Sociology 2010, Exam 1 study guide
Sociology 2010, Exam 1 study guide Soc 2010-011
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Stephens on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 2010-011 at Clemson University taught by Jennifer L. Holland in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Sociology Study Guide Exam 1 All matching o 3 different theories ▯ Give statement about theory and match to correct theory o Scenario where person belongs to a specific group and match them o 5 T/F o 36 multiple choice o Know first early sociologists ▯ Early Sociologists o August Comte—the “father of sociology;” coined the term “sociology”, had the idea to study society scientifically o Herbert Spencer—Believed the info. Gathered should just be used for research—not to help people because that would interfere with survival of the fittest notion. Social Darwinism. First person to use term “survival of the fittest.” o Karl Marx—Socialism. Felt like proletariat would overthrow bourgeoisie and create a society where everyone was equal and would “share the wealth.” ▯ Sociological Imagination—Application of imaginative thought to the asking and answering of sociological questions ▯ Social Structure—An idea or practice that a group of people agrees exists. Maintained over time by people taking its existence for granted ▯ Socialization—Social processes through which children develop an awareness of social norms and values and achieve a distinct sense of self. o Very significant in infancy and childhood but continues throughout life also ▯ Social Facts—According to Emile Durkheim, the aspects of social life that shape our actions as individuals. Durkheim believed social facts should be studied scientifically. ▯ Organic Solidarity—According to Emile Durkheim, the social cohesion that results from the various parts of a society functioning as an integrated whole. ▯ Social Constraint—Conditioning influence on our behavior of the groups and societies of which we are members. Regarded by Emile Durkheim as one of the distinctive properties of social facts. ▯ Division of Labor—specialization of work tasks by means of which different occupations are combined within a production system. o All societies have some form of division of labor, especially between tasks for men and women o With the development of Industrialism, division of labor became much more complex ▯ Anomie—Situation in which social norms lose their hold over individual behavior ▯ Materialistic Conception of History—Developed by Marx. Material, or economic factors have a prime role in determining historical change. ▯ Capitalism—economic system based on the private ownership of wealth, which is invested and reinvested in order to produce profit ▯ Bureaucracy—type of organization marked by a clear hierarchy of authority and the existence of written rules of procedure and staffed by full-‐time, salaried officials ▯ Rationalization—process by which modes of precise calculation and organization, involving abstract rules and procedures, increasingly come to dominate the social world ▯ Symbolic Interactionism—theoretical approach that emphasizes the role of symbols and language as core elements of all human interaction. ▯ Symbol—one item that is used to represent something else o The flag symbolizes a nation ▯ Functionalism—social events can best be explained in terms of the functions they perform, that is, the contributions they make to the continuity of a society ▯ Manifest functions—functions of a type of social activity that are known to an intended by the individuals involved in the activity ▯ Latent functions—functional consequences that are not intended or recognized by the members of a social system in which they occur ▯ Marxism—body of thought deriving its main elements from the ideas of Karl Marx ▯ Power—ability of individuals or the members of a group to achieve aims or further the interests they hold. o Is a percussive element in all human relationships o Many conflicts in society are struggles over power, because how much power an individual or group is able to achieve governs how far they are able to put their wishes into practice ▯ Ideologies—shared ideas or beliefs that serve to justify the interests of dominant groups o Found in all societies in which there are systematic in ingrained inequalities between groups o Ideological systems serve to legitimize the power that groups hold o Concept of ideology closely connected to power ▯ Feminist theory—a sociological perspective that emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyzing the social world and particularly the uniqueness of the experience of women o Many strands but all share the desire to explain gender inequalities in society and to work to overcome them ▯ Rational Choice Approach—theory that an individual’s behavior is purposive. ▯ Postmodernism—belief that society is no longer governed by history or progress o Highly pluralistic and diverse and no “grand narrative” guiding its development ▯ Microsociology—study of human behavior in contexts of face-‐to-‐face interaction ▯ Macrosociology—study of large-‐scale groups, organizations, or social systems ▯ Research Methods—methods of investigation used to gather empirical (factual) material. o Different research methods but most common is fieldwork (or participant observation) and survey methods ▯ Ethnography—the firsthand study of people using participant observation or interviewing ▯ Participant Observation—method of research where researcher takes part in the activities of the group community being studied ▯ Survey—questioners are administered to the population being studied ▯ Population—people who are the focus of social research ▯ Pilot Study—a trial run in survey research ▯ Sample—a small proportion of a larger population ▯ Sampling—studying a proportion of individuals or cases from a larger population as representative of that population as a whole ▯ Random Sampling—a sample is chosen so that every member of the population has the same probability of being included ▯ Experiment—research method in which variables can be analyzed in a controlled and systematic way, either in an artificial situation constructed by the researcher or in naturally occurring settings ▯ Comparative Research—research that compares one set of finding on one society with the same type of findings on other societies ▯ Empirical Investigation—factual inquiries carried out in any area of sociological study ▯ Culture—values, norms, and material culture characteristic of a given group o One of the most distinctive properties of human social association ▯ Cultural Universals—values of modes of behavior shared by all human cultures ▯ Marriage—socially approved sexual relationship between two individuals o Normally forms the basis of a family and it’s expected that a married couple will produce and bring up children o Some societies allow polygamy, where an individual may have several spouses at the same time ▯ Society—group of people who live in a particular territory, are subject to a common system of political authority, and are aware of having a distinct identity from other groups o Small societies like hunting and gathering societies o Large societies like Chinese society, with a population of more than a billion people ▯ Values—ideas held by individuals or groups about what is desirable, proper, good, and bad o What individuals value is strongly influenced by the specific culture in which they happen to live ▯ Norms—rules of conduct that specify appropriate behavior in a given range of social situations o All human groups follow deficit norms, which are always backed by sanctions of some type, varying from informal disapproval to physical punishment ▯ Material Culture—physical objects that a society creates that influence the ways in which people live ▯ Language—primary way of meaning and communication in a society o System of symbols that represent objects and abstract thoughts ▯ Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis—based on the theories of Sapir and Whorf, that perceptions are relative to language ▯ Signifier—any vehicle of meaning and communication ▯ Semiotics—study of the ways in which nonlinguistic phenomena can generate meaning. o i.e. a traffic light ▯ Cultural Turn—sociology’s recent emphasis on the importance of understanding the role of culture in daily life ▯ Hunting and Gathering Societies—Societies whose mode of subsistence is gained from hunting animals, fishing and gathering edible plants ▯ Pastoral Societies—societies whose subsistence derives from the rearing of domesticated animals ▯ Agrarian Societies—societies whose means of subsistence are based on agricultural production ▯ Industrialization—process of machine production of goods ▯ Industrialized Societies—strongly developed nation-‐states in which the majority of the population works in factories or offices rather than in agriculture, and most people live in urban areas ▯ Nation-‐states—characteristic of the modern world. Gov’ts have sovereign power within defined territorial areas, and populations are citizens who know they’re part of single nations ▯ Colonialism—process whereby western nations est. their rule in parts of the world away from their home territories ▯ Emerging Economies—formerly impoverished countries that over the past two or three decades have begun to develop a strong industrial base, such as India or Singapore ▯ Subcultures—values and norms distinct from those of the majority, held by a group within a wider society ▯ Assimilation—acceptance of a minority group by a majority population in which the new group takes on the values and norms of the dominant culture ▯ Multiculturalism—condition in which ethnic groups exist separately and share equally in economic and political life ▯ Ethnocentrism—tendency to look at other cultures through the eyes of one’s own culture, and thereby misrepresent them ▯ Cultural Relativism—practice of judging a society by its own standards ▯ Sociobiology—an approach that attempts to explain the behavior of both animals and human beings in terms of biological principles ▯ Instincts—fixed patterns of behavior that have genetic origins and that appear in all normal animals within a given species ▯ Nationalism—set of beliefs and symbols expressing identification with a national community ▯ Social Reproduction—process of perpetuating values, norms, and social practices through socialization, which leads to structural continuity over time ▯ Agents of Socialization—groups of social contexts within which processes of socialization take place ▯ Peer Group—friendship group composed of individuals of similar age and social status ▯ Age-‐grade—system found in small traditional cultures by which people belonging to a similar age-‐group are categorized together and hold similar rights and obligations ▯ Mass Media—forms of communication, such as newspapers, magazines, radio, and television designed to reach mass audience ▯ Social Roles—socially defined expectations of an individual in a given status or social position ▯ Identity-‐distinctive characteristics of a person’s or group’s character that relate to who he is and what is meaningful to him o Gender, sexual orientation, nationality, ethnicity, social class ▯ Social Identity—characteristics that are attributed to an individual by others ▯ Self-‐identity—ongoing process of self-‐development and definition of our personal identity through which we formulate a unique sense of ourselves and our relationship to the world around us ▯ Cognition—human thought processes involving perception, reasoning and remembering ▯ Social self—basis of self-‐consciousness in human individuals. The identity conferred upon an individual consciousness by becoming aware of this social identity ▯ Self-‐consciousness—awareness of one’s distinct social identity as a person separate from others. o Humans are not born with self-‐consciousness but acquire an awareness of self as a result of early socialization ▯ Generalized Other—concept where the individual takes over the general values of a given group or society during the socialization process ▯ Sensorimotor Stage—stage of human cognitive development in which the child’s awareness of its environment is dominated by perception and touch ▯ Preoperational Stage—stage of cognitive development where the child has advanced sufficiently to master basic modes of logical thought ▯ Egocentric—the characteristic quality of a child during the early years of her life o Egocentric thinking involves understanding objects and events in the environment solely in terms of one’s own position ▯ Concrete Operational Stage—where the child’s thinking is based primarily on physical perception of the world o Child is not yet capable of dealing with abstract concepts or hypothetical situations ▯ Formal Operational Stage—the child becomes capable of handling abstract concepts and hypothetical situations ▯ Gender Socialization—learning of gender roles through social factors such as the media and family ▯ Roles—expected behaviors of people occupying particular social positions o Idea of social role originally comes from the theater and the idea that in every society, individuals play a number of social roles ▯ Status—social honor or prestige that a particular group is given ▯ Status groups normally display distinct styles of life-‐patterns of behavior that the members of a group follow ▯ Social Position—social identity an individual has in a given group or society. ▯ May be general in nature (gender roles) or more specific (occupational positions) ▯ Impression Management—preparing for the presentation of one’s social role ▯ Civil Inattention—process whereby individuals in the same physical setting demonstrate to one another that they are aware of each other’s presence ▯ Nonverbal Communication—communication between individuals based on facial expression or bodily gestures rather than on language ▯ Unfocused Interaction—interaction occurring among people present in a particular setting but not engaged in direct face-‐to-‐face communication ▯ Focused Interaction—interaction between individuals engaged in a common activity or in direct conversation with one another ▯ Encounter—meeting between 2+ people in a situation of face-‐to-‐face interaction ▯ Response Cries—seemingly involuntary exclamations individuals make when, for example, they are taken by surprise, drop something inadvertently, or want to express pleasure ▯ Clock time—time as measured by the clock in terms of hours, minutes and seconds o Before invention of clock, time reckoning based on events in the natural world, such as the rising and setting of the sun ▯ Personal Space—physical space individuals maintain between themselves and others ▯ Ethnomethodology—study of how people make sense of what others say and do in the course of day-‐to-‐day social interaction ▯ Conversation Analysis-‐empirical study of conversations, employing techniques drawn from ethnomethodology o Examines details of naturally occurring conversations to reveal the organizational principles of talk and its role in the production and reproduction of social order ▯ Interactional Vandalism—the deliberate subversion of the tacit rules of conversation ▯ Back Region—areas apart front-‐region performance, in which individuals are able to relax and behave informally ▯ Front Region—settings of social activity in which people seek to put on a definite “performance” for others ▯ Compulsion of Proximity—people’s need to interact with others in their presence ▯ Social group—collection of people who regularly interact with one another on the basis of shared expectations concerning behavior and who shares a sense of common identity ▯ Social aggregate—simple collection of people who happen to be together in a particular place but do not significantly interact or identify with one another ▯ Social Category—people who share a common characteristic (gender, occupation) but do not necessarily interact or identify with one another ▯ Primary Groups—groups characterized by intense emotional ties, face-‐to-‐ face interaction, intimacy, and a strong, enduring sense of commitment ▯ Secondary Groups—groups characterized by large size and by impersonal, fleeting relationships ▯ Organization—large group of individuals with a definite set of authority relations ▯ Formal Organization—group that is rationally designed to achieve its objectives, often by means of explicit rules, regulations, and procedures ▯ Networks—sets of informal and formal social ties that link people to each other ▯ In-‐groups—groups toward which one feels particularly loyal to and respect the groups to which they belong to ▯ Out-‐groups—rival groups, groups toward which one feels antagonism and contempt-‐“those people” ▯ Reference Group—group that provides a standard for one’s behavior o Group you strive to be like but don’t belong to o Can be a group you become—i.e. becoming a doctor, lawyer, politician ▯ Dyad—group consisting of two persons ▯ Triad—group of three persons ▯ Ideal Type—a “pure type” constructed by emphasizing certain traits of social item that do not necessarily exist in reality ▯ Formal Relations—relations that exist in groups and organizations, laid down by the norms, or rules, of the official system of authority ▯ Informal Relations—relations that exist in groups and organizations developed on the basis of personal connections ▯ Iron Law of Oligarchy—term meaning that large organizations tend toward centralization of power, making democracy difficult ▯ Oligarchy—rule by a small minority within an organization or society ▯ Information and Communication Technology—forms of technology based on information processing and requiring microelectronic circuity
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