PY 370 Exam 2 Study Guide
PY 370 Exam 2 Study Guide PY 370
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mackenzie Diaz on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Wyley Shreves in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see History and Systems in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Chapter 4: Psychology in the Laboratory 1. Mastery values are opposite to which type of values? Harmony 2. Phrenology was initially called ________ Cranioscopy 3. What was the main point of Sechenov’s Reflexes of the Brain? Mental processes should be understood as brain activities (such as reflexes) 4. Why did spiritualism & clairvoyance remain popular in the 19 thcentury? a. Knowledge about psychology was very limited. New facts abo ut the brain and body rejuvenated people’s interest in mysticism. It was a also a popular trend to show interest in clairvoyance & spiritualism. b. 5. Mental philosophers frequently used for their teaching a. Association theory b. 6. The area of physiology of sensory processes including vision, hearing, and tast e is called a. Sensory physiology b. 7. What was the overall impact of physiological studies on psychology? a. Mental processes were seen as having something to do with physiological processes. b. 8. Consistent differences in measurement between any 2 observers is calle d a. Personal equation b. 9. A science of the functional relations of dependency between body & mind is named a. Psychophysics b. 10. Why did Ebbinghaus use nonsense syllables for his study? a. Words should have no apparent meaning in the German language. b. 11. Who founded the 1 spsychology lab? a. Wundt b. 12. James Baldwin founded the 1 spsychology lab in a. Canada b. 13. Why did university establishments often resist experimental psychology? a. Experimental psychology challenged many official religious dogmas. It was also more expensive to fund. b. 14. The process by which elements connect was called a. Psychological compounding b. 15. Wundt’s “second psychology” studied experiences appearing in the form of a. Myths, fairy tales, and beliefs b. 16. What was Wundt’s “physiological psychology”? a. An experimental science of e xperience based on the principles of experimental introspection. b. 17. Who on the list represented act psychology? a. Brentano b. 18. Who studied imageless thoughts a. Külpe b. 19. Titchener’s approach is called structural psychology. Why? a. Titchener believed that the nature of psychological phenomena is in mental elements, those “bricks” from which the larger mental structures are built. The problem was to identify how these complex structures were formed. b. 20. What was the name of a theory connecting the size and shape of the brain with human behavior and the individual’s personality? a. Cranioscopy b. 21. According to Fechner, an exact science of the functional relations of dependency between body and mind is called: a. Reaction time b. 22. A set of folk beliefs that the living could communicate with the deceased through special channels of communication is called: a. Spiritualism 23. Weber’s Law is also known as: a. Fechner’s Law b. 24. Who designed a method known in psychology as the method of nonsense syllables? a. Ebbinghaus b. 25. According to Wundt, psychology was becoming a laboratory -based science of experience. The researcher was supposed to carefully measure psychological elements according to their: a. Quality, intensity, or duration b. 26. The existence of remarkably consistent differences in measurement between two observers had been established in several exp eriments is called personal equation. a. True b. 27. Phrenology was called initially psychological brain science. a. False b. 28. David Hume from the University of Toronto, besides teaching and writing was actively involved in campaigns to prohibit alcohol in Ontario. a. True Chapter 5: Psychology and the Mass Society at the Beginning of the 20th Century 1. The 1911 Coca Cola Trial was about which substance? Caffeine 2. John Stuart Mill’s essay on the Subjection of Women advocated Gender equality 3. How was progressivism related to psychology? For psychology professionals, progressivism meant an opportunity to apply scientific knowledge to social issues. Progressivism also emphasized the importance of applied psychological knowledge in three areas: (1) health care, (2) education, and (3) social services. 4. Building psychology’s progressive and practical roles, psychologists at the time pursued 3 interconnected goals including building reputation & seeking funding. What was the 3 rdgoal? Public visibility 5. In the U.S. early in the 2century, many states required a certain medical procedure to be performed on individuals with severe mental illness, disabilities, or severe retardation. What was the procedure? Sterilization 6. Compare pragmatism & utilitarianism and give examples of these traditions Utilitarianism maintains that the value of an object or action is defined by its utility or usefulness. Utilitarianism focuses on the consequences of a behavioral act. Pragmatism, as related to the scientific tradition, has at least two meanings. A broader definition refers to a way of approaching situations or solving problems that emphasizes prac tical applications and consequences. In a narrow sense, pragmatism refers to a specific philo - sophical school showing that facts do not stand apart from thought; the world is not perceived passively. 7. Name the 3 areas of research in psychology in the end of the 19 thcentury Experimental studies; measurement of individual development and psychological abilities; studies of abnormal psychological symptoms and their treatment in clinical settings. 8. Who in 1890 published The Principles of Psychology, one of the most popular books of the time? William James 9. Which factors did William James consider key causes of war? Psychological 10. Explain a habit formation, according to Angell At first, when people form a habit, conscious efforts are necessary and useful. After practice, however, the habit proceeds without conscious effort. Consciousness has already played a n important function at an earlier stage of habit formation. After a habit is formed, a conscious effort is no longer needed. 11. Why didn’t Mary Calkins receive a graduate degree from Harvard? Harvard did not admit women for doctorate programs 12. Name the main source of Herbert Spencer’s income Large inheritance from his uncle 13. The highest academic degree earned by Spencer was None of these 14. Explain homology The theory that all animals have similar organs that differ only in complexity 15. Who published his evolutionary ideas earlier, Spencer or Darwin? Spencer 16. What were gemmules, according to Galton? Body particles 17. Explain the main theoretical assumption of eugenics A theory of refining society by improving people’s hereditary features 18. Who coined the t erm mental test? James Cattell 19. Who was the close collaborator of Alfred Binet? Theodore Simon 20. Why is the Stanford -Binet Intelligence Scale called by this name? Terman took the scale used in the Simon –Binet test and standardized it using a large American sample. Terman spent 33 years at Stanford University. 21. Name 3 types of concerns psychologists had regarding mental tests First, psychologists could not agree about which tests should be designed for schools and which for businesses. Second, serious concern s remained about nonpsychologists, or people with little knowledge of research methodology, using mental tests to make assessments. Third, reliability and validity of mental tests were problematic. 22. Who initiated studies of adolescence? Hall 23. What was the school psychology movement? A collective attempt in the United States and Canada to bring psychology into the classroom and to use psychology in developing solutions to specific educational problems. 24. Explain the main idea of recapitulation The growing child goes through different stages and repeats the development of humankind. The child’s development advances through critical periods. Children develop to their full potential if they are not constrained but allowed to go through the stages freely 25. What was Münsterberg’s main area of psychological research? Work efficiency 26. The discipline that applies psychological principles to the criminal justice system is called _______ psychology? Forensic 27. What did Frederick Taylor try to achieve by his studies ? He wanted to eliminate poorly planned operations and increase work efficiency through training. 28. Cesare Lombroso created Criminal physiognomy 29. Reversion of behavior to some earlier developmental staged is called Atavism 30. What is the variability hypothesi s related to gender? Women were more similar than men as a group; men had a wider range of talents (as well as defects) than women. 31. What is the term for the doctrine that the meaning of an idea or a proposition lies in its observable practical consequences? Pragmatism 32. The general way of thinking and a social movement with the deep belief that human beings and their society could be improved through social reform, education, and opportunity available to all people is called Progressivism 33. The central idea of which theory is that children, as they develop, repeat the development of humankind. Recapitulation 34. A broad term standing usually for the use of science by the government to improve society is called: Social engineering 35. Who on the list was a pioneer in studies of adolescence? G. Stanley Hall 36. Hugo Münsterberg made a contribution to psychology as a specialist in Sport psychology 37. Frederick Taylor’s ultimate goal was to Increase work efficiency through raining 38. William James in 1890 published The Princi ples of Psychology, which became one of the most popular psychology books of his time True 39. In 1905, Mary Calkins became the third female president of the American Psychological Association False 40. Spencer viewed human adaptation as the increasing adjustmen t of inner subjective relations to outer objective relations True Chapter 6: Clinical Research and Psychology at the End of the 19th and the Beginning of the 20th Century 1. Psychological & physical complaints without an identifiable anatomical defect th of physiological malady were deemed in the 19 century as Hysteria 2. Holy anorexia was reportedly described in cases involving Young women 3. Name the most important differences between madness & neurosis Most neurotic patients, unlike those diagnosed with madness, were aware of their problems and usually acknowledged the oddness of their symptoms. 4. Which psychological symptoms were called sthenic and asthenic? The nervous system was believed to have a var ying tonus, which is either sthenic (strong) or asthenic (weak). Asthenic symptoms stood for mental weakness or nervous oversen sitivity 5. Society needed legal rules to justify policies related to the mentally ill. Among these policies were mandatory isolation, educational placement, and Forced sterilization 6. Describe 3 types of the 19thcentury popular beliefs about mental illness First, mental illness became a special explanatory category for those individuals whose behavior was out of the ordinary and difficult to explain by understandable causes. Second, having a mental illness often meant being an outcast. Third, people had broad expectations that some forms of mental illness were curable. 7. At least 3 factors contributed to the significant increase inmental illness incidents in many countries of the period: neurosyphilis, drug abuse, and Alienation 8. The process of obtaining the legal right to practice medicine is called Licensing 9. What is alienation as perceived caused of mental illness? Stress or daily hassles coupled with the lack of family support. 10. Explain the phenomenon of medicalization of abnormal & deviant behavior Seeing persistent violence, sex crimes, homelessness, or chronic drug abuse in some people as medical, not social, problems. 11. What was circular insanity in the Kraepelin classification? Manic & depressive symptoms 12. What was catatonia in the Kraepelin classification? Inhibited behavioral activities 13. What were “hyper” & “low” symptoms in early classifications? “Hyper” stood for exaggerated emotions and dramatic actions; “low” stood for withdrawal. 14. William Battie, an English physician, in A Treatise on Madness , explained the causes of mental illness as Muscular spasms of the blood vessels 15. What did Morel call generationa l regress in physical and psychological traits? Degeneration 16. What was the social hygiene movement? An eclectic conglomerate of intellec tuals and health care professionals whose beliefs were driven by a mix of Darwinism, progressiv ism, social engineering, and, unfortunately, prejudice. 17. Explain the clinical-pathological method The supporters of this method compared clinical observations of a patient’s abnormal symptoms with the reliable data about brain pathology, most likely obtained during an autopsy on the patient’s brain. 18. The basic functions of mental asylums are Incapacitation, treatment, & research 19. Hypnology is The study of causes and effects of nervous sleep 20. What was moral therapy? A type of treatment focusing on compassion and trust. Gradually, through learning and hope, the patient should restore the lost qualities o f good behavior. 21. What was the Charles Gilman case about? The case of chronic bad spelling th 22. What functions did psychological clinics have in the early 20 century? To allow psychologists working in these clinics observe an individual’s symptoms and then conduct experiments to examine the effectiveness of therapeutic procedures. 23. The term to describe exhaustion of the nervous system as a cause of abnormal psychological symptoms is called Nervous fatigue 24. A disorder characterized in the 19th century by per sistent feelings of weakness and general lowering of bodily and mental tone was labeled as Neurasthenia 25. The process of identification and categorization of a condition or behavior as a medical disorder requiring medical treatment or intervention is called Medicalization 26. Kraepelin offered a classification of mental illness, which included categories or groups 15 27. Prominent French physician, Benedict -Augustin Morel (1809 –1873) coined the term degeneration, referring to A generational regress in physical & psychological traits 28. Jean-Philippe Esquirol introduced statistical methods to clinical studies and proposed that the most frequent cause of mental illness was Emotional 29. Moral therapy is a therapeutic principle based on an assumption that to return to a normal mental state, the patient should be punished for some old wrongdoings. Only then, he or she could restore the lost qualities of good behavior False 30. Social hygiene movement was a policy sponsored by the federal government False 31. Charcot believed tha t the symptoms of hysteria related primarily to drug abuse False b.
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