MUL2010 midterm study guide
MUL2010 midterm study guide MUL2010
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tori Ruby on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUL2010 at University of Florida taught by Bargrizan,Navid in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 210 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Music Literature in Music at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
January 11, 2016 Gyӧrgy Ligeti Poḗme Symphonique for 100 Metronomes Music doesn’t have to have extramusical associations Programmed music vs absolute music o Programmed music: music with extramusical (external) meaning and implications o Absolute music: music for music’s sake Formalistic music has structure (compare to cubism and Picasso) The definition of music is relative Oxford Music Online o “Imposing a single definition flies in the face of the broadly relativistic, intercultural, and historically conscious nature of this dictionary” What is sound? o Vibration of air around or in an object o Measured in hertz (waves per second) What is noise? o White, pink, purple, etc o Sound particles (different sounds) pressed together Cathy Berberian Stripsody o Is it music? Three stages of hearing o Hearing: the physical part- vibrations hitting the ear drum o Listening: intentional, understanding o Attentiveness: is a process/ art with concentration and consciousness Analysis Interpretation January 13, 2016 John Cage 4’33” What is silence? o Absence of noise and sound o There is no silence o Harvard echoless chamber How many types of music can you name? One possible classification o World music: local and regional music traditions Geographic and ethnic origins Usually oral Noncommercial Ex. Balinese Gamelan o Popular music: usually appeals to a wider audience Music industry Mass media Ex. Adele – Set Fire to the Rain o Western art music (classical music): specific body of work produced by the Western people from medieval until now Notation Composed by individuals Stylistically diverse Western Art Music Medieval (400-1430) o Ex. Leonin’s Pascha Nostrum Organum Two voice organum Renaissance (1430-1600) o Ex. Palestrina’s Motet for 5 voices Polyphony: simultaneous melodic lines Baroque (1600-1750) o Monteverdi’s Opera L’Orfeo Classical (1750-1820) Romance (1820-1900) Modern (1900-present) January 20, 2016 The classical period o Enlightenment: the age of rationality o Vienna’s composers Hayden, Mozart, Beethoven o Clear, periodical structures. Symmetry o Symphony, string quartet established o Beethoven’s Symphony 3 “Eroica” Romantic period o Romanticism: emotionality, metaphysics, nature Intensity of emotionality Yearning for the unattainable o Chopin Etude 12 “Revolutionary” Rubato: fluctuation of tempo due to mood of a piece Twentieth century and twenty-first century o Serialism o Structuralism o Experimentalism o Impressionism o Neo-classicism o Stockhausen’s Helicopter String Quartet Attacks pre-conceived concepts of music John Cage o Music is like talking o Likes how sound is like acting o Sound is movement o Music is a combination of sounds January 25, 2016 Kayhan Kalhor- NPR music tiny desk concert Black Sabbath- Heaven and Hell Composition, performer, perception What is rhythm? o The ways in which music is organized into distinct units of time o Pulse or beat (musical heartbeat that underlines the musical flow) o Measure/bar: organized groups of repeated beats o Downbeat vs. upbeat o Brian Ferneyhough- Lemma- Icon- Epigram Music is meant to challenge the performer o Stravinsky- The Rite of Spring What is harmony? o Simultaneous pitches o Homophony o Consonant vs. dissonant: degree of pleasantness o Chords o Triad: three simultaneous pitches o Tonic, dominant, subdominant chords Mozart’s symphony no. 40 in g minor What is timber (tone color) o Quality of sound (ex. Voice vs. instrument) o Overtones, spectrum, harmonies, etc. January 27, 2016 What is musical form? o Overall shape or structure of a piece of music o Most common forms in the western art music Binary (2 parts): AB Greensleeves Bach’s Bouree Ternary (3 parts): ABA Jethro Tull’s jazz version of Bach’s Bouree Twinkle Twinkle Little Star Rondo: A (refrain) B (episode) A C (episode) Beethoven’s Pathetique piano Sonata: ABA: introduction, exposition, development, recapitulation, coda Mozart’s Eineklein Nacht Musik Theme and variation Benjamin Bitten’s Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra Many others What is texture? o The ways in which different musical parts fit together o Monophony: single musical line without accompaniment Nezasa Shirabe o Polyphony: several simultaneous, independent lines o Canon: adding the same line over and over Gustav Mahler Symphony no. 1 3 Movement o Homophony: melody plus chordal accompaniment o Heterophony: same melody performed slightly differently multiple time February 1, 2016 How can music cross social/ ethnic/ national/ political barriers? Daniel Barenboim’s interview as the UN’s peace messenger Ethnicity: a social group that shares a common and distinctive identity in terms of culture, religion, language, etc. Nationalism: pride or loyalty in one’s country What is ethnic music? o Native American Fancy Dance o Jalolu Kora music of West Africa o Music of the African Diaspora Sweet Little Angel by B.B. King Riding with the King by Eric Clapton and B.B. King February 3, 2016 Dvorak: Slovanic Dance What is the discipline of ethnomusicology? o Deals with musicology in folk or world music Bela Bartok (1881-1945) o Through field research, he helped found ethnomusicology o Used folk music in compositions o Allegro Barbaro o 44 Violin Duos or Six Romanian Folkdances February 8, 2016 Simone Young Australian Conductor Unequal number of men and women in music history o All about how men are more educated How does music reflect and shape our cultural understanding about gender? Can sound, music, and instruments be “feminine” or “masculine?” I or IV (1966) – Pauline Oliveros Repentance (2007) – Sofia Gubaildulia Gender is different from sex o Gender is contextual o Sex is biological Gender depends on a combination of societal expectations and individual preference Gender roles are learned They differ from one culture to the next, sometimes from one generation to the next Gender is performed o Dresses v. shirts Female musicians in western art music o Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) O Vigra Mediatrix Abess and composer of sacred music o Contessa de Dia (late 12 century- early 13 century) Contess and trobaritz Secular music A Chantar Friendzone o Cara Shaumann (1819-1896) Prelude and Fugue op. 16, No. 3 Overshadowed by husband o Amy Beach (1867-1944) Gaelic Symphony o Ruth Crawford Seegar o Jaqueline du Pre (1945-1987) o Marta Argerich (1941-) o Anne Sophie- Mutter (1963-) o Maria Callas (1923-1977) Habanera from Carmen o Simone Young (1961-) o Marin Aslop (1956-) New musicology is a new type of musicology dealing with o Female o Gay/lesbian aspect February 10, 2016 David Bowie Starman The emergence of television appearances Girl groups Most girl groups conformed to the period’s gender expectations, some have broken the stereotype o Elvis Jailhouse Rock o Queen Killer Queen o Queen I want to break free Homosexual Pushed comfort boundaries o Lady Gaga Poker face Taking dominance Bisexuality o Madonna Like a Prayer Interracial relationships Religious symbols Semiotics: discipline which investigates the signs and what they mean in language Balinese women Gamelan orchestra o Seen as amateurs o Weren’t allowed to play until recently o Women’s instruments are made smaller than men’s
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