Kinesiology 247 Exam 1 Study Guide
Kinesiology 247 Exam 1 Study Guide Kin 247
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by AnthonyA on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Kin 247 at University of Massachusetts taught by Sarah Witkowski in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 250 views. For similar materials see Physical Activity/Health and Disease in Kinesiology at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Note that this guide is not meant to be all-inclusive. You should you this as a supplement to your notes, quizzes, and any material covered during lecture In general: know important statistics, trends, how to interpret definitions/concepts, how to read and interpret graphs/data, and the strengths/weaknesses of any methods discussed Concepts: • Exercise vs. physical activity o How is each defined? Physical Activity à body movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level Exercise à planned and structured type of physical activity behavior that is repetitive o What are examples of each? PA à walking, housework, lifting boxes, walking the dog, cleaning car Exercise à running on treadmill, lifting weights o How can these be measured (e.g. accelerometer, questionnaires, etc…) and what are strengths/weakness of each measurement technique? 1) Metabolic Equivalent (MET) • MET factorial system o Expresses activity as multiples of resting metabolic rate (RMR) o E.g. 7 mLO2kg^-1min^-1 / 3.5 mLkg^-1min^-1 = 2 METs • MET-hours = METs X number of hours you perform the task • MET-minutes = … MET during physical activity • Oxygen consumption during walking at a constant pace is 10 mL/kg/min o Resting oxygen consumption = 3.5 mL/kg/min § 2.9 METs (10 / 3.5) or 2.9 times resting energy expenditure § If Bob weighs 60 kg, and it is known that 1 MET = 1.0 kcal/kg/hr, then the energy expenditure at 2.9 METs = 174 kcals per hr (2.9 METs * 60 kg) • If he only has 30 minutes to exercise? o 174 / 2 = 87 • Oxygen consumption during running at a constant pace is 35 ml/kg/min o Resting oxygen consumption = 3.5 ml/kg/min § 10 METs (35 ml/kg/min / 3.5 ml/kg/min) or 10 times resting energy expenditure • What is she weights 60 kg? How many kcals is she expending? o 10 METs X 60 kg = 600 kcal/hr § If Sally runs at this pace for 30 min, she will expend 300 kcals • What volume of exercise has she performed? Advantages • easy for researcher (online, pen, paper) • easy for participant • inexpensive • suitable for large populations • can provide contextual information Disadvantages • Validity/Reliability issues o Validity § accuracy à is it measuring what it was meant to measure o Reliability § reliability à hoe consistent (day to day) are the measures • Limited by cognitive ability of participants (i.e. older adults and children) • Social Desirability o Problem when asking about health behavior o People know PA is good o People know smoking is bad • People may lie • People may forget what they did • Error is random o Not consistently wrong à cannot adjust for this • Different time frames o Previous day o Previous week o Previous month o Previous year o Lifetime o Usual 2) IPAQ questionnaire • Developed to provide a standardized questionnaire so that prevalence of physical activity can be compared worldwide o Vigorous § Breathing much harder than normal o Moderate § Breathing slightly harder than normal 3) Direct Observation • Individual observer monitoring a person for a set period of time • Used now to validate other measures • Get duration, intensity, posture, context • Useful to monitoring certain populations o children and adolescents Direction Observation System • Focal Sampling and Duration Coding o Location o Function o Body Position Strengths • Detailed info • Multiple dimensions • Accuracy • Assessment of free living • Use as a vailidation tool Weaknesses • Impractical for large populations • Reactivity o Change in behavior because you know you are being watched • Time consuming • Extensive training for observer • Has some subjectivity 4) Pedometers • Measure steps by day o Put in stride length, height, and width o Some tell you about your activity • Men à ~7000 steps per day • Women à ~5000 steps per day • Under 5000 considered sedentary Advantages o Objective o Easy to use o Easy to interpret for researchers and subjects Disadvantages o Do not provide info on § Intensity • Steps per minute • Do not know of it was form running, walking o Nothing about intensity o Nothing about cadence § Sedentary time o Not all pedometers are created equal • Most active between ages of 18-29 and 40-49 5) Accelerometers • Measure body movement in terms of acceleration o Pizoelectric sensors o Store data onboard § you download to computer at end of wear period • There are many different monitors available o Single-axis o Multi-sensor § Up to 3-axis à up/down, front/back, side/side o Measures inn counts per minute Advantages o Objective o Provides time stamped data on intensity of movement o Lot of potential Disadvantages o Many different monitors makes it hard to compare across studies o Trade-off à Burden vs. accuracy § How many monitors § Limited by processing not all activities follow linear trend o What are general trends for physical activity and disease? A general trend is as Physical Activity increases, the risk of disease decreases. • Outcomes, risk factors, and other important terms o Be able to define, interpret, and calculate (where applicable): § Relative risk • The ratio of the probability of the event occurring in the exposed group vs. a non-exposed group o RR = probability / in the unexposed o RR = 1 ? § Not Relative o RR < 1 § There is a relationship o RR > 1 § RR is 3.5 for smokers compared to non-smokers o RR = A(A+B) C(C+D) Cardiovascular disease • Risk Present Absent Overweight A (20) B (80) Normal weight C (2) D (100) § Odds ratio • The ratio of the odds of an event occurring in one group to the odds of it occurring in another group o used where 2 groups are compared (cases and controls) o Odds in cases Odds in control Exposed A B Non-exposed C D Odds exposed = AC Odds non-exposed BD § Hazard ratio • used when mortality is an outcome o different from RR o HR is an instantaneous risk over study period o RR is cumulative over the study period o Similar to incidence rate o incidence rate exposed group incidence rate unexposed group § Exposed vs. unexposed groups § Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors • Be able to define and provide examples • Incidence vs. prevalence o How is each defined? Incidence à the number of new occurrences of an outcome that develop during specified time period in population at risk Prevalence à proportion of individuals that exhibit outcome of interest at a set time-point or length of time o How are these terms related and/or how are they different? Incidence is the number of time it pops up and occurs in a population that is at risk for the disease during a specific time period. Prevalence is amount of people at a certain time point who had the disease. o How are these terms interpreted? Incidence = new occurrences during a given period of time Total population at risk Prevalence = # people with outcome at a specified time # people in population at risk at specified time • Energy expenditure/energy balance Energy Expenditure à amount of energy a person uses daily to complete all bodily activities (kcals) o Measurement methods § Know different ways to measure this (e.g. direct calorimetry) and the strengths/weaknesses of each method 1) Direct calorimetry -> Measures body heat loss a. In a chamber in a lab b. Strengths i. Very accurate c. Weaknesses i. Expensve ii. Limited “free-living” app iii. Used up to 24 hrs 2) Indirect calorimetry -> Measures O2 consumption a. O2 consumptions is an estimate of metabolic rate b. Strengths i. Very accurate c. Weaknesses i. Limited “free-living” app ii. Restricted to lab 3) Doubly-labeled water -> Measures free-living metabolic rate a. Strengths i. Really accurate measure of expenditure and not evasive b. Weaknesses i. Expensive ii. Gives total EE over a week, but not a rate (per day, hr) c. What is an energy deficit or energy surplus? i. How do these affect weight? Energy Surplus à consuming more calories than expending à gain weight Energy Deficit à Consuming less calories than expending à lose weight d. What are variables affecting EE (e.g. resting metabolic rate) and how much do each of these contribute to total EE 1) Thermic effect of feeding ~10% e. Food intake, cold stress, thermogenic drugs i. Obligatory thermogenesis ii. Facultative 2) Thermic effect of physical activity ~15-30% f. Duration and Intensity i. In occupation ii. In home iii. In sport and recreation 3) Resting Metabolic Rate ~60-75% a. Fat free body mass, gender, thyroid hormones, protein turnover i. Sleeping metabolism ii. Basal metabolism iii. Arousal metabolism b. METs i. How is this defined? 1 MET à energy expenditure at rest = 1 kcal/kg/hr = 3.5 mLO2/kg/min ii. What is it used for? Shows activity as a multiple of Resting Metabolic Rate iii. How do you calculate MET-min and MET-hrs? 1) MET-hours = METs X number of hours you perform the task 2) MET-minutes = … METs X number of minutes you perform the task i. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using METs? Advantages • easy for researcher (online, pen, paper) • easy for participant • inexpensive • suitable for large populations • can provide contextual information Disadvantages • Validity/Reliability issues o Validity § accuracy à is it measuring what it was meant to measure o Reliability § reliability à hoe consistent (day to day) are the measures • Limited by cognitive ability of participants (i.e. older adults and children) • Social Desirability o Problem when asking about health behavior o People know PA is good o People know smoking is bad • People may lie • People may forget what they did • Error is random o Not consistently wrong à cannot adjust for this • Different time frames o Previous day o Previous week o Previous month o Previous year o Lifetime o Usual • Study design b. Know the different study designs discussed in class (e.g. prospective cohort) c. Know the strengths and weaknesses of each design and what types of questions they can be used to answer. Descripitve Studies • Case-study/case report o usually on one person (one “case”) or small group of people • Not widely used in physical activity research • Example o Investigating the diameter of arteries of the best runners in the world and noting the artery diameters are larger than similarly aged people who are not runners Correlational Study • Evaluating population level associations between an exposure and outcome • Unit of exposure is a group • CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSALITY • Shows level of association between exposure (e.g. physical activity) and outcome = disease (e.g. diabetes) or disease mortality (e.g. deaths due to cardiovascular disease) Cross-Sectional Study • Measure exposure and outcome at the same time • Provides a “snapshot” of the relationship between exposure and outcome • Commonly used in population surveillance analyses o (i.e. NHANES) • Example • Class is given a questionnaire about their physical activity levels on and on the same day • Advantages o Inexpensive o Prevalence o Study multiple outcomes o Time • Disadvantages o Sampling model? o measure LDL levels in their blood o Cannot conclude causality o “chicken or the egg” • Cross-Sectional à Measure exposure and outcome at the same time Case-Control Study • First identified based on outcome o Cases § Have disease o Controls § Do not have disease • Examine exposure variables in cases and controls to see if there are differences • Retrospective à looks back (vs. prospective which evaluates future events) • Example à Is lifetime physical activity different in cases of breast cancer patients o Ask about people’s physical activity from their childhood up until now o Evaluate the differences between cases and controls for the outcome • Advantages o Good for rare conditions o Very efficient o Low cost • Disadvantages o Bias § Selection § Recall § How do you select controls? o Cannot determine causality • Case Control à measure outcome in people who have (cases) and do not have (control) the exposure – Retrospective Cohort Studies • At the beginning of the study o Measure exposure o All participants free of outcome • Prospective design o Vs. retrospective • Follow subjects over time to see who develops outcome of interest o Multiple outcomes • Advantages o Asses multiple outcomes o Cause/effect à maybe yes o Longitudinal natural study § Not changing anything • Disadvantages o Expensive o Takes time o Cause/effect à maybe no o Social Desirability à change in behavior because you know you are being measured Randomized Controlled Trial Studies • Identify factor believed to impact health (physical activity) • Take group of people and o Randomly assign them to treatment (physical activity) or control (no physical activity intervention) • Do treatment for period of time • Compare health outcome o After the treatment in the intervention and control groups • Also called experimental trials • Strengths o Intervene and change the variable (exposure) hypothesized to be affecting outcome o Best for cause/effect • Weaknesses o Expensive and labor intensive if done right o Ethical? § When would it not be ethical • RCT à experimental STRIDE study à Studies of Targeted Risk Reduction Interventions through Defined Exercise Definitions: • Health and disease (chronic, non-communicable, etc…) Disease – abnormal, reduced, or lost structure or function of cells, organs, or systems of the body à Can be defined according to cause or symptom Health – opposite or absence of disease; state of mental, physical, and social well-being à Not only the absence of disease or illness • Physical activity and exercise Physical Activity à body movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level Exercise à planned and structured type of physical activity behavior that is repetitive • Morbidity and mortality Mortality à o Deaths o A mortality rate is Deaths divided by Total Population of Interest Morbidity à State of being diseased or unhealthy o Rate if Incidents of Ill Health divided by Total Population of Interest o Can have multiple co-morbidities § Cardiovascular disease and obesity • Epidemiology and risk factors Epidemiology à Study of patterns, relationships, risk factors, and effects of health and disease conditions defined on populations • Risk Factor à risk associated with getting and having a disease; identified from correlation between the presence of the factor and subsequent development of disease • Incidence and prevalence Incidence à the number of time it pops up and occurs in a population that is at risk for the disease during a specific time period. Prevalence à the amount of people at a certain time point who had the disease. • Population attributable risk à Incidence of disease or other health outcome in a population that can be attributed to exposure to particular risk factor • Precision and accuracy Accuracy à how close a measure is to the true value Precision à how close repeated measure are to each other • METs Energy expenditure from daily physical activity relating to Resting Metabolic Rate
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