EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 18554
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dwayne Young on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 18554 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Kristina La Plant in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see POLS in Political Science at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
AMERICAN GOV. EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 1 Globalization The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world. Government The collection of public institutions in a nation that establish and enforce the rules by which the members of that nation must live. Social contract An agreement to form a government and abide by its rules. Democracy Form of government in which the people, either directly or through elected representatives, hold power and authority. Politics The way in which the institutions of government are organized to make laws, rules, and policies, and how those institutions are influenced. Equality The quality of being the same in quantity or measure or value or status Social equality Equality and fair treatment of all groups within the various institutions in society that serve the public at large. Equality of opportunity The idea that each person is guaranteed the same chance to succeed in life Political equality A condition in whic h members of different groups possess substantially the same rights to participate actively in the political system. Public goods Goods, such as clean air and clean water, that everyone consumes and must share Liberalism A political orientation that favors a more assertive role in the redistribution of economic resources, but emphasizes individual freedom on a range of social issues. Conservatism A political orientation that generally favors government activism in defense of more traditional values on social issues, but favors government restraint in economic redistribution. Libertarianism An ideology that cherishes individual liberty and insists on minimal government, promoting a free market economy, a noninterventionist foreign policy, and an absence of regulation in moral, economic, and social life. AMERICAN GOV. EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 2 Types of Government Direct democracy A system of government in which all citizens participate in making policy, rules, and governing decisions. Capitalism Economic system in which all or most of the means of production are privately owned under competitive conditions. Anarchism A political theory favoring the abol ition of governments. Socialism Economic system in which all or most of the means of production are owned by the community as a whole. Communism A political and economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state. Communitarian Referring to the belief in or practice of the superiority of community life or values over individual life, but not necessarily the common ownership of material goods. Representative democracy A form of government designed by the U.S. Constitution whereby free, open, and regular elections are held to allow citizens to elect individuals who govern on their behalf and who are responsible for making and enforcing public policy. Indirect democracy A system of government in which citizens elect, A system of government that gives citizens the opportunity to vote for representatives who will work on their behalf. Political culture The values and beliefs about government, its purpose, and its operations and institutions that are widely held among citizens in a society. Substantive democracy The view that democracy is embodied in the substance of government policies rather than in the policymaking procedure. Procedural democracy A form of democracy that is defined by whether or not particular procedures are followed, such as free and fair elections or following a set of laws or a constitution. Majoritarian The principle that the choice that is supported by the most voters is the choic e that prevails. Pluralism AMERICAN GOV. EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 3 The theory that public policy largely results from a variety of interest groups competing with one another to promote laws that benefit members of their respective groups. Elitism Political system in which power is concentrated in the hands of a relatively small group of individuals or institutions. Declaration of Independence Formal document listing colonists' grievanc es and articulating the colonists' intention to seek independence; formally adopted on July 4, 1776. Political ideology A philosophical guide that people use to help translate their values and beliefs into political preferences. Academic freedom The freedom of teachers and students to express their ideas in school without religious or political or institutional restrictions. • Freedom - The condition of being free. • Liberty - Freedom of choice. • Order - Established customary state (especially of society). Different Governments Republic - A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them. Monarchy - A form of government in which one person, usually a member of a royal family or a royal designate, exercises supreme authority. Oligarchy - A form of government in which a small exclusive class, which may or may not attempt to rule on behalf of the people as a whole, holds supreme power. Theocracy - A form of government in which a particular religion or faith plays a dominant role in the government. Franchise (Suffrage) The right to vote. John Locke's theories People are born with certain natural rights, which derive from natural law, the rules of conduct inherent in the relationship among human beings and thus more fundamental than any law that a governing authority might make. Natural rights Rights citizens are born with (including life, liberty, and property) that government cannot take away. Referendum A question that appears on the ballot asking voters to approve or reject a policy action either recommended or already approved by the state legislature. AMERICAN GOV. EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 4 Recall A ballot measure allowing voters to remove duly elected officials from office prior to the end of their term. Initiative A question that goes directly to the voters for approval or rejection without first having been proposed by the state legislature. Popular sovereignty The idea that the ultimate source of power in the nation is held by the people. _____________________________________________________________________________________ The Amendments Amendment 1 - Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition. Amendment 2 - Right to keep and bear arms. Amendment 3 - Prohibits the quartering of troops. Amendment 4 - Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures Amendment 5 - Right to a fair trail, can't be tried twice for the same crime, and you don't have to testify against yourself. Amendment 6 - Right to a fair, spe edy trial Amendment 7 - Right to a trial by jury in civil cases Amendment 8 - Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. Amendment 9 - The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. Amendment 10 - Powers not delegated to the federal government are reserved to the states and the people Amendment 11 - Individual cannot sue a state in a federal court. Amendment 12 - Changes in manner of electing president and vice president; procedure when no presidential candidate receives electoral majority Amendment 13 - Prohibition of slavery Amendment 14 - Rights of citizens: 1)all persons born in the united states are granted citizenship, 2) no state can deny any person the equal protection of the laws, 3)no state can deny any person life, liberty, property without due process of law Amendment 15 - No denial of vote because of race, color, previous condition of servitude AMERICAN GOV. EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 5 Amendment 16 - Allows Federal Income Tax Amendment 17 - Senators no longer appointed by state legislatures. Now to be directly elected by citizens.(1913) Amendment 18 - Prohibition of alcoholic beverages - banned making, selling, or transporting of alcoholic beverages Amendment 19 - Women's right to vote Amendment 20 - Presidential/VP/congressional terms of office begin in Jan; New meeting dates for Congress; Emergency presidential and VP succession Amendment 21 - Repealed prohibition and voided the 18th amendment (1933) Amendment 22 (Presidential Term Limits) Limits the president to two terms or a maximum of ten years Amendment 23 - Right to vote for president in District of Columbia Amendment 24 - Abolition of Poll Tax in National Elections Amendment 25 - Established process for president to pass on duties if he/she is unable to serveGoes to Vice-President, vacancy in Vice-Presidency is filled by appointment from president (approved by congress) Amendment 26 - Voting age lowered to 18. Amendment 27 - Provides that Congress' member can't increase their salary until the next election. _____________________________________________________________________________________ Sovereignty The supreme political power of a government to regulate its affairs without outside interference. Confederation A system of government in which two or more independent states unite to achieve certain specified common aims. Federalism Federalism The doctrine underlying a system of government in which power is divided between a central government and constituent political subu nits. Cooperative federalism The doctrine of federalism that affords Congress nearly unlimited authority to exercise its powers through means that often coerce states into administering and/or enforcing federal policies. Dual federalism The doctrine of federalism that holds that state authority acts as a limit on congressional power under the Constitution. Key Terms to Remember AMERICAN GOV. EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 6 States' rights The right of states to limit the power of the federal government. Grants-in-aid Grants from the federal government t o states that allow state governments to pursue specific federal policies, such as highway construction. Home rule Self-government in local matters by a city or county that is part of a national government. Plans to reform the Constitution Virginia plan A proposal that empowered three separate branches of government, including a legislature with membership proportional to population. Also known as the Large State Plan. New Jersey plan A proposal that would have retained the Articles of Confederation principle of a legislature where states enjoyed equal representation. Also known as the Small State Plan. Three-Fifths Compromise A compromise proposal in which five slaves would be counted as the equivalent of three free people for purposes of taxes and representation. Connecticut plan The Great Compromise; bicameral congress w ith equal representation in one house and proportional representation in the other house. • Article 1 - Article of the Constitution that defines the Legislative Branch, it's powers, members, and workings. • Article 2 - Article of the Constitution that defines th e Executive Branch, it's powers, duties, and means of removal. • Article 3 - Article of the Constitution that sets up the Judicial Branch and defines treason. Amendment Process step 1: amendment proposed by 2/3 vote of both houses of congress OR a constitutional convention called by congress on petition of 2/3 out of 50 states. THEN amendment ratified by 3/4 of the 50 state legislatures OR 3/4 of special constitutional convention s called by 50 states THEN the new amendment! Enumerated powers Express powers explicitly granted by the Constitution such as the taxing power specifically granted to Congress. Reserved powers Those powers expressly retained by the state governments unde r the Constitution. Concurrent powers Those powers shared by the federal and state governments under the Constitution. AMERICAN GOV. EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 7 Powers of Congress Necessary and proper clause The clause in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution that affords Congress the power to make laws that serve as a means to achieving its expressly delegated powers. Implied powers Powers that congress has that are not stated explicitly in the constitution. Supremacy clause The provision in Article VI, Clause 2 of the Constitution that provides that the Constitution and federal laws override any conflicting provisions in state constitutions or state laws. Full faith and credit clause The provision in Article IV, Section 1 of the Constitution that forces states to abide by the official acts and proceedings of all other states. Elastic clause The final paragraph of Article I, Section 8, of the constitution, which authorizes congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers. Commerce clause The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations. • How many states needed to ratify original Constitution ? Two-thirds, or nine states. Separation of powers The principle that each branch of government enjoys separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility. Federalist essays A series of articles which argued in favor of ratifying the proposed Constitution of the United States. Universal suffrage The idea that all citizens in a nation have the right to vote. • First state to ratify the Constitution ? Delaware Devolution The transfer of power and responsibilities for certain regulatory programs from the federal government back to the states. Mandate A document giving an official instruction or command. Unfunded mandate A directive from the federal government to the states requiring that they perform certain functions, with no accompanying funds to support those functions. ( Will fund for new school programs, if you change the drinking age). AMERICAN GOV. EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 8 Primacy tendency The theory that impressions acquired while an individual is younger is likely to be more influential and longer lasting. Social learning theory The theory that viewers imitate what they view on television through observational learning. Agenda setting theory The theory that holds that although the effects of television exposure may be minimal or difficult to gauge, the media are quite influential in telling the public what to think about. Minimal effects theory The theory that deep-seated, long-term political attitudes have much greater influence on an individual's vote decisions than does news media coverage. Unicameralism - Political system consisting of one legislative chamber. Bicameralism - The division of a legislature into two separate assemblies. COURT CASES Marbury v. Madison : This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review. McCulloch v. Maryland : The case that established that Congress enjoys broad and extensive authority to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" to carry out its constitutionally delegated powers. Dred Scott v. Sanford : The case that ruled that slaves were property and could not sue. Voting Rights Act of 1965 The federal law that invalidated literacy tests and property requirements and required select states and cities to apply for permission to the Justice Department to change their voting laws. As a consequence, millions of African Americans were effectively refranchised in the South. Civil Rights Act of 1964 The federal law that banned racial discrimination in all public accommodations; prohibited discrimination by employers and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to investigate complaints of discrimination; and denied public funds to schools that continued to discriminate on the basis of race. Jim Crow Laws Literacy test - The requirement that individuals prove that they can read and write before being allowed to vote. Poll tax - The requirement that individuals pay a fee before being allowed to vote. Social capital AMERICAN GOV. EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 9 The "social connectedness" of a community, or the extent to which individuals are socially integrated into their community. Motor Voter law The federal law that manda tes that when an individual applies for or renews a state driver's license, the state must also provide that individual with voter registration materials. PUBLIC GOODS product that can be consumed without reducing its availability PRIVATE GOODS products that must be purchased and have limited consumability (iPhones, food) COLLECTIVE ACTION AND PROBLEMS collective action problems – everyone benefits from having a good, however , sometimes the most rational action is to not act at all FREERIDERS – individualswhodon’tcontributetopublicgoodsbutstillreapthebenefits BELLING THE CAT: Long ago, a cat came into a community of mice and started pickin g them off one by one, one mouse came up with the solution to put a bell around so they could know whenever the cat came around, so they could act fast. however the problem was, who was going to put the bell around the cat? – The cost of action is so high that sometimes, it is often better to not act at all. THE PURPOSE OF GOVERNMENT: HOBBES STATEOFNATURE A state in which self-interest and anarchy prevents society. SOCIALCONTRACT We need government we need rules in order to have some type of reward, individuals gave up some of their rights so others could give up theirs. In order to be governed by a state JOHN LOCKE -Legitimacy of government comes from the people who reserve the right to overthrow that government, of they feel like it violates their natural rights. Very revolutionary.
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