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Blood Objectives

by: Camryn Sartory

Blood Objectives Biol 2230-001

Camryn Sartory

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Objective sheet on Blood Powerpoint
Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. John Cummings
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Camryn Sartory on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2230-001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. John Cummings in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 02/10/16
Lecture Objectives Blood 1. List the functions of blood.  Delivers oxygen i. Also nutrients (sugar, glucose, etc.)  Transports metabolic wastes i. Ex: CO 2 proteins, nitrogenous compounds  Transports hormones  Maintains body temperature  Maintains body pH i. Slightly basic ii. Contains buffers that regulate pH  Maintains fluid volume i. Fluid exchange between tissue and blood  Prevents blood loss i. Clotting factors­ platelets   Prevents infection i. Functions as part of the immune system ii. Immune cells, antibodies 2. Describe the composition of whole blood.  Formed Elements i. Erythrocytes 1. Red blood cells 2. Carry oxygen 3. 45% of total blood volume 4. Not really living cells 5. Produced in bone marrow ii. Leukocytes 1. Living cells  2. Contain nuclei and organelles 3. Immunity  4. Less than 1% of total blood volume  iii. Platelets 1. Fragments of other cells  2. Pieces of cytoplasm and membrane  3. Can contain proteins and other things 4. Involved in blood clotting  Plasma i. Liquid portion ii. 55% of total blood volume iii. Mostly water (90%) iv. Also contains proteins – albumin =produced by liver, globulins,  enzymes, amino acid based hormones v. Nitrogenous wastes 3. Describe the structure, function and production of erythrocytes.  Structure  Small  Biconcave  Anucleate  Contains no nucleus  Contain hemoglobin  Transport oxygen  Contain antioxidant enzymes  No longer living o Production  Hemocytoblast produces myeloid stem cell  In bone marrow  A pluripotent cell­ can give rise to a number of things  (RBC or WBC)  Myeloid stem cell is also pluripotent   Myeloid stem cell becomes proerythroblast  Committed cell, all it can become is a RBC  Proerythroblast becomes early erythroblast  Early erythroblast becomes late erythroblast  Late erythroblast becomes normoblast  Normoblast loses organelles and nucleus to become reticulocyte  Loses nucleus  Accumulates a lot of hemoglobin molecules  Leaves bone marrow  Reticulocytes mature in bloodstream to become erythrocytes 4. Describe the chemical make­up of hemoglobin.  Globin protein bound to heme pigment i. Heme pigment makes our blood red o 4 polypetide chains  2 alphas  2 betas  Each globin subunit has a heme attached to it  o Contains oxygen binding iron   Each heme carries 4 molecules of oxygen  4 molecules of oxygen per hemoglobin molecule  About 250 million hemoglobin per red blood cell   Each RBC can carry a billion oxygen molecules  We carry a shit ton of oxygen o Carbaminohemoglobin  Hemoglobin bound to carbon dioxide  Oxygen binds to heme  Co2 binds to globin  20% of co2 transport is in the form of hemoglobin, the rest is  carried in plasma (bicarbonate HCO3­) 5. Define diapedesis.  The ability of a blood cell to leave the blood vessel and circulation  RBC’s cant  Some WBC’s can 6. List the classes, structural characteristics and functions of leukocytes.  Complete cells with nuclei and organelles  Display positive chemotaxis o Can be attracted to an area due to the release of some chemical   Classes o Granulocytes  Vesicles that contain things  Neutrophils (top left in pic) o Most common­ 50%­70% o Lobed nucleus  o Phagocytic   cells,   function   during inflammatory response  Eosinophils (top right in pic) o 2 lobed nucleus o Make sure it has granules o 2%­4% of WBCs o Contain   enzymes   in  granules   that  digest parasitic worms    Basophils (bottom right in pic) o 0.5­1% most rare o Contain histamine in granules­ dilates blood vessels, attracts other WBCs o Agranulocytes  Lymphocytes (bottom right in pic)  Most of cell is made up of nucleus  Major   immune   cells   (B  (bacteria)  &   T  (virus/ tumor) lymphocytes)  In lymph tissue  25% of WBCs  Monocytes  3­5%  Largest, with a u shaped nucleus  Phagocytic cells  Can diapedesis ( leave circulation), then called a macrophage 7. Describe leucopoiesis.  Granulocyte leukopoesis  Myeloid stem cells become myeloblasts  Committed cell, can only become a granulocyte  Myeloblasts accumulate lysosomes to become promyelocytes  lysosomes= granules  Promyelocytes differentiate into myelocytes  Cell division stops, and nuclei arch to form band cells  Nuclei constrict and segment to become mature granulocytes  Agranulocyte leukopoesis (monocyte)  Myeloid stem cells become monoblasts  Monoblast is a committed cell  Monoblasts become promonocytes  Promonocytes leave bone marrow and become monocytes in  lymph tissues  Agranulocyte leukopoesis (lymphocyte)  Lymphoid stem cells become lymphoblasts  Lymphoblasts become prolymphocytes  Prolymphocytes leave bone marrow and  become lymphocytes in lymph tissue 8. Describe the structure, function and formation of platelets.  Structure  Function  formation 9. Give examples of disorders caused by abnormalities of each of the formed  elements. o Erythrocyte disorders  Anemias  Any time our blood has a low oxygen carrying ability  Insufficient number of RBCs  Irregularly shaped blood cells­ sickle cell anemia  Polycythemia  Too many RBCs  Blood is thicker and doesn’t circulate as well  Blood is like a sludge  Leukocyte disorders  Leukemia  Cancer of white blood cells  Infectious mononucleosis  In response to an infection from a virus (Epstein bar)  Causes increase in production of Agranulocytes    Leukopenia  Deficiency in the number of white blood cells 10. Describe the process of hemostasis, differentiating the intrinsic pathway from the  extrinsic pathway.  Vascular spasm o When damaged, a blood vessel will constrict o Less blood is able to pass through, slowing the loss of blood  Platelet plug formation o Platelets will collect at the site of damage o Due to a chemical signal o Don’t collect at undamaged sites o Damage to blood vessel exposes underlying collagen fibers  (connective tissue)  Causes accumulation of chemicals Also releases von Willebrand factor and thromboxane A o 2  Von is a plasma protein  A2 is released by blood vessel itself  Prostaglandin – local signaling molecule o Causes platelets to collect and adhere at site of damage  Due to high accumulation of above factors  Stick to collagen fibers  o Once attached, thrombin activates platelets to breakdown and  release chemical contents  Coagulation Clotting  o o Prevents loss of blood and stimulates the repair of a blood  vessel  Intrinsic  Series of reactions in which clotting factors converted to  active forms  Ultimately aggregated platelets release PF 3  Platelet factor 3   PF 3activates other intermediates leading to activation of  factor X  Aka factor 10   Activated factor X complexes with calcium, PF  and3factor  V to form prothrombin activator  Activates prothrombin  Prothrombin activator catalyzes conversion of prothrombin  to thrombin  Thrombin is the active form  Thrombin catalyzes polymerization of fibrinogen into  fibrin  Thrombin also activates factor XIII which links fibrin  strands together  Produces mesh  Ultimately fibrin makes it stick  There are 13 platelet factors   Extrinsic i. Injured cells release tissue factor 1. Damaged blood vessel cells release chemicals ii. Tissue factor interacts with PF 3to allow shortcut to factor X  activation 11. List factors that limit clot formation.  Thrombopoietin i. Hormone ii. Communicates with bone marrow  Intact endothelial cells secrete PGI 2(prostacyclin) and heparin i. Healthy cells produce PGI2 ii. Prevents sticking iii. Heparin prevents platelet action   Vitamin E quinone i. Blood thinner  Clotting factors carried away from site by circulating blood i. So clot doesn’t get to big  Antithrombin III inactivates thrombin i. Plasma protein, it circulates in the blood normally  Protein C inhibits intrinsic pathway events i. Limits size of the clot ii. Plasma protein, it circulates in the blood normally  Heparin enhances activity of antithrombin III and inhibits intrinsic  pathway events 12. Explain how the processes of retraction and fibrinolysis relate to the natural  elimination of a blood clot.  Clot Retraction  Platelets contain contractile proteins  Similar to actin and myosin  Cause platelets to contract and squeeze out serum to compact clot  This draws ruptured edges of vessel closer together  Contraction of blood clot pulls blood vessel together  PDGF stimulates vessel repair  As platelets start to break down, they release platelet  derived growth factor   Stimulates cells to divide  Fibrinolysis i. Clot produces plasminogen 1. Inactive 2. Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) activates plasminogen  ii. Plasminogen is activated to plasmin iii. Plasmin digests fibrin 13. Identify the hemostatic disorders.  Thromboembolytic disorders­ too much clotting i. Thrombus 1. A blood clot that forms in healthy blood vessels 2. Stationary, and blocks the flow of blood  Embolism i. Moving blood clot ii. Will find an area it cant pass through and it will clog up  Bleeding disorders­ to little clotting i. Thrombocytopenia  Insufficient amount of platelets in body   Due to some sort of pathology/disease/infection  Hemophilia  Genetic disorder  Cant produce one of the clotting proteins­ they don’t possess the gene to  do it  Any one of the 13 clotting factors  Most important are factor 10, 13 14. Describe the ABO and Rh blood groups.  Determined by presence of agglutinogens i. Markers on the surface of blood cells ii. Specifically ABO and Rh (D) 1. If a blood cell has A agglutinogen, its type A blood.  Markers direct production of agglutinins i. If you have A agglutinogen, you produce B agglutinin   Type O­ is a universal donor  AB+ is the universal accepter  Hemolytic disease of the newborn  i. Woman is Rh negative and the baby is Rh positive ii. Can get a shot of RhoGAM­ suppresses the production of Rh  antibodies iii. First baby is fine iv. Second baby isn't 1. As soon as its born the blood coagulates and dies  


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