Educational Psychology 305
Educational Psychology 305 Psych 305
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by AnthonyA on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 305 at University of Massachusetts taught by Catherine Dimmitt, William Matthews in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 446 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Review Questions and Content: 1. What are valid ways to determine whether internet content is legitimate or not? (video – “Internet Research: What’s Credible”) 2. Understand the 3 aspects of educational psychology research that help determine the quality of a study (sample, measure, research design) and WHY and HOW each is important. (module 1) 1) Design a. Purpose, questions of study? b. What do they want to understand? c. How and if variables relate in a study? 2) Sample a. Who? b. Selected population of interest that best fits the study to obtain the best outcome 3) Measures a. Constructs of interest measured? b. What methods will they use to carry out the experiment? 3. What is the difference between a descriptive, a correlational, and an experimental research design? What is an example of each that might be done in a school? (mod. 1) Designs 1) Descriptive Describes a. Provide descriptive info about variables without seeing how they are all connected through behaviors, events, or conditions i. Example: What kinds of gender stereotypes are present in textbooks? 2) Correlational Describes a relationship a. Answers the questions abut the relationships and connections of variables i. Example: Class attendance and grades in class 3) Experimental establishes causeandeffect relationship a. Random assignment and manipulations of experimental and control group i. Example: A reading program to one group and nothing to another group to help them learn, then evaluate 4. As a teacher, how would you help middle school students develop positive gender, ethnic and racial identities? (module 3) Need to support and be aware of all ethnical, racial, and gender identities and allow the students to find themselves and be themselves. Encourage socializing and merging of identities. Encourage students to live through their personal identities and make them aware of each other’s identities. Also, support positive selfconcepts for each student and let them know that everyone has their means of living and learning. 5. If you had concerns about social competence within your classroom, what you could do to provide effective social skills training for your students? Encourage students to be social. Structure the students’ learning with social activities with verbal communication. Make students feel comfortable and confident with speaking to others. 1) Select specific social skills to improve on 2) Give modeling or direct teaching on the use of specific social skills 3) Opportunity to practice the learned social skills 4) Promote transfer of social skills 5) Note and point out student progression 6. What are some teaching and parenting strategies that help advance emotional development? (module 4) Parenting Encourage emotional expression in girls, except anger Attempt to regulate boys’ emotional expressiveness, particularly sadness and pain Socialize children in “display rules rules that govern the degree of emotional expression that is appropriate for different situations Teaching Give students the language to express how they feel Guide them to learn to identify complex emotions Teach students how to calm themselves and deal with things in a non violent manner Conflict resolution training Activities that involve cooperation and collaboration rather than competition Activities that involve all students in the class 7. What are some teaching and parenting strategies that help advance moral development? (module 5) Parenting Induction o Parents explain the consequences of certain choices and ask children to think about others’ emotions Nurturance o Parents express warmth and affection to their children Indicates concern for child’s emotional state Demandingness o Parents set high standards, support child in the child’s attempt tot meet the standards Modeling o “Practice what they preach” as an example of morality Democratic Processes o Include children in their decisions o Especially if the parent requires the child to listen to and appreciate another person’s perspective 8. What neuroscience findings with respect to aspects of memory would you use in classroom practice as a teacher? In your answer, be sure to address research on genetics, memory, attention, and expertise. (module 6) Genetics o Genetics are critical, but structure of the brain is a result of the interaction between genetics and environment o The wiring of the brain at birth o Only a small part in development Memory o Instruction is most likely to succeed when it has to do with practice/repetition and helps students form detailed representations Attention Not always a memory problem Alerting, orienting, and executing attention related to genetic, environmental, and developmental factors Hard for children to filter out the unimportant information Easy for them to focus attention where it is directed Forgetting something is more often related to attention rather than to memory Learning a person’s name… forgetting it Expertise Experts organize differently than nonexperts Vivid difference on brain images between novices and experts Level of brain activation is less in the expert than in the novice, the other way around in some other circumstances and areas of the brain Teachers can help the development of expertise by giving students plenty of chances to practice skills 9. What are the main distinctions between individual constructivism and social constructivism? Provide a classroom example for each and explain why you believe it illustrates that form of constructivism (come up with unique examples, not the ones from the book). (module 7) Individual Constructivism a person constructs knowledge by using cognitive processes to gain knowledge from experience (Piaget) Example: A child who is interested in car may physically play with the car… Social Constructivism individuals create knowledge through the interaction between knowledge they bring to a situation and social/cultural changes they bring to the context (Vygotsky) Example: The same child will learn about the car by observing an adult use it… 10. Explain Vygotsky’s concept of the Zone of Proximal Development and describe how it can be used in K12 classroom practice. (module 7) Zone of Proximal Development the ZPD is difference between the child’s actual development level (what they can accomplish alone) and the child’s potential level of development (the highest level of development or knowledge they can reach with the help of a more capable person) Example A first grader may only be able to write a short story of only a few simple sentences on his own, but will be able to write more with better vocabulary with the help of a fifth grader 11. You are introducing fractions to your fourthgrade students and realize that many of the students are confused. Describe how you would teach the class, using an approach that is consistent with Piaget. Describe how you would teach the class using an approach that is consistent with Vygotsky. If you were teaching 11 th graders Algebra, how would your approach differ, and how would you use the ideas of Piaget and Vygotsky with that age? (module 7) Piaget Athroach 4 grader is in the Concrete Operational Stage Introduce the fractions in a drawn out manner using objects and explain it Then move them around and take certain ones away to show the numerators and denominators, showing amounts relative to the whole Start simple and end with the final stage they are in Same for 11 graders, except algebra is more complicated o Start logical and basic using what they already know and can infer o Progress them through a few problems to get them to see how the system of operations works for this specific set of problems Vygotsky Approach Some students may have a different ZPD gap, meaning there is less of a difference between what can be done alone and done with a more educated person for certain students Scaffolding is also used to support the student and get them through learning something for a little bit, then leaving them to do it on their own th For 4 graders help them and guide them through the steps like they know almost nothing Have them try a problem on their own first, and have them do problems on their own at the end after you show them some example problems on how to do it For 11 graders, use similar methods o Run them through a few example problems o Have them do it on their own before and after th o You can start at a more advanced spot in learning for 11 th graders since they have much more knowledge than 4 graders 12. How could you support language development as the parent of a preschooler (ages 34)? (module 8) Sing, talk, and read to them Promote and stimulate expression of language skills and vocab development my making it a point to talk to the child Songs give to rhythm, expression, and repetition Share about readings to stimulate them to speak about what they just read 13. As a parent, how would you use consequences effectively? (module 9) Reinforcement to increase a preferred behavior o Positive give my child some reward like an extra dessert or something if they do something good, like study hard to obtain a grade o Negative Remove a chore if they complete schoolwork and study to make a grade Punishment to decrease a future occurrence o Positive Add an extra study time or chore if they do not do not finish homework o Negative take away dessert or a desired food item or something if homework is not completed 14. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the behavioral theory of learning? (module 9) Strengths Easy to collect data and carry out observational experiments Using proper techniques will be productive and will aid in learning Weaknesses A shallow approach to learning behavior Only uses reinforcement and punishment There are many more opportunities to learn than through these ways 15. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the social cognitive theory of learning? (module 10) Strengths Accurate representations of how a behavior is learned Can be observed Integrates social and cognitive theories Explain and includes a large number of behaviors Weaknesses Does not account for physical and mental changes of the person Doesn’t explain all behaviors and their differences Doesn’t take point of views into account o One person may view something an a reward while another may view it as punishment 16. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the information processing theory of learning? (module 11) Strengths Provides detailed specification of how younger and older children perceive, memorize, attend, etc. How children process info in important educational settings Weaknesses Emphasizes verbal and symbolic reasoning Fragments cognitive processing Emotions neglected Behaviors not taken into account as much Humans are not computers 17. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the constructivist theory of learning? (module 7) Strengths More emphasis on sensory input Useful to students with learning disabilities o Need to be analyzed and reached in another way Weaknesses Lack of structured analysis and means to learn Teacher needs to make an alternative structure of curriculum More reliant on students leading their own progress May not benefit all students 18. How might social cognitive learning theory explain your behavior in the 305 classroom (or another classroom at UMass)? (module 10) Behave and do work according to the guidelines set in class o Assignment dates o Laptops on one side Response facilitation effect for students to respond more often o The teacher supports and talks about a student’s response Success in the class o Students will try to achieve more and work harder as they build a higher selfefficacy o Better selfregulation to facilitate positive regulations 19. Compare and contrast rehearsal and encoding strategies regarding their effectiveness for storing information in longterm memory. (module 11) Rehearsal repeating info over and over to themselves Verbal info tends to be forgotten more quickly if it is not rehearsed Least effective way to store, remember and retrieve info when needed Info needs to be processed and stored in a deeper, more complete manner Only a god first choice when dealing with sensory data Elaborative Rehearsal interprets info based on prior knowledge o Helps make info meaningful and memorable Encoding mind performs operations to change info to store it Mnemonics gives a meaningful structure to info that does not have an easy structure to remember or connect to known knowledge Organizing info like chunking or hierarchies can connect new info to prior knowledge Visual imagery is more easily remembered when than words alone Encoding with visual and auditory representations of info is most effective for longterm memory 20. Imagine you’ve adopted a 3yearold with attachment difficulties. What could you do as a parent to increase his/her secure attachment? Give comfort and assist the child with their needs React with sensitivity Show direct emotional care and responsiveness 21. Define lowroad and highroad transfer, and provide an example of each that you’ve made since coming to UMass. (module 13) Lowroad Transfer spontaneous automatic transfer of highly practiced skills Example: performing certain muscle memory tasks when weight lifting at the gym (other examples include tying a shoe, steering a car Highroad Transfer applying abstract knowledge learned in one context to a different situation (use prior knowledge to think about something you will do) Example: Actively remembering where class building are to get to class for a new semester with new classes (another example is a child trying to build a new harder puzzle then the first one they built by using info learned from that first one and applying it to making the second puzzle) 22. How could you address problematic classroom behaviors from a behavioral, social cognitive, and information processing learning theory perspective? Behavioral Provide reinforcement for positive class outcomes as a whole giving the class incentive to try harder, do well, and respect the teacher Social Cognitive Try to improve the students’ selfregulation to drive them more to improve their selfefficacy, set higher goals, focus and enjoy more, and ultimately achieve more success Information Processing Theory For better attention use humor, novelty, multisensory content, emotion, and movement in the classroom Reminders to “pay attention” or “this is important” Break info down into smaller pieces or steps Change the approach every 15 minutes to keep memory working Assign reading of only up to 20 minutes and have questions for it
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