

School: University of Maryland
Department: Economics
Course: World Hunger, Population, and Food Supplies
Professor: Kenneth leonard
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: AREC365 Exam 1 Study Guide!
Description: Here are the notes from the past 3 weeks' worth of lectures and powerpoints, all condensed into study-guide form!
Uploaded: 02/11/2016
5 Pages 8 Views 9 Unlocks
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AREC365 Exam 1 Review 


Caused by a permanent inadequacy of food.



Week 1: Famine and Ideology

Undernutrition­​caused by a permanent inadequacy of food

Famine­​a temporary, severe food shortage such as the Irish Potato famine or the current state of North Korea

Causes:

● Natural disasters

● Policy mistakes (use of food as weapon)

○ Irish Potato Famine: government restricted imports but exports did not stop ○ Solution: tax on landowners → tenants could not pay tax, were evicted, which continued the entire cycle

Socialism​: collectivization caused famine

● Stalin: expanded industry so the government adopted all decisions about it ● Farmers had to turn in land, tools, animals, etc.

○ Responses: resistance, refusal, government took crops so people did not have enough food

● Chinese Great Leap Forward Famine: cooperative farms caused an initial surplus; citizens were then paid on need, not efforts, so people stopped working hard ○ Less total output and productivity


When infants, pregnant/lactating women, elderly women are most vulnerable?



We also discuss several other topics like psped

● North Korea: communal farms → pre­harvested personal farms in order to “beat the system”, citizens ration’s were cut, food as a weapon in form of aid from other countries ● South Africa: caused by extreme weather, consistent famine, and government “redistribution” of land

○ Food aid from World Food Programme → less self­sufficiency, dependent on aid Preventing Famine:

● Democratic government → not socialism

● Take action before famine gets worse

● Increase distribution and spread of food aid

Food as a weapon​­ used in order to further a political agenda or force a country to do something by holding food aid over their head

● Civil war POW camps, Darfur: goal was to weaken opponents of governing body ● Nazi Hunger Plan: kill­non German farmers and replace with German farmers; make food to feed German troops


What is the difference betwen nature and nurture?



● North Korea/US: refusal for food aid if country creates nuclear weapons

Defining Malnutrition

Malnutrition­ over or underconsumption of any nutrient

1. Overnutrition: consuming too many calories (ex. obesity), not just high­income countries 2. Secondary malnutrition: person eats enough food but it is digested improperly so there is a lack of nutrient absorption (ex. eating disorders, parasites)

3. Micronutrient deficiency: lack of a vitamin or mineral (iron, vitamin A, zinc) a. Fortification used to add nutrients to common foods, such as vitamin A into milk b. Can cause xerophthalmia, GI disease, goiter, rickets

4. Protein­calorie malnutrition: not obtaining enough protein of calories; enough protein does not mean enough calories BUT enough calories usually means enough protein a. Kwashiorkor: extreme protein deficiency If you want to learn more check out thermochemistry meme

b. Marasmus: extreme caloric deficiency

Where they come from

Uses

Carbohydrates

Photosynthesis combines light + CO2 into usable

energy like carbs and fats

­ Breathing, digestion, other involuntary actions

­ Physical/mental activity ­ Growth, fighting disease ­ 1st and immediate energy source

Proteins

Nitrogen fixation leads to NH3, which, when combined with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, make amino acids

­ Build muscle and cartilage ­ Carry oxygen throughout body

­Enzymes: catalyze reactions

RDA​: recommended daily allowance; amount of nutrients at which ~97­98% of population is nourished

EAR​: estimated average requirement (of protein and

calories per day)

● Depends on age, gender, energy usage

● More accurate and helpful If you want to learn more check out ece 342 uiuc

BMR​: basal metabolic rate; calories needed if a

person were to just sit in bed all day

Daily caloric needs:​Physical activity level (PAC) x

BMR

● PAC​ranges from 1.00 (sedentary) to 1.45

(very active)

Ways of gauging consumption:

● Interviews: make a quick list (everything they ate in last 24 hours), name forgotten foods (soda, snacks), remember occasion (when/where they ate it), detail cycle (was there milk? or sugar in your tea?), and final probe (fact check)

○ Issues: subject lies or forgets, modifies diet for the day, is time­consuming and ineffective

● Anthropometry: compare subject to a reference of the same age/background; if the gap is too big, it signals malnourishment Don't forget about the age old question of i ii ii i_

○ 1. Weight­for­age: weight = good nutrition usually

○ 2. Height­for­age: compare with data/skeletons, undernutrition during growing years stunts height

○ 3. Height­for­weight: upper­arm circumference measured; undernourished people lack fat in their arms

■ Undernourished = too far below normal

● Normal: average height/weight of a reference person, or median

(50th percentile), or a “healthy range”

■ 76­90% of median: mild malnourishment

■ 61­75% of median: moderate

■ 60% or below: severe; BMI below 18.5

Measuring undernutrition:

● Clinical assessment (physical)

● Biochemical assessment (bloodwork, etc)

● Dietary record (write down what they eat as the day goes on)

● Dietary recall (write what they remember from past 24 hrs)

● Anthropometry

○ Measure population’s protein and calorie nutrition, determine overnutrition ● Nature vs. nurture: nature determines max potential height, nurture determines the degree of height they grow to If you want to learn more check out How many chiral centers does each molecule contain?

● WHO z­scores (used standard deviations)

● Mid­upper arm circumference

Impacts of Undernutrition: 

● Increased risk of mortality: lack of nutrients and low weight increases susceptibility to disease

○ Especially children: most likely group to die after the elderly

● Decreased ability to fight infection

● Weak immune system

● More complications from disease

● Low body fat composition, smaller

○ Less effective workers

● Fasting x > 16 hrs impairs memory and focus; seen with lower test scores ● Can reduce fertility

● Mothers can be malnourished, which means babies may be; breast milk is best source of nutrients for them

● Lower IQ

○ Especially due to iron and iodine deficiencies

Low­birth weight babies:

● Smaller brains, more often sick, lower IQs due to lack of nutrients, less stimulation → less cognitive functioning

● Heavier, taller people are less likely to be unemployed → vicious cycle of poverty

The Numbers:

● 805,000,000 undernourished people in world → 11.3% of population ○ Has decreased in past 20 years, mostly in East Asia

● Calories/person/day has increased by 10% in the last 20 years

● Adequate calories in the world, but they are not distributed

Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan):

● Wasting: low weight­for­height Don't forget about the age old question of pilgrams and puritans

● Stunted: low height­for­age

● Low birthweight babies → indication of mother’s nutritional status; high child mortality rates

Who, Where, When? 

● People are at risk for periods of a year, not the entire year (growing vs hunger season) ● Food crisis of 2007­08: prices shot up by 60% in 07­08 then fell almost as quickly ● Calorie deficiency does NOT always mean undernutrition

● Typical in rural areas: low income, less availability, higher prices, food deserts ● Infants, pregnant/lactating women, elderly women are most vulnerable

Supply and Demand 

● Aggregate demand­​total demand requested. Ex: Billy

wants 3 boats, Jim wants 10, and so on...aggregate demand is

130 boats.

● Aggregate supply­​total supply

● How demand shifts:

○ RIGHT if higher population, higher average

income, redistribution of money, changes in tastes/preferences

● Supply shifts:

○ RIGHT if new technology, cheaper price of inputs,

or improvement in agricultural resources

○ LEFT if technology fails, input is more expensive, or environmental degradation

Other economics info:

● Engel’s law​: as income increases, proportion of income spent on food decreases ● Bennett’s law​: starchy staple ratio (ratio of starchy foods to other foods) decreases as income increases

● Inferior goods​­ people consume less of them as their incomes rise

○ ex. Maize

● Elastic­​when the family increases consumption by more than 1% due to increased income

● Inelastic­​when family’s increase is less than 1%

● Price elasticity of demand­​steepness of the demand curve; effect of price increase on quality demanded

● Price elasticity of supply­​steepness of the supply curve; how quantity supplied changes in response to change in price

● Own­price elasticity​: change in consumption of a food as a result of 1% change of price ● Cross­price elasticity:​change in consumption of something else as a result of change in a main item; are usually very small

● Supply elasticity​­ percent change in quantity of output in response to a 1% change in the price of output

○ Agricultural supply elasticities greater in developed world than developing world → farmers in developing countries are more sensitive to change

● Food security​: access by all people at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life ● Food insecurity:​if income is less than the cost of buying food to make up for food production deficit

● Shortages­​how can they occur if quantity supplied equals quantity demanded? ○ ex. Chipotle carnitas: board says carnitas bowl is $7.25, but there is a shortage → 100 people walk in/day and ask for carnitas but there is none

○ Economists would say this is a shortage and to raise the price to cut demand/increase supply until equilibrium is restored

○ However: at any price, supply is still 0 for a period of time → demand curve hits vertical access, no one willing to pay for it (ex. $100 for a burrito)

● Sample problem: average income/person is $2,000. Prevailing unit is $1/unit. Quantity: 800 units/person. Income elasticity of demand for food is 0.2 (as income increases by 1%, demand increases by .2%). Own­price elasticity of demand for food is ­0.12 (as price of food increases by 1%, demand for food decreases by .12%). Own­price elasticity of supply for food is .08 (as price increases, quantity supplied increases by .08%). (ON QUIZ)

● Income rises by 5% and was previously $2000. New income =?

○ New income is $2100.

● Income elasticity of demand for food is 0.2 ­­­> for 1% increase in income, quantity of food demanded increases by .2%.

○ A 5% increase = 5 x .2 = 1.0

● Own price elasticity of supply ­ 0.08 so: 800 x 0.08 + 800 = 807.03 units ○ DOES NOT put in equilibrium (not $1.01)

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