ANAT 204 Block 1 study quide answers
ANAT 204 Block 1 study quide answers Anat 204
Popular in Anatomy for Paramedical Personnel
Popular in Anatomy
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Haviland on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anat 204 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Ruit in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Anatomy for Paramedical Personnel in Anatomy at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Give the definitions of: Anatomy- a cutting open Physiology- the study of function and how living organisms preform vital functions Macroscopic- the study of large structural features visible to the naked eye Microscopic- the study of structures that cant be seen without magnification Dermis- first layer of skin Hypodermis- second layer of skin Flexion- reduces the angle between two bones Extension- Increase in angle between two bones Adduction- movement towards midline Abduction- Movement away from the midline Inversion- a turning inward Eversion- A turning outward Rotation- turning one way or another What is the relationship of function to structure? You have to understand the structural relationships before you know functional Describe the human body organization: Chemical level- cellular level- tissue level- organ level- organ system level-organism level What are the 4 primary tissues of the body, and what do they do? 1. Epithelial tissue-covers exposed surfaces, lines passageways 2. Connective tissue-fills internal space, provides support, stores energy 3. Muscle tissue- Contracts to produce movement 4. Neural tissue-conducts electrical impulses and carries information Cell shapes of epithelial cells- Simple epithelia- only where there is a single layer of cells needed Simple squamous epithelia are located in regions where diffusion takes place or where a slick slippery surface reduces friction. Simple cuboidal epithelia are located in regions where secretion and absorption take place. Simple columnar epithelia are located also in regions where secretion and absorption take place; these cells may contain microvilli, which increase surface area for absorption. Stratified epithelia- found where protection from stressors are needed Stratified squamous epithelia are located in regions where mechanical or chemical stresses are significant. Stratified cuboidal epithelia are fairly rare. sweat gland ducts mammary gland ducts Stratified columnar epithelia are typically found in two or more layers of cells with the most superficial layer truly columnar in shape What are the types of connective tissue and what do they do? Areolar tissue- is the most common form of connective tissue proper. It is the general “packing material” in the body. Adipose tissue- is commonly referred to as “fat” and is found deep to the skin in many locations but especially the flanks, buttocks and breasts. Reticular tissue- forms a tough but flexible network of fibers that provide support for cells and resist distortion Dense regular connective tissue- is found in tendons and ligaments that interconnect bones or stabilize the positions of internal organs Dense irregular connective tissue- is a meshwork of fibers typically found in areas subjected to stresses from multiple directions such as deep layers of skin and capsules that form sheaths around organs and nerves. Elastic connective tissue- is found between vertebrae and in the walls of large blood vessels, especially arteries such as the aorta. Fluid connective tissue- have a fluid matrix containing proteins but not typically fibers. Function: Establish a structural framework for the body, Transport fluids and dissolved materials, Protect delicate organs, Support, surround and interconnect other types of tissue, Store energy in the form of fat, Defend the body from invading microorganisms Describe muscle tissue and what it does- Skeletal muscle moves or stabilizes the skeleton Cardiac muscle moves blood and maintains blood pressure Smooth muscle moves food, urine and reproductive tract secretions and regulates the diameter of respiratory passages and blood vessels What is neural tissue and it’s function? Neural tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses from one region of the body to another- They maintain the physical structure of neural tissue and repair after injury What are the functions of the integumentary system? Protect underlying tissues and organs, excrete salts water and waste, maintain normal body temp, produce melanin and keratin, store lipids, and detect touch. What are the different layers of the epidermis and what do they do? Epidermis, epidermal ridge, dermal papilla, dermis What are the exocrine glands and their secretions? Sweat glands and sebaceous glands they excrete waste and lubricate the epidermis Axial skeleton vs. appendicular skeleton- Axial skeleton consists of skull, vertebral column (including the sacrum), ribs and sternum Appendicular skeleton consists of bones of the upper and lower extremities including the pectoral girdle (clavicle and scapula) and pelvic girdle (ilium, ischium and pubis) What types of cells are found in bones? Osteons- found in compact bone Osteocytes-mature bone cells that produce bone matrix Osteoblasts- immature and produce new matrix Osteogenic cells- stem cells that divide to form osteoblasts Osteoclasts- cells that remove bone matrix What are the functions of the skeletal system? Support , store minerals and lipids, produce blood cells, protect organs, and leverage Give the bone classifications- Sutural bones- between flat bones of the skull Irregular-complex shapes Short-small box shaped Flat bones-flat attachment for muscles Long bones-slender bones Sesamoid bones- small bones that develop in tendons What is the difference between compact bone and spongy bone? Spongy bone is open latticework of bone oriented to withstand stresses from many Directions Compact bone is densely packed and very strong Name the bones in the wrist, hand, arm, and forearm- Wrist- Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, Hamate Forearm-Olecranon, radial head, trochlear notch, coronoid process, radial tuberosity, Ulnar head Arm- Head, greater and lesser tubercle, olecranon fossa, articular condyle Hand- Metacarpals, phalanges What are the differences between the male and female pelvis? Females have a wider opening, wider outlet, a broader pubic angle, and less curve On sacrum and coccyx What are the bones of the thigh, leg, ankle, and foot? Femur- Greater and lesser trochanter, head, linea aspera, adductor tubercle, articular condyles, patellar surface Leg- Head of fibula, tibial tuberosity, medial malleolus, articular surface, lateral Malleolus Ankle- calcaneus, talus, cuboid, navicular, cuneiforms, metatarsals What are the 3 types of joints? 1. Hinge 2. Ball and socket 3. Pivot joint Describe the synovial joint- A freely moveable joint where the opposing bone surfaces are separated by synovial fluid What are the 4 groups of axial muscles? 1. Muscles of the head and neck 2. Muscles of the vertebral column 3.Muscles of the trunk 4. Muscles of the pelvic floor What are the muscles of facial expression? Orbicularis oris: origin- maxillary bone and mandible Insertion- Lips Action: Compresses and purses lips Orbicularis oculi: Origin-medial margin of orbit Insertion- Skin around eyelids Action- closes eye Occipital frontalis: Frontal belly: origin- epicranial aponeurosis Insertion- skin or eyebrow and Bridge of nose Action- raises eyebrows and wrinkles forehead Occipital belly: Origin- occipital and temporal bone Insertion- Epicranial Aponeurosis Action- Tenses and retracts scalpnd Platysma: Origin- superior thorax between cartilage of 2 rib and acromion of Scapula Insertion- Mandible and skin of cheek Action- tenses skin of neck, Depresses mandible and pulls lower lip inferiorly What are the muscles of the vertebral column? Scalene: Origin- transverse and costal processes of cervical vertebrae Insertion- Superior surfaces of first 2 ribs Action- elevate ribs or flex neck What are the muscles of the pelvic floor? Bulbospongiosus, ischiocavernosus, superficial transverse perineal, urogenital diaphragm, Pelvic diaphragm What are the muscles of the trunk? Diaphragm, rectus abdominis, external/internal oblique, external/internal intercostals What are the functions of the appendicular muscles? Appendicular muscles stabilize, position and support the upper and lower extremities What are the muscles that position the pectoral girdle? Trapezius What are the muscles that move the arm at the shoulder? Deltoid, supraspinatus, subscapularis, infraspinatus, teres minor, pectoralis major, Latissimus dorsi What are the muscles that move the forearm at the elbow? Biceps brachii, triceps brachii, pronator quadratus, pronator teres, supinator What muscles move the hand at the wrist and fingers? Flexor carpi radialis/ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis longus/brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris What are the intrinsic hand muscles and what are their functions? Toe adduction and abduction toe flexion and extension
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