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Sociology 2010, Exam 1 study guide

by: Hannah Stephens

Sociology 2010, Exam 1 study guide Soc 2010-011

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Hannah Stephens

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these notes cover material for the first exam.
Intro to Sociology
Jennifer L. Holland
Study Guide
Sociology 2010, Clemson University, Intro to sociology
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Stephens on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 2010-011 at Clemson University taught by Jennifer L. Holland in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 02/10/16
Sociology  Study  Guide  Exam  1   All  matching   o 3  different  theories   ▯ Give  statement  about  theory  and  match  to  correct  theory   o Scenario  where  person  belongs  to  a  specific  group  and  match  them   o 5  T/F   o 36  multiple  choice   o Know  first  early  sociologists       ▯ Early  Sociologists   o August  Comte—the  “father  of  sociology;”  coined  the  term  “sociology”,   had  the  idea  to  study  society  scientifically   o Herbert  Spencer—Believed  the  info.  Gathered  should  just  be  used  for   research—not  to  help  people  because  that  would  interfere  with   survival  of  the  fittest  notion.  Social  Darwinism.    First  person  to  use   term  “survival  of  the  fittest.”   o Karl  Marx—Socialism.  Felt  like  proletariat  would  overthrow   bourgeoisie  and  create  a  society  where  everyone  was  equal  and  would   “share  the  wealth.”     ▯ Sociological  Imagination—Application  of  imaginative  thought  to  the  asking   and  answering  of  sociological  questions   ▯ Social  Structure—An  idea  or  practice  that  a  group  of  people  agrees  exists.   Maintained  over  time  by  people  taking  its  existence  for  granted   ▯ Socialization—Social  processes  through  which  children  develop  an   awareness  of  social  norms  and  values  and  achieve  a  distinct  sense  of  self.   o Very  significant  in  infancy  and  childhood  but  continues  throughout   life  also   ▯ Social  Facts—According  to  Emile  Durkheim,  the  aspects  of  social  life  that   shape  our  actions  as  individuals.    Durkheim  believed  social  facts  should  be   studied  scientifically.   ▯ Organic  Solidarity—According  to  Emile  Durkheim,  the  social  cohesion  that   results  from  the  various  parts  of  a  society  functioning  as  an  integrated  whole.   ▯ Social  Constraint—Conditioning  influence  on  our  behavior  of  the  groups  and   societies  of  which  we  are  members.  Regarded  by  Emile  Durkheim  as  one  of   the  distinctive  properties  of  social  facts.   ▯ Division  of  Labor—specialization  of  work  tasks  by  means  of  which  different   occupations  are  combined  within  a  production  system.   o All  societies  have  some  form  of  division  of  labor,  especially  between   tasks  for  men  and  women   o With  the  development  of  Industrialism,  division  of  labor  became   much  more  complex   ▯ Anomie—Situation  in  which  social  norms  lose  their  hold  over  individual   behavior   ▯ Materialistic  Conception  of  History—Developed  by  Marx.    Material,  or   economic  factors  have  a  prime  role  in  determining  historical  change.   ▯ Capitalism—economic  system  based  on  the  private  ownership  of  wealth,   which  is  invested  and  reinvested  in  order  to  produce  profit   ▯ Bureaucracy—type  of  organization  marked  by  a  clear  hierarchy  of  authority   and  the  existence  of  written  rules  of  procedure  and  staffed  by  full-­‐time,   salaried  officials   ▯ Rationalization—process  by  which  modes  of  precise  calculation  and   organization,  involving  abstract  rules  and  procedures,  increasingly  come  to   dominate  the  social  world   ▯ Symbolic  Interactionism—theoretical  approach  that  emphasizes  the  role  of   symbols  and  language  as  core  elements  of  all  human  interaction.   ▯ Symbol—one  item  that  is  used  to  represent  something  else   o The  flag  symbolizes  a  nation   ▯ Functionalism—social  events  can  best  be  explained  in  terms  of  the  functions   they  perform,  that  is,  the  contributions  they  make  to  the  continuity  of  a   society   ▯ Manifest  functions—functions  of  a  type  of  social  activity  that  are  known  to  an   intended  by  the  individuals  involved  in  the  activity   ▯ Latent  functions—functional  consequences  that  are  not  intended  or   recognized  by  the  members  of  a  social  system  in  which  they  occur   ▯ Marxism—body  of  thought  deriving  its  main  elements  from  the  ideas  of  Karl   Marx   ▯ Power—ability  of  individuals  or  the  members  of  a  group  to  achieve  aims  or   further  the  interests  they  hold.   o Is  a  percussive  element  in  all  human  relationships     o Many  conflicts  in  society  are  struggles  over  power,  because  how  much   power  an  individual  or  group  is  able  to  achieve  governs  how  far  they   are  able  to  put  their  wishes  into  practice   ▯ Ideologies—shared  ideas  or  beliefs  that  serve  to  justify  the  interests  of   dominant  groups   o Found  in  all  societies  in  which  there  are  systematic  in  ingrained   inequalities  between  groups   o Ideological  systems  serve  to  legitimize  the  power  that  groups  hold   o Concept  of  ideology  closely  connected  to  power   ▯ Feminist  theory—a  sociological  perspective  that  emphasizes  the  centrality  of   gender  in  analyzing  the  social  world  and  particularly  the  uniqueness  of  the   experience  of  women   o Many  strands  but  all  share  the  desire  to  explain  gender  inequalities  in   society  and  to  work  to  overcome  them   ▯ Rational  Choice  Approach—theory  that  an  individual’s  behavior  is  purposive.   ▯ Postmodernism—belief  that  society  is  no  longer  governed  by  history  or   progress   o Highly  pluralistic  and  diverse  and  no  “grand  narrative”  guiding  its   development   ▯ Microsociology—study  of  human  behavior  in  contexts  of  face-­‐to-­‐face   interaction   ▯ Macrosociology—study  of  large-­‐scale  groups,  organizations,  or  social   systems   ▯ Research  Methods—methods  of  investigation  used  to  gather  empirical   (factual)  material.   o Different  research  methods  but  most  common  is  fieldwork  (or   participant  observation)  and  survey  methods   ▯ Ethnography—the  firsthand  study  of  people  using  participant  observation  or   interviewing     ▯ Participant  Observation—method  of  research  where  researcher  takes  part  in   the  activities  of  the  group  community  being  studied   ▯ Survey—questioners  are  administered  to  the  population  being  studied   ▯ Population—people  who  are  the  focus  of  social  research   ▯ Pilot  Study—a  trial  run  in  survey  research   ▯ Sample—a  small  proportion  of  a  larger  population   ▯ Sampling—studying  a  proportion  of  individuals  or  cases  from  a  larger   population  as  representative  of  that  population  as  a  whole   ▯ Random  Sampling—a  sample  is  chosen  so  that  every  member  of  the   population  has  the  same  probability  of  being  included   ▯ Experiment—research  method  in  which  variables  can  be  analyzed  in  a   controlled  and  systematic  way,  either  in  an  artificial  situation  constructed  by   the  researcher  or  in  naturally  occurring  settings   ▯ Comparative  Research—research  that  compares  one  set  of  finding  on  one   society  with  the  same  type  of  findings  on  other  societies   ▯ Empirical  Investigation—factual  inquiries  carried  out  in  any  area  of   sociological  study     ▯ Culture—values,  norms,  and  material  culture  characteristic  of  a  given  group   o One  of  the  most  distinctive  properties  of  human  social  association   ▯ Cultural  Universals—values  of  modes  of  behavior  shared  by  all  human   cultures   ▯ Marriage—socially  approved  sexual  relationship  between  two  individuals   o Normally  forms  the  basis  of  a  family  and  it’s  expected  that  a  married   couple  will  produce  and  bring  up  children     o Some  societies  allow  polygamy,  where  an  individual  may  have  several   spouses  at  the  same  time   ▯ Society—group  of  people  who  live  in  a  particular  territory,  are  subject  to  a   common  system  of  political  authority,  and  are  aware  of  having  a  distinct   identity  from  other  groups     o Small  societies  like  hunting  and  gathering  societies   o Large  societies  like  Chinese  society,  with  a  population  of  more  than  a   billion  people     ▯ Values—ideas  held  by  individuals  or  groups  about  what  is  desirable,  proper,   good,  and  bad   o What  individuals  value  is  strongly  influenced  by  the  specific  culture  in   which  they  happen  to  live   ▯ Norms—rules  of  conduct  that  specify  appropriate  behavior  in  a  given  range   of  social  situations   o All  human  groups  follow  deficit  norms,  which  are  always  backed  by   sanctions  of  some  type,  varying  from  informal  disapproval  to  physical   punishment   ▯ Material  Culture—physical  objects  that  a  society  creates  that  influence  the   ways  in  which  people  live   ▯ Language—primary  way  of  meaning  and  communication  in  a  society   o System  of  symbols  that  represent  objects  and  abstract  thoughts   ▯ Linguistic  Relativity  Hypothesis—based  on  the  theories  of  Sapir  and  Whorf,   that  perceptions  are  relative  to  language   ▯ Signifier—any  vehicle  of  meaning  and  communication   ▯ Semiotics—study  of  the  ways  in  which  nonlinguistic  phenomena  can   generate  meaning.     o i.e.  a  traffic  light   ▯ Cultural  Turn—sociology’s  recent  emphasis  on  the  importance  of   understanding  the  role  of  culture  in  daily  life   ▯ Hunting  and  Gathering  Societies—Societies  whose  mode  of  subsistence  is   gained  from  hunting  animals,  fishing  and  gathering  edible  plants   ▯ Pastoral  Societies—societies  whose  subsistence  derives  from  the  rearing  of   domesticated  animals   ▯ Agrarian  Societies—societies  whose  means  of  subsistence  are  based  on   agricultural  production     ▯ Industrialization—process  of  machine  production  of  goods   ▯ Industrialized  Societies—strongly  developed  nation-­‐states  in  which  the   majority  of  the  population  works  in  factories  or  offices  rather  than  in   agriculture,  and  most  people  live  in  urban  areas   ▯ Nation-­‐states—characteristic  of  the  modern  world.  Gov’ts  have  sovereign   power  within  defined  territorial  areas,  and  populations  are  citizens  who   know  they’re  part  of  single  nations   ▯ Colonialism—process  whereby  western  nations  est.  their  rule  in  parts  of  the   world  away  from  their  home  territories     ▯ Emerging  Economies—formerly  impoverished  countries  that  over  the  past   two  or  three  decades  have  begun  to  develop  a  strong  industrial  base,  such  as   India  or  Singapore   ▯ Subcultures—values  and  norms  distinct  from  those  of  the  majority,  held  by  a   group  within  a  wider  society   ▯ Assimilation—acceptance  of  a  minority  group  by  a  majority  population  in   which  the  new  group  takes  on  the  values  and  norms  of  the  dominant  culture   ▯ Multiculturalism—condition  in  which  ethnic  groups  exist  separately  and   share  equally  in  economic  and  political  life   ▯ Ethnocentrism—tendency  to  look  at  other  cultures  through  the  eyes  of  one’s   own  culture,  and  thereby  misrepresent  them   ▯ Cultural  Relativism—practice  of  judging  a  society  by  its  own  standards   ▯ Sociobiology—an  approach  that  attempts  to  explain  the  behavior  of  both   animals  and  human  beings  in  terms  of  biological  principles   ▯ Instincts—fixed  patterns  of  behavior  that  have  genetic  origins  and  that   appear  in  all  normal  animals  within  a  given  species   ▯ Nationalism—set  of  beliefs  and  symbols  expressing  identification  with  a   national  community     ▯ Social  Reproduction—process  of  perpetuating  values,  norms,  and  social   practices  through  socialization,  which  leads  to  structural  continuity  over   time   ▯ Agents  of  Socialization—groups  of  social  contexts  within  which  processes  of   socialization  take  place   ▯ Peer  Group—friendship  group  composed  of  individuals  of  similar  age  and   social  status   ▯ Age-­‐grade—system  found  in  small  traditional  cultures  by  which  people   belonging  to  a  similar  age-­‐group  are  categorized  together  and  hold  similar   rights  and  obligations   ▯ Mass  Media—forms  of  communication,  such  as  newspapers,  magazines,   radio,  and  television  designed  to  reach  mass  audience     ▯ Social  Roles—socially  defined  expectations  of  an  individual  in  a  given  status   or  social  position   ▯ Identity-­‐distinctive  characteristics  of  a  person’s  or  group’s  character  that   relate  to  who  he  is  and  what  is  meaningful  to  him   o Gender,  sexual  orientation,  nationality,  ethnicity,  social  class   ▯ Social  Identity—characteristics  that  are  attributed  to  an  individual  by  others     ▯ Self-­‐identity—ongoing  process  of  self-­‐development  and  definition  of  our   personal  identity  through  which  we  formulate  a  unique  sense  of  ourselves   and  our  relationship  to  the  world  around  us   ▯ Cognition—human  thought  processes  involving  perception,  reasoning  and   remembering   ▯ Social  self—basis  of  self-­‐consciousness  in  human  individuals.  The  identity   conferred  upon  an  individual  consciousness  by  becoming  aware  of  this  social   identity   ▯ Self-­‐consciousness—awareness  of  one’s  distinct  social  identity  as  a  person   separate  from  others.   o Humans  are  not  born  with  self-­‐consciousness  but  acquire  an   awareness  of  self  as  a  result  of  early  socialization     ▯ Generalized  Other—concept  where  the  individual  takes  over  the  general   values  of  a  given  group  or  society  during  the  socialization  process   ▯ Sensorimotor  Stage—stage  of  human  cognitive  development  in  which  the   child’s  awareness  of  its  environment  is  dominated  by  perception  and  touch   ▯ Preoperational  Stage—stage  of  cognitive  development  where  the  child  has   advanced  sufficiently  to  master  basic  modes  of  logical  thought   ▯ Egocentric—the  characteristic  quality  of  a  child  during  the  early  years  of  her   life   o Egocentric  thinking  involves  understanding  objects  and  events  in  the   environment  solely  in  terms  of  one’s  own  position   ▯ Concrete  Operational  Stage—where  the  child’s  thinking  is  based  primarily  on   physical  perception  of  the  world   o Child  is  not  yet  capable  of  dealing  with  abstract  concepts  or   hypothetical  situations   ▯ Formal  Operational  Stage—the  child  becomes  capable  of  handling  abstract   concepts  and  hypothetical  situations   ▯ Gender  Socialization—learning  of  gender  roles  through  social  factors  such  as   the  media  and  family   ▯ Roles—expected  behaviors  of  people  occupying  particular  social  positions     o Idea  of  social  role  originally  comes  from  the  theater  and  the  idea  that   in  every  society,  individuals  play  a  number  of  social  roles   ▯ Status—social  honor  or  prestige  that  a  particular  group  is  given   ▯ Status  groups  normally  display  distinct  styles  of  life-­‐patterns  of  behavior  that   the  members  of  a  group  follow   ▯ Social  Position—social  identity  an  individual  has  in  a  given  group  or  society.   ▯ May  be  general  in  nature  (gender  roles)  or  more  specific   (occupational  positions)   ▯ Impression  Management—preparing  for  the  presentation  of  one’s  social  role   ▯ Civil  Inattention—process  whereby  individuals  in  the  same  physical  setting   demonstrate  to  one  another  that  they  are  aware  of  each  other’s  presence   ▯ Nonverbal  Communication—communication  between  individuals  based  on   facial  expression  or  bodily  gestures  rather  than  on  language   ▯ Unfocused  Interaction—interaction  occurring  among  people  present  in  a   particular  setting  but  not  engaged  in  direct  face-­‐to-­‐face  communication   ▯ Focused  Interaction—interaction  between  individuals  engaged  in  a  common   activity  or  in  direct  conversation  with  one  another   ▯ Encounter—meeting  between  2+  people  in  a  situation  of  face-­‐to-­‐face   interaction   ▯ Response  Cries—seemingly  involuntary  exclamations  individuals  make   when,  for  example,  they  are  taken  by  surprise,  drop  something  inadvertently,   or  want  to  express  pleasure   ▯ Clock  time—time  as  measured  by  the  clock  in  terms  of  hours,  minutes  and   seconds   o Before  invention  of  clock,  time  reckoning  based  on  events  in  the   natural  world,  such  as  the  rising  and  setting  of  the  sun   ▯ Personal  Space—physical  space  individuals  maintain  between  themselves   and  others   ▯ Ethnomethodology—study  of  how  people  make  sense  of  what  others  say  and   do  in  the  course  of  day-­‐to-­‐day  social  interaction   ▯ Conversation  Analysis-­‐empirical  study  of  conversations,  employing   techniques  drawn  from  ethnomethodology   o Examines  details  of  naturally  occurring  conversations  to  reveal  the   organizational  principles  of  talk  and  its  role  in  the  production  and   reproduction  of  social  order   ▯ Interactional  Vandalism—the  deliberate  subversion  of  the  tacit  rules  of   conversation   ▯ Back  Region—areas  apart  front-­‐region  performance,  in  which  individuals  are   able  to  relax  and  behave  informally   ▯ Front  Region—settings  of  social  activity  in  which  people  seek  to  put  on  a   definite  “performance”  for  others   ▯ Compulsion  of  Proximity—people’s  need  to  interact  with  others  in  their   presence   ▯ Social  group—collection  of  people  who  regularly  interact  with  one  another   on  the  basis  of  shared  expectations  concerning  behavior  and  who  shares  a   sense  of  common  identity   ▯ Social  aggregate—simple  collection  of  people  who  happen  to  be  together  in  a   particular  place  but  do  not  significantly  interact  or  identify  with  one  another   ▯ Social  Category—people  who  share  a  common  characteristic  (gender,   occupation)  but  do  not  necessarily  interact  or  identify  with  one  another   ▯ Primary  Groups—groups  characterized  by  intense  emotional  ties,  face-­‐to-­‐ face  interaction,  intimacy,  and  a  strong,  enduring  sense  of  commitment   ▯ Secondary  Groups—groups  characterized  by  large  size  and  by  impersonal,   fleeting  relationships   ▯ Organization—large  group  of  individuals  with  a  definite  set  of  authority   relations   ▯ Formal  Organization—group  that  is  rationally  designed  to  achieve  its   objectives,  often  by  means  of  explicit  rules,  regulations,  and  procedures   ▯ Networks—sets  of  informal  and  formal  social  ties  that  link  people  to  each   other   ▯ In-­‐groups—groups  toward  which  one  feels  particularly  loyal  to  and  respect   the  groups  to  which  they  belong  to   ▯ Out-­‐groups—rival  groups,  groups  toward  which  one  feels  antagonism  and   contempt-­‐“those  people”   ▯ Reference  Group—group  that  provides  a  standard  for  one’s  behavior   o Group  you  strive  to  be  like  but  don’t  belong  to   o Can  be  a  group  you  become—i.e.  becoming  a  doctor,  lawyer,  politician     ▯ Dyad—group  consisting  of  two  persons   ▯ Triad—group  of  three  persons   ▯ Ideal  Type—a  “pure  type”  constructed  by  emphasizing  certain  traits  of  social   item  that  do  not  necessarily  exist  in  reality   ▯ Formal  Relations—relations  that  exist  in  groups  and  organizations,  laid   down  by  the  norms,  or  rules,  of  the  official  system  of  authority   ▯ Informal  Relations—relations  that  exist  in  groups  and  organizations   developed  on  the  basis  of  personal  connections   ▯ Iron  Law  of  Oligarchy—term  meaning  that  large  organizations  tend  toward   centralization  of  power,  making  democracy  difficult   ▯ Oligarchy—rule  by  a  small  minority  within  an  organization  or  society   ▯ Information  and  Communication  Technology—forms  of  technology  based  on   information  processing  and  requiring  microelectronic  circuity        


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