World Civ 1 Honors
World Civ 1 Honors HIST 1110
University of Memphis
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1110 at University of Memphis taught by ramsey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see World Civilization I Honors in History at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
World Civilization 1 Honors Study Guide Chapters 1-4 Chapter 1: Pre-History and Ancient Mesopotamia 1. Paleolithic, meaning “old stone” and Neolithic, meaning “new stone”. The Paleolithic Era was inﬂuenced by the environment. Ancient peoples were hunter/gatherer societies that adapted to the environment, rather than in the Neolithic Era, people adapted the environment to themselves. Paleolithic tools were very crude rather than the Neolithic’s reﬁned tools made of materials such as obsidian. Factors such as the environment, animals, and climate inﬂuenced the change from Paleolithic to Neolithic. Paleolithic peoples hunted animals to extinction, causing a migration to a new region where they had to discover new ways to cultivate food and different tools that best ﬁt their area that they inhabit. These led to complex societies in which people had to be able to communicate more, they created a trade system to eep the economy moving, and they had to settle down in one particular spot rather than be nomads. 2. Early humans began as Australopithecines or “southern ape”. They had limited speech and the brain size of 500cc. Later hominids include homo erectus or “upright man” that had a brain size of 1000cc. Homo sapiens followed meaning “wise man” then homo sapiens sapiens which means “very wise man”. Homo sapiens sapiens are the modern day human and have a brain size of 1400cc. Early humans were found in mostly central Africa and spread from there to northern Africa, Asia, and Europe.Through the process of evolution, polished tools were made,there was a hierarchy, agriculture was established, there was craft and labor specialization and early forms of government. 3. Mesopotamia was the “fertile crescent” between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. There was fertile soil to hold many civilizations. Sumer was the dominant region from 3200-2350 BCE. There were ziggurats and temples and also regulated trade. Sargon of Akkad destroyed Sumerian city-states and created an empire. Hammurabi led a rebellion that led to the fall of Sargon. Hammurabi created the “eye for an eye” rule and improved taxation. The empowers destroyed by the Hittites which were taken over by the Assyrians. Nebuchadnezzer takes advantage of inner turmoil and creates the Chaldean Empire. They created advances in metallurgy including the use of bronze, iron, wheels, boats, and chariots that eventually spread to different parts of the world depending on the region. Chapter 2: Ancient Egypt and Africa 1. Then main features of Egyptian cultures and societies were the social status and agriculture. Egypt competed with Nubia over trade on the Nile River where both were located: Egypt on the delta and Nubia on the cataracts. Menes uniﬁed Egypt until the Hyksos from southwest Asia invaded. The Kushites invaded Egypt, followed by the Assyrians. With Egypt to the north and Nubia to the south, there was constant military conﬂict. Once the Kushites took over Egypt, they adopted many of the same or similar religious beliefs and traditions. 2. Egypt’s principle gods were Amon, who was king of the gods, and Re, the sun god. Eventually they combined into Amon-Re. The pharaoh Amentohep introduced monotheistic worship of the god Aton, who is similar to to Re. Later, the old way was restored. The Cult of Osiris was created when mummiﬁcation became popular. Consisting of Osiris, Isis, Seth, and Horus, they judged one’s soul for the afterlife. 3. The Bantu migrations were migrations through sub-saharan regions due to population pressure. Sub-Saharan Africa kept up trade relations with Egypt despite military conﬂicts. Chapter 3: Ancient India 1. in Harrapan society, there was evidence of social stratiﬁcation. Dwelling sizes were bigger than earlier homes and there was evidence of decoration. Harrapan society may have been matriarchal in later Indian society. They had a goddess of fertility which depicted a ﬁgurine of a dancing girl. The reasons for their disappearance is unknown; however, there was excessive deforestation, loss of topsoil, evidence of earthquakes, ﬂooding, and unhurried dead. 2. The Aryans were Indo-Europeans that invaded from the north. There was no evidence of large-scale military conquest of the Dravidians. The Aryans introduced a pastoral economy and eventually vegetarianism. They introduced the Vedas, sanskrit, and pankrit. Eventually, Aryans began ﬁghting themselves and the Dravidians. 3. The caste was the social hierarchy in which it was divided into classes. At the top were Brahmins,or priests, then Kshatriyas, or warriors, then Vaishya, or peasants, artisans, and merchants, then Shudras, or landless peasants, and servants, and ﬁnally Harijans, or “untouchables”. There was a sub-system if castes called Jati that related to urbanization and increasing social and economic complexity. Chapter 3: Ancient China 1. The Zhou Dynasty ﬁrst used the mandate of heaven to overthrow superiors. The Zhou theory of politics assumed that heavenly powers granted the right to govern. The ruler had to govern conscientiously and maintain order and harmony within his realm. Failure to do so caused chaos and suffering in his realm. Supporters of the new dynasty used this to explain the shift of the mandate of heaven from the Shang to the Zhou. 2. Ancient Chinese society was patriarchal. Families were devoted, and they worshipped their ancestors because they believed in a spiritual connection of the spirit world to the physical world. The father was the ritual head of family rites and when conducting ritual sacriﬁces to their ancestors, whom they believed played a part in their fortunes/misfortunes. 3. Early Chinese characters were pictographic then formed into ideographs. They had no alphabet either. It began with oracle bones with prophecies that wanted to have their meaning written down. They were interpreted as omens with early evidence of the Chinese form of writing. Chapter 4: Ancient Mesoamerica and Oceania (Paciﬁc Islands) 1. Hunter/gatherer societies that migrated from the north settled in the southernmost tip of South America. The Olmecs created their society based on maize farming and herding of small animals for food. The Mayans cultivated cacao beans and practiced terrace farming. Both cities had ceremonial centers to sacriﬁce themselves or others to the gods. The decline of the Olmecs is mysterious as the ceremonial centers were destroyed but no evidence of warfare. The Mayans were much more militarily advanced. They performed more blood sacriﬁces and went to war to capture people for sacriﬁces rather than empire building. 2. The Andean societies were largely cutoff from the Mesoamerican societies, thus they had no inﬂuence over them. The Chavin Cult and Mochican state were very individualized societies. Both practiced stone carving and pottery painting to depict religious scenes and motifs. They were not war-like states compared to the Mayans. 3. Austronesians contributed spars and rudders that were used on boats that prevent them from capsizing in the open ocean. They cultivated yams, bananas, and taro and herded pigs, dogs, and chickens. Factor that may have driven the Austronesians to explore new Paciﬁc Islands was the need for resources and land to create new chiefdoms. With new land, there was greater independence and more agriculture. They often migrated out of population pressure and local conﬂict as well.
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