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Geology 2150 Exam 1 review

by: Casey Fatzinger

Geology 2150 Exam 1 review GEOL 2150

Casey Fatzinger
GPA 3.6

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Study guide for exam 1
Geologic History of Dinosaurs
Dr. Peg Yacobucci
Study Guide
evolution, study guide 1, Geology, fossils
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Casey Fatzinger on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 2150 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dr. Peg Yacobucci in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 178 views. For similar materials see Geologic History of Dinosaurs in Professional Education Services at Bowling Green State University.

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Date Created: 02/10/16
What is the ultimate goal of science? ---developing and testing explanations for the natural world using the natural world as the judge of "truth" Is any study done carefully and based on evidence "scientific"? Why or why not? ---yes but it has to be falsifiable or the evidence has to be possible to test to prove false Define "fossil" in your own words ---The remains of something once living that has been preserved in sediment, can be body or trace Explain the difference between a body fossil and a trace fossil. Given examples of various specific kinds of fossils, identify which are body fossils and which are trace fossils ---body fossils reveal anatomy, trace reveal behavior body= plant tissue, bones, teeth...trace=eggs, poo, nests, footprints Imagine a freshly dead dinosaur carcass lying on a river bank. Describe two processes that would prevent this dinosaur from becoming a fossil. Then describe what would have to happen for this dinosaur to become a well-preserved, fully articulated fossil skeleton ---1) the hard parts can be left exposed and be trampled, eaten, or washed away 2) per mineralization could happen to preserve the skeleton where the material from groundwater precipitate to fill the empty spaces in the bone while the original mineral of the bone stays intact Chronostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, and biostratigraphy are all used to date and correlate layered rocks. Explain how these three methods differ. Include in your explanation the distinction between absolute and relative ages ---Chronostratigraphy-determines absolute age of a rock lithostratigraphy- determines relative age of a rock (this rock is older than that one) biostratigraphy- determines relative age and correlates rocks using fossils absolute age- exact age relative-around that age What exactly does the radiometric age of a rock mean? What event is being dated? ---how long it took the isotopes in the rock to decay, we measure the half lives to determine how long it took parents to turn into daughters and then we get the age in the rock--last time the rock went from molten to being cooled Why does this mean we can only radiometrically date igneous rocks and not, say, dinosaur bones? ---igneous rock can only be dated because when we use radiometric dating we are looking to see when the rock was last melted and cooled and bones are only found in sedimentary rock which cannot be radiometrically dated because they formed from sediments not melting Steno's 3 principles of lithostratigraphy ---1) superposition-youngest rock on top old on bottom 2) Lateral Continuity- sedimentary rocks deposited over great distances (think lakes) 3) Original Horizontality- each layer deposited flat until later when it was tilted or folded Contrast the ideas of catastrophism and gradualism as hypotheses about rates of geologic change. ---catastrophism- evidence of mass extinction in geologic record was evidence for rapid change, what we see in fossils has to be true gradualism- all geologic and evolutionary changes are slow and steady (darwin) 12. Describe (don't just list) five different types of evidence that geologists use to reconstruct where the continents used to be ---1)fit- not an accidental occurance that all the continents fit together 2)distribution of fossil and rocks this fossil is found in asia and south america stating they were connected 3)reversing seafloor spreading continents do move through ocean ocean grown pushing seafloor apart 4)ancient mountains evidence of old collision events 5)magnetization of igneous rock records the magnetic field and the latitude in which it cooled A central principle used in the historical sciences is uniformitarianism, or actualism. Explain what this principle states. ---the present is the key to the past-- use what we learn today and apply it to past events Describe (don't just list) five different types of evidence that geologists use to reconstruct ancient climates. Be specific and focus on actual evidence seen in the rock record, rather than general principles. ---1)sedimentary rock- wetlands, redheads, evaporate deposits 2)sand dunes, indicate wind direction 3)temperature depends on mineral geochemistry of rocks and fossils 4)climate sensitive fossil species example crocodile can only survive in 40 degree and above 5)anatomy of fossil plants- leaves tree rings reflects temperature, humidity What is a monsoonal climate? ---air moving in predictable way land heats and cools faster than water What evidence do we have that Pangea in the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic experienced "mega-monsoons"? ---similar dinosaurs found all around the world implies that all dinosaurs experienced the same climate Why would Pangea be likely to experience monsoonal conditions? --- Charles Darwin didn't use the word "evolution" in his Origin of Species. What expression did he use to describe the concept ---decent with modification Describe the process of natural selection, using Darwin's "three facts and an inference" model. ---1) variation- every human looks alike but are all a little different than each other 2) heredity- traits are passed on from parent to offspring 3) super fecundity- lots of babies not all of them survive How do biologists define a species? ---a species is made of populations that are actually r potentially interbreeding and are reproductively isolated from other populations Using the peripatric speciation model, describe the steps necessary for producing a new species ---think of a liger or polar bear


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