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study guide

by: Camah Whitacre

study guide PY211G

Camah Whitacre

GPA 3.2

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these notes are over exam 1
Developmental Psychology
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Camah Whitacre on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY211G at Emporia State University taught by Mehmedovic in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Emporia State University.


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Date Created: 02/10/16
Camah Whitacre Chapters 1-4 Developmental Psychology study guide Chapter 1 1. Nature – is all of the genes and hereditary factors that influence who we are – from our physical appearance to our personality characteristics Nurture – is all the environmental variables that impact who we are, including our early childhood experiences, how we were raised, our social relationships, and our surrounding culture. 2. Critical period – is a specific time during which an organism has to experience stimuli in order to progress through developmental stages properly. 3. Experiment – scientific method Steps of scientific method  Hypothesis  Test hypothesis  draw conclusions  report results 4. Sensitive period – Sensitive Period is a developmental term and refers to a time when a child is particularly receptive to certain kinds of environmental experiences. Critical period – is a specific time during which an organism has to experience stimuli in order to progress through developmental stages properly. 5. Different ways to conduct experiments  Case studies  Survey  Cross-sectional research  Longitudinal research  Cross-sequential research 6. Cohort example  Grades are a cohort 7. What are different factors that shape your development through life?  Multidirectional  Multicontextual  Multicultural  Multidisciplinary  Plastic 8. Differential sensitivity – the idea that some people are more vulnerable than others to certain experiences, usually because of genetic differences. 9. Cross sectional research – a research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics. Longitudinal research – a research design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed. 10. What are the five stages of life?  Infancy  Early childhood  Adolescence  Emerging adulthood  Adulthood Chapter 2 1. Examples of Norms in my own culture  Brushing teeth  Chewing with your mouth closed  Going to school  Using manners like please and thank you 2. Freud’s Psychosexual theory  Oral – the lips, tongue, and gums are the focus of pleasurable sensations in the baby’s body, and sucking and feeding are the most stimulating activities.  Anal – the anus is the focus of pleasurable sensations in the baby’s body, and toilet training is the most important activity.  Phallic – the phallus, or penis, is the most important body part, and pleasure is derived from genital situations. Boys are proud of their penises; girls wonder why they don’t have one.  Latency – Not really a stage, latency is an interlude during which sexual needs are quiet and children put physical energy into conventional activities like schoolwork and sports.  Genital – the focus of pleasurable sensations and the young person seeks sexual stimulation and sexual satisfaction in heterosexual relationships. 3. Eriksons’ psychosocial theory  Trust/mistrust – babies either trust that other will care for their basics needs or develop mistrust about the care of others.  Autonomy/shame – children either become self-sufficient in many activities or doubt their own abilities.  Initiative/guilt – children either want to undertake many adult like activities or internalize the limits and prohibitions set by parents.  Industry/inferiority – children busily learn to be competent and productive in mastering new skills, or feel inferior, unable to do anything as well as they wish they could.  Identity/role confusion – adolescents try to figure out “Who am I?” They establish sexual, political, religious, and vocational identities or are confused about what roles to play.  Intimacy/isolate – young adults seek companionship and love or become isolated from others because they fear rejection and disappointment. 4. Classical conditioning – the learning process by which a natural (unconditioned) response becomes triggered by a formerly neutral stimulus by repeatedly pairing it with the stimulus that naturally triggers that response. 5. Operant conditioning – the learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired or by something unwanted. 6. Social learning – an extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior. Even without specific reinforcement, every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people. 7. Cognitive theory – theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time. 8. Assimilation – the reinterpretation of new experiences to fit into old ideas. Accommodation – the restricting of old ideas to include new experiences. 9. Information processing – a perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data. 10. Sociocultural theory – development results from the dynamic interaction of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces. 11. Humanism – a theory that stresses the potential of all humans for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs, regardless of culture, gender, or background. 12. Evolutionary theory – two long-standing, biologically based drives for every species are survival and reproduction. Chapter 3 1. Chromosomes – one of 46 molecules of DNA (in 23 pairs) that virtually each cell of the human body contains and that, together, contain all the genes. 2. Gene – the basic unit for the transmission of heredity. 3. Allele – a variation that makes a gene different in some ways from other genes for the same characteristics. 4. 23 pair say? Boy/girl  Determines if it is a boy or a girl 5. Monozygotic twins – twins who originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development. Dizygotic twins – twins who are formed when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time. 6. Examples of phenotypes  Hair  Eyes  Body structure  Ears  Nose 7. What does multifactorial mean to reference to traits?  Referring to a trait that is affected by many factors, both genetic and environmental, that enhance, halt, shape, or alter the expression of genes, resulting in a phenotype that many differ markedly from the genotype. 8. Heritability – a statistic that indicates what percentage of the variation in a particular trait within a particular population, in a particular context and era, can be traced to genes. 9. Down syndrome – a condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46, with 3 rather than 2 chromosomes on the 21 st site, resulting in distinctive characteristics. 10. Genetic counseling – consultation and testing by trained experts that enable individuals to learn about their genetic heritage. 11. Human genome project – an international effort to map the complete human genetic code. This effort was essentially completed in 2001, through analysis is ongoing. 12. What it means if a trait is dominant vs recessive  Dominant is more influential than the recessive gene. Chapter 4 1. Three different periods of development? Explain when they occur  Germinal period o The first two weeks of prenatal development after conception, characterized by rapid cell differentiation.  Embryonic period o The stage of prenatal development from approximately the third through the eighth week after conception, during which the basic forms of all body structures, including internal organs, develop.  Fetal period o The stage of prenatal development from the ninth week after conception until birth, during which the fetus gains about 7 pounds (more than 3,000 grams) and organs become more mature, gradually able to function on their own. 2. Embryo – the name for a developing human organism from about the third through the eighth week after conception. 3. Fetus – a developing human organism from the start of the ninth week after conception until birth. 4. Age of viability – the age (about 22 weeks after conception) at which a fetus might survive outside the mother’s uterus if specialized medical care is available. 5. Apgar scale – a quick assessment of a newborn’s health, given twice (at one minute and five minutes after birth). 6. Doula – a woman who helps with the birth process 7. Examples of teratogen’s  Drugs  Viruses  Chemicals 8. Explain how critical periods work during development  the most serious damage from teratogens is likely to occur early in prenatal development. Significant damage to many vital parts of the body including the brain, eyes, and genitals, can occur during the last months of pregnancy. 9. Fetal alcohol syndrome – a cluster of birth defects, including abnormal facial characteristics, slow physical growth, and reduced intellectual ability, that may occur in the fetus of a woman who drinks alcohol while pregnant. 10. Why is a low birth weight a red flag? Can be a result of an illness or a defect. 11. Provide some things that could result from complications during birth (pg. 116)  Cerebral palsy  Anoxia 12. Examples of reflexes  Breathing  Sucking  Stepping  Moro 13. What are some ways mothers can combat postpartum depression?  The father steps in to help a lot so the mom isn’t stressed and depressed 14. Do you now feel ready for the exam?!?!?!?! NO


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