Anthropology 206 Exam 1 Study Guide
Anthropology 206 Exam 1 Study Guide ANT 206
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Renée on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 206 at Grand Valley State University taught by Erica Begun in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Anthropology 206 February 3, 2016 Study guide for exam 1 ***All notes ardirectly from the book of Essentials of Physical Anthropology*** ***Authors of this book: Robert Jurmain, Lynn Kilgore, & Wenda Trevathan*** ***None of the writing is my work, it is an outline of the notable information from the book*** Chapter 1: Terms to know Savanna: A large flat grassland with scattered trees and shrubs Hominins: Colloquial term for members of the evolutionary group that includes modern humans and now extinct bipedal relatives Species: A group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring Bipedally: On two feet Anthropology: The field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology; Includes cultural anthropology, archeology, linguistics, and physical, or biological, anthropology Primates: Members of the mammalian order Primates, which includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans Evolution: A change in the genetic structure of a population Adaption: An anatomical, physiological, or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the environment Genetic: Having to do with the study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring Behavior: Anything organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli (environment) Continuum: A set of relationships in which all components fall along a single integrated spectrum Culture: Behavioral aspects of human adaption, including technology, traditions, language, religion, marriage patterns and social roles Worldview: General culture orientation or perspective shared by members of a society Biocultural evolution: The mutual, interactive evolution of human biology, and culture Ethnographies: Detailed descriptive studies of human societies. In cultural anthropology, an ethnography is traditionally the study of a non-Western society Applied anthropology: The practical application of anthropological and archaeological theories and techniques Artifacts: Objects or materials made or modified for the use by hominins, earliest versions of this are generally made out of stone Paleoanthropology: The interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier hominims such as their chronology, physical structure, archeological remains, and habits. It is a major subfield of physical anthropology Osteology: The study of skeletal material. Human osteology focuses on the interpretation of the skeletal remains from archeological sites, skeletal anatomy, bone physiology, and growth and development Bioarchaeology: The study of skeletal remains from archeological sites Paleopathology: The branch of osteology that studies the evidence of disease and injury in human skeletal remains from archeological sites Forensic anthropology: An applied anthropological approach dealing with legal matters Primatology: The study of the biology and behavior or nonhuman primates Science: A body of knowledge gained through observation and experimentation Hypothesis: A provisional explanation of a phenomenon Empirical: Relying on experiment or observation Scientific method: An approach to research whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis is stated, and that hypothesis is tested by collecting and analyzing data Quantitatively: Pertaining to measurements of quantity and including such properties as size, number, and capacity Theory: A broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles that has been substantively verified through the testing of hypotheses. They are not total facts, but rather the tested explanations of facts Quadrupedal: Using all four limbs to support the body during moving Through anthropological perspective, we can grasp the diversity of the human experience within the context of biological behavioral connections with other species Ethnocentric: Viewing other cultures from the inherently biased perspective of one's own culture Relativist: Viewing entities as they relate to something else. Cultural relativism is the view that cultures have merits within their own historical and environmental contexts Concepts to know There are two consequences of evolution: 1. Emergence of a new species (Macroevolution) o Isolation makes this more likely 2. The change of the genetic makeup of a population (Microevolution) Human beings are linked to all other life on earth o Most of our DNA is structurally identical to that of every living thing o Our cells have the same structure and work the same way as in all life-forms, with few exceptions o We have the same muscles and bones as many other animals o Many aspects of our behavior have direct connections to nonhuman species, especially primates Culture Includes: o Technology Stone tools Computers o Subsistence patters Hunting and gathering Global agriculture o Housing types Thatched huts Skyscrapers o Clothing Animal skins High-tech synthetic fibers In the United States, anthropology is divided into four main subfields: o Cultural/ Social o Linguistic o Physical/ Biological o Archaeology The origins of physical anthropology can be traced to two principal areas of interest among 19 century European and American scholars (called naturalists at the time): o Origins of modern species o Human variation Most of these naturalists had religious views, but were started to doubt the literal interpretation of the biblical account of creation and to support explanations that emphasized natural process rather than supernatural phenomena The goals of paleoanthropology: o Identify the various early human and humanlike species o Establish a chronological sequence of relationships among species o Gain insight into the adaption and behavior of these species Nutritional anthropologists study the relationship between: o Dietary components o Cultural practices o Physiology o Aspects of health and disease Molecular anthropologists use new technology to investigate evolutionary relationships between human populations as well as between human and nonhuman primates o They examine similarities and differences in DNA sequences between individuals, populations, and species o By using DNA extracted from fossils they are able to understand extinct species and compare with living species of today What is applied anthropology: o The practical use of anthropological theories and methods outside the academic setting o Relies on the research and theories or academic anthropologists while also contributing Chapter 2 Terms to know Natural selection: Important to evolutionary change, refers to genetic change in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success between individuals Fixity of species: The idea that species can never change after creation Binomial Nomenclature: In taxonomy, it is the categorization by species and genus Taxonomy: The branch of science concerned with the the rules of classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships Catastrophism: The view that earth’s geological landscape is the result of violent cataclysmic events Uniformitarianism: The theory that the earth’s geological features are the result of long term processes that is constant and still happening Fitness: The measure of contribution to the next generation’s genes Reproductive success: The number of offspring an individual produces and also reproduces, thus passing on the genes Selective Pressures: Forces in the environment that can manipulate reproductive success Fertility: A factor to natural selection, means the ability to produce healthy offspring Biological continuity: The biological continuum Christian fundamentalists: Those that believe the bible should be taken literally Concepts to know Charles Darwin was the first person to explain evolutionary process o Alfred Russel Wallace also studied evolution and found the same results as Darwin Carolus Linnaeus standardizes the way species are grouped (was a naturalist) o Includes humans in classifications George-Louis Leclerc de Buffon, another naturalist, figures out the relationship between organisms and their environment o Different regions have different types of organisms Erasmus Darwin, Charles Darwin’s grandfather, also impacted the ideas of evolution Jean- Baptiste Lamarck was the first person to try to explain evolution o Thought that as an animal adapts to its environment, it looses or gains use of certain body parts and would pass those traits to its offspring o Was wrong since only the genetic information contained in a sex cell can be inherited o Creates with the term of biology Georges Cuvier introduces the idea of extinction Thomas Malthus inspired both Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace with his work called An Essay on the Principle of Population o He wrote about human population size and the correlation to resources available o Both men took Malthus’s idea and said it was the same for all species Charles Lyell was Charles Darwin’s mentor and the person who tried to reintroduce the idea of geological uniformitarianism o All species produce more offspring than can be sustained in the environment o All species have biological variation o All animals compete for food and water o More favorable characteristics mean a higher chance of survival o An individual’s environment is what determines what characteristics are most favorable o Traits are passed generation by generation o Success after a long time can create new looking species o If a population is isolated, it can form similar but also new species Key points of evolution by natural selection: o Only inherited traits can be manipulated by natural selection o Inherited traits must be able to have variation for natural selection to happen o Fitness changes when the environment favors different traits o Only reproductive traits can be affected by natural selection Chapter 3 Terms to know Protein: Molecules that serve a wide variety of functions due to their ability to bind to other molecules Nucleus: A structure found in all eukaryotic cells that contains DNA Molecules: Structures made of two or more atoms DNA: Double stranded molecule that contains the genetic code and is the main component of chromosomes RNA: Single stranded molecule similar to DNA, there are three types of RNA used in protein synthesis Messenger RNA: A form of RNA that assembles on a sequences of DNA bases and then carries the copy to the ribosome Transfer RNA: The form of RNA that binds to specific amino acids and transports Cytoplasm: The semifluid substance contained within the cell membrane Ribosome: Organelle made up of ribosomal RNA and found in a cell’s cytoplasm that helps make proteins Mitochondrion: Organelle in the cytoplasm that convert energy from nutrients so a cell can use it Protein synthesis: The manufacture of proteins that is directed by DNA Mitochondrial DNA: Found in mitochondria, directly from mother Somatic: All cells except ones involved in reproduction Gamete: Reproductive cells Zygote: Cell formed by the union of egg and sperms cells that has the potential ability to develop into an organism Nucleotide: Basic units of the DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, phosphate, and one of the four DNA bases Bases: adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine (A, G, T, C) Mitosis: Simple cell division used by somatic cells that produces two diploid daughter cells Meiosis: Cell division specialized to sex cells that produces four haploid daughter cells Enzyme: Specialized proteins that initiate and direct chemical reactions Complimentary: The way the DNA bases form pairs in a specific fashion Hemoglobin: A protein molecule that occurs in red blood cells and binds to oxygen Hormone: Type of protein that are produced by specialized cells that influence chemical reactions Messenger RNA: A form of RNA that assembles on a sequences of DNA bases and then carries the copy to the ribosome Codon: Triplet of mRNA bases that code for amino acids in protein synthesis tRNA: The form of RNA that binds to specific amino acids and transports them to the ribosomes Mutation: A change in DNA that can be a change in the DNA bases or chromosomes Gene: A sequence of DNA bases that specifies the order of amino acids in an entire protein, portion of a protein, or any functional product Genome: The entire genetic makeup of an individual or species Exons: Segments of genes that are transcribed and involved in protein synthesis Noncoding DNA: DNA that does not direct the production of proteins Regulatory genes: Genes that influence or direct activity of other genes Homeobox genes: An evolutionary ancient group of regulatory genes Chromosomes: Discrete structures composed of DNA and proteins found only in the nucleus of the cell, can only be seen during early cell division Autosomes: All chromosomes except sex chromosomes Sex chromosome: The X and Y chromosomes that determines sex Recombination: The exchange of genetic material between paired chromosomes Clones: Organisms that are genetically identical to another organism Polymerase chain reaction: A method of producing thousands of copies of DNA samples Human Genome Project: An international effort aimed at sequencing and mapping the entire human genome Concepts to know Organisms are either single celled or are multicellular Eukaryotic cells are found in multicellular organisms o Is composed of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins o Contains a variety of organelles Organelles in the cytoplasm are responsible for converting nutrients into other substances, storing and releasing energy, eliminating waste, and manufacturing proteins DNA structure o Composed of two chains of nucleotides o Nucleotides are stacked on top of each other, forming a chain that is bonded by its bases to another nucleotide chain o DNA is shaped like a double helix DNA replication process: o Starts when an enzyme breaks bonds between bases within the DNA chain and separating the double helix. o Unattached DNA nucleotides are attracted to bases and a new strand is formed and joined to the original o The end product is two double stranded DNA molecules Ways Messenger RNA is different from DNA: o Single stranded o Different form of sugar o Contains uracil (U) instead of thymine Synthesis process: o Transcription occurs, which is the formation of mRNA strands from the DNA o Once transcribed, mRNA peels off and goes through the nuclear membrane to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm o DNA base bonds are reestablished and once more is a double helix o In the ribosome, the mRNA is decoded by triplets (codon) o Transfer RNA brings the amino acids to the ribosome o Ribosomes put together amino acids with direction from mRNA codons Mitosis process: o Chromosomes line up in the center of the cell and split apart into two separate strands Each strand is a specific chromosome and made up of one DNA molecule o Strands pull apart and go to opposite sides of the cell o Cell membrane pinches in and seals, forming two new cells Meiosis process: o In two divisions First division (reduction division): Reduction of chromosomes by half so that combination of two gametes creates a zygote with 46 chromosomes Chromosome pairs come together to form pairs of double stranded chromosomes that line up in the middle of the cell Chromosomes swap genetic information while paired up The cells start to divide and the paired chromosomes pull apart and go to opposite sides of the cell which produce two daughter cells that are not completely identical to each other Second division: The 23 double stranded chromosomes line up at the middle of the cell The strands of the chromosome separate and move apart The end result is four haploid cells Chapter 4: Terms to know Selective breeding: A practice done by animal or plant breeders that tries to get a certain outcome based on traits of the parents Hybrids: Offspring that are heterozygous due to having two homozygous parents Principle of segregation: Genes occur in pairs due to chromosomes occurring in pairs. More specifically, in gamete formation, alleles separate and each gamete is designated one half of the pair Recessive: A trait that isn’t expressed in heterozygous organisms. Only will be expressed when both alleles are recessive Dominant: A trait that will be expressed in heterozygous organisms, will usually always be the trait expressed Locus: The position on a chromosome where a gene occurs Alleles: A different variation of a certain gene Homozygous: When the same alleles are on both members of a pair of chromosomes Genotype: The genetic makeup of an individual. Written by using capital letters to show a dominant trait and lower case letters for recessive traits Phenotype: The physical characteristics of an organism Random assortment: The chance distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells in meiosis Mendelian traits: Characteristics that are influenced by alleles at one genetic locus Antigens: Large molecules sound on the surface of cells Codominance: The expression of two alleles in heterozygotes Polygenic: Referring to traits that are influenced by genes at multiple loci Pigment: A molecule that influences the color of skin, hair, and eyes Variation: Inherited difference in a group of individuals, the basic element of what causes evolution Allele frequency: The percentage of all the alleles at the locus accounted for by one specific allele Population: A community of individuals where many of the same species that can reproduce together are found Microevolution: Small changes within a species Macroevolution: Changes produced after many generations Gene flow: Exchange of genes between populations Genetic Drift: Evolutionary changes or allele frequency shifts that are produced by random factors in small populations Founder Effect: A type of genetic drift where allele frequencies are altered in small populations that are part of larger populations Sickle cell trait: Heterozygous condition where a person produces smaller than normal amounts of hemoglobin Sickle cell anemia: A severe inherited hemoglobin disorder where the red blood cells collapse when deprived of oxygen Concepts to know Mendel and the principle of segregation: o Mendel sets up pea plants that have at least one different trait each Crosses short plants with tall Calls the first generation the parent generation o Offspring of the parent generation are heterozygous Mendel hypothesizes that they will be medium height This generation, the F1 generation, ends up being tall o The third generation gave him unexpected results This group is called the F2 generation It yielded ¾ tall and ¼ short offspring giving a 3:1 ratio o From this, Mendel learns that traits are controlled by paired units that could separate for reproduction therefor giving different results in the offspring Mendel and the idea of dominant and recessive traits o Realizes that the traits not expressed in the plants are still there and able to be inherited by the next generation o The height of the pea plants is controlled by the height locus All plants had two copies of the same allele It is understood that mutation and natural selection are both factors of evolution o Creates a two stage process of evolution The distribution of variation Natural selection interacting with variation and affects success rates for survival Mutation: o Alleles are the result of mutation o A point mutation can occur and can cause the change in alleles Point mutation is when one single DNA base is substitutes To contribute to evolutionary change, the point mutation must occur in a sex cell o Rarely does evolution occur only due to mutation With natural selection, it can have an impact Only way to create new genes
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