Blood Objectives Biol 2230-001
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Camryn Sartory on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2230-001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. John Cummings in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Lecture Objectives Blood 1. List the functions of blood. Delivers oxygen i. Also nutrients (sugar, glucose, etc.) Transports metabolic wastes i. Ex: CO 2 proteins, nitrogenous compounds Transports hormones Maintains body temperature Maintains body pH i. Slightly basic ii. Contains buffers that regulate pH Maintains fluid volume i. Fluid exchange between tissue and blood Prevents blood loss i. Clotting factors platelets Prevents infection i. Functions as part of the immune system ii. Immune cells, antibodies 2. Describe the composition of whole blood. Formed Elements i. Erythrocytes 1. Red blood cells 2. Carry oxygen 3. 45% of total blood volume 4. Not really living cells 5. Produced in bone marrow ii. Leukocytes 1. Living cells 2. Contain nuclei and organelles 3. Immunity 4. Less than 1% of total blood volume iii. Platelets 1. Fragments of other cells 2. Pieces of cytoplasm and membrane 3. Can contain proteins and other things 4. Involved in blood clotting Plasma i. Liquid portion ii. 55% of total blood volume iii. Mostly water (90%) iv. Also contains proteins – albumin =produced by liver, globulins, enzymes, amino acid based hormones v. Nitrogenous wastes 3. Describe the structure, function and production of erythrocytes. Structure Small Biconcave Anucleate Contains no nucleus Contain hemoglobin Transport oxygen Contain antioxidant enzymes No longer living o Production Hemocytoblast produces myeloid stem cell In bone marrow A pluripotent cell can give rise to a number of things (RBC or WBC) Myeloid stem cell is also pluripotent Myeloid stem cell becomes proerythroblast Committed cell, all it can become is a RBC Proerythroblast becomes early erythroblast Early erythroblast becomes late erythroblast Late erythroblast becomes normoblast Normoblast loses organelles and nucleus to become reticulocyte Loses nucleus Accumulates a lot of hemoglobin molecules Leaves bone marrow Reticulocytes mature in bloodstream to become erythrocytes 4. Describe the chemical makeup of hemoglobin. Globin protein bound to heme pigment i. Heme pigment makes our blood red o 4 polypetide chains 2 alphas 2 betas Each globin subunit has a heme attached to it o Contains oxygen binding iron Each heme carries 4 molecules of oxygen 4 molecules of oxygen per hemoglobin molecule About 250 million hemoglobin per red blood cell Each RBC can carry a billion oxygen molecules We carry a shit ton of oxygen o Carbaminohemoglobin Hemoglobin bound to carbon dioxide Oxygen binds to heme Co2 binds to globin 20% of co2 transport is in the form of hemoglobin, the rest is carried in plasma (bicarbonate HCO3) 5. Define diapedesis. The ability of a blood cell to leave the blood vessel and circulation RBC’s cant Some WBC’s can 6. List the classes, structural characteristics and functions of leukocytes. Complete cells with nuclei and organelles Display positive chemotaxis o Can be attracted to an area due to the release of some chemical Classes o Granulocytes Vesicles that contain things Neutrophils (top left in pic) o Most common 50%70% o Lobed nucleus o Phagocytic cells, function during inflammatory response Eosinophils (top right in pic) o 2 lobed nucleus o Make sure it has granules o 2%4% of WBCs o Contain enzymes in granules that digest parasitic worms Basophils (bottom right in pic) o 0.51% most rare o Contain histamine in granules dilates blood vessels, attracts other WBCs o Agranulocytes Lymphocytes (bottom right in pic) Most of cell is made up of nucleus Major immune cells (B (bacteria) & T (virus/ tumor) lymphocytes) In lymph tissue 25% of WBCs Monocytes 35% Largest, with a u shaped nucleus Phagocytic cells Can diapedesis ( leave circulation), then called a macrophage 7. Describe leucopoiesis. Granulocyte leukopoesis Myeloid stem cells become myeloblasts Committed cell, can only become a granulocyte Myeloblasts accumulate lysosomes to become promyelocytes lysosomes= granules Promyelocytes differentiate into myelocytes Cell division stops, and nuclei arch to form band cells Nuclei constrict and segment to become mature granulocytes Agranulocyte leukopoesis (monocyte) Myeloid stem cells become monoblasts Monoblast is a committed cell Monoblasts become promonocytes Promonocytes leave bone marrow and become monocytes in lymph tissues Agranulocyte leukopoesis (lymphocyte) Lymphoid stem cells become lymphoblasts Lymphoblasts become prolymphocytes Prolymphocytes leave bone marrow and become lymphocytes in lymph tissue 8. Describe the structure, function and formation of platelets. Structure Function formation 9. Give examples of disorders caused by abnormalities of each of the formed elements. o Erythrocyte disorders Anemias Any time our blood has a low oxygen carrying ability Insufficient number of RBCs Irregularly shaped blood cells sickle cell anemia Polycythemia Too many RBCs Blood is thicker and doesn’t circulate as well Blood is like a sludge Leukocyte disorders Leukemia Cancer of white blood cells Infectious mononucleosis In response to an infection from a virus (Epstein bar) Causes increase in production of Agranulocytes Leukopenia Deficiency in the number of white blood cells 10. Describe the process of hemostasis, differentiating the intrinsic pathway from the extrinsic pathway. Vascular spasm o When damaged, a blood vessel will constrict o Less blood is able to pass through, slowing the loss of blood Platelet plug formation o Platelets will collect at the site of damage o Due to a chemical signal o Don’t collect at undamaged sites o Damage to blood vessel exposes underlying collagen fibers (connective tissue) Causes accumulation of chemicals Also releases von Willebrand factor and thromboxane A o 2 Von is a plasma protein A2 is released by blood vessel itself Prostaglandin – local signaling molecule o Causes platelets to collect and adhere at site of damage Due to high accumulation of above factors Stick to collagen fibers o Once attached, thrombin activates platelets to breakdown and release chemical contents Coagulation Clotting o o Prevents loss of blood and stimulates the repair of a blood vessel Intrinsic Series of reactions in which clotting factors converted to active forms Ultimately aggregated platelets release PF 3 Platelet factor 3 PF 3activates other intermediates leading to activation of factor X Aka factor 10 Activated factor X complexes with calcium, PF and3factor V to form prothrombin activator Activates prothrombin Prothrombin activator catalyzes conversion of prothrombin to thrombin Thrombin is the active form Thrombin catalyzes polymerization of fibrinogen into fibrin Thrombin also activates factor XIII which links fibrin strands together Produces mesh Ultimately fibrin makes it stick There are 13 platelet factors Extrinsic i. Injured cells release tissue factor 1. Damaged blood vessel cells release chemicals ii. Tissue factor interacts with PF 3to allow shortcut to factor X activation 11. List factors that limit clot formation. Thrombopoietin i. Hormone ii. Communicates with bone marrow Intact endothelial cells secrete PGI 2(prostacyclin) and heparin i. Healthy cells produce PGI2 ii. Prevents sticking iii. Heparin prevents platelet action Vitamin E quinone i. Blood thinner Clotting factors carried away from site by circulating blood i. So clot doesn’t get to big Antithrombin III inactivates thrombin i. Plasma protein, it circulates in the blood normally Protein C inhibits intrinsic pathway events i. Limits size of the clot ii. Plasma protein, it circulates in the blood normally Heparin enhances activity of antithrombin III and inhibits intrinsic pathway events 12. Explain how the processes of retraction and fibrinolysis relate to the natural elimination of a blood clot. Clot Retraction Platelets contain contractile proteins Similar to actin and myosin Cause platelets to contract and squeeze out serum to compact clot This draws ruptured edges of vessel closer together Contraction of blood clot pulls blood vessel together PDGF stimulates vessel repair As platelets start to break down, they release platelet derived growth factor Stimulates cells to divide Fibrinolysis i. Clot produces plasminogen 1. Inactive 2. Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) activates plasminogen ii. Plasminogen is activated to plasmin iii. Plasmin digests fibrin 13. Identify the hemostatic disorders. Thromboembolytic disorders too much clotting i. Thrombus 1. A blood clot that forms in healthy blood vessels 2. Stationary, and blocks the flow of blood Embolism i. Moving blood clot ii. Will find an area it cant pass through and it will clog up Bleeding disorders to little clotting i. Thrombocytopenia Insufficient amount of platelets in body Due to some sort of pathology/disease/infection Hemophilia Genetic disorder Cant produce one of the clotting proteins they don’t possess the gene to do it Any one of the 13 clotting factors Most important are factor 10, 13 14. Describe the ABO and Rh blood groups. Determined by presence of agglutinogens i. Markers on the surface of blood cells ii. Specifically ABO and Rh (D) 1. If a blood cell has A agglutinogen, its type A blood. Markers direct production of agglutinins i. If you have A agglutinogen, you produce B agglutinin Type O is a universal donor AB+ is the universal accepter Hemolytic disease of the newborn i. Woman is Rh negative and the baby is Rh positive ii. Can get a shot of RhoGAM suppresses the production of Rh antibodies iii. First baby is fine iv. Second baby isn't 1. As soon as its born the blood coagulates and dies
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