Hinduism Study Guide
Hinduism Study Guide REL 131
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Childers on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to REL 131 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Benjamin Hardman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 149 views. For similar materials see Comparative Religion in Religious Studies at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Hinduism Study Guide Part One: Identification of Gods 1) Who is the oldest (anthropology), worshiped the longest? [Hint: He is the representation of fire.] 2) Another ancient god was named Indra, besides being the leader of the Devas what was he the god of? 3) Name the gods in the Trimurti. 4) Who was the creator god and source of knowledge known as the Lord of Progeny )Prajapati and emerged from Brahman? 5) Shiva, (Siva) a fertility god and destroyer rides Nandi the bull. What are his other characteristics? 6) The preserver, who maintains order and has a crown of cobras, is named what? 7) The god from question six can be identified by these specific objects, which he carries. 8) The goddess which has several embodiments is known by the formal name of what? 9) All of these are aspects of the goddess except: Kali, Durga, Laksmi, or Ganesh. 10) The fierce aspect of Durga, who destroys illusion, and wears a garland of skulls is named what? 11) What are some other characteristics of Kali and why is she perceived as good? 12) Sarasvati is the goddess of wisdom. What else does she do/is known for? 13) Who is Durga? 14) If your life goal was to win the lottery who would you worship and call on for assistance despite her fickleness? 15) Elephants are known for their memory, this elephant god is over wisdom, science, arts and creative activities, he is the son of Shiva and Parvati, known for removing obstacles, and who has a rat for a Vahana. Who is he? Part Two: Avatars of Vishnu 16) What is an avatar? 17) How many avatars of Vishnu are there said to be? 18) The first several avatars are not human rather creatures or hybrids (fish, turtle, boar, man-lion, dwarf). What could be an explanation for this? 19) Rama, the 7 avatar was a real person. How do we know this? th 20) Who was Hamuman, the 8 avatar of Vithnu? 21) What are the many forms of the 9 Avatar, Krishna? 22) Who is Kalki and why has he not come yet? Part Three: Important Terms and Concepts Define 23) Hinduism 24) Apophatic 25) Kataphatic 26) OM 27) Brahman 28) Sanatana Dharma 29) Vahana 30) Shakti 31) Purusha 32) Varnas 33) Maya 34) Reincarnation 35) Karma 36) Ashramas 37) Macrocosms 38) Microcosms 39) Advaita 40) Dvaita 41) Avidya 42) Prakriti 43) Samkhya 44) Moksha 45) Samsara 46) Jivas 47) Mantras Part Four: Practices & types of Life 48) Describe the relationship between microcosm and macrocosm. 49) Identify the four caste (varnas). 50) Explain how Maya effects Brahman. 51) What is Karma and what three effects can it have on the jivas? 52) Each person can experience four Ashramas, what are these and when could you experience them? 53) What are the four eras of Cosmology? 54) What does the lotus flower represent? 55) Describe Advaita Vedanta. 56) What is Dvaita, how does it relate to Prakriti and Purusha? 57) What are the qualities of Gunas? Part Five: Teachers (Old & New) 58) Who was Sankara (788-820CE)? 59) What is Ramanuja most noted for? 60) Madhva was the first to teach what? 61) Kapila taught what concept? 62) Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833) founds Brahmo Samaja and merges Hinduism with which other religion? 63) Gadadhar Chatterjee (1836-1886) and the Ramakrishna Movement declares this revelation. 64) Dayananda Sarasvita does this as a reaction to the Brahmo Samaja. 65) What is Mohandas K Gandhi known for? Part Six: Paths 66) There are two distinct types of text, what are the names and what is the difference? 67) There are four traditions of the Vedas; Yajur, Sama, Atharva, and __. 68) Each of the Vedas contains four parts, name them. 69) What are the three aspects of a Smriti text? 70) Yajna was the original form of devotion, what did it entail? 71) What are the four types of Margas? 72) Describe the Raja. 73) What is the difference between Karma and Bhakti. 74) What does the Jnana path mean? 75) What is yoga? 76) How is Yoga accomplished? 77) Name four of the seven Chakras (centers of consciousness). 78) How is Tantra connected to Yoga? 79) What is the difference between Bhakta & Sant? Essay Question on the Exam 1) Be able to explain the cosmologies described by Advaita Vedanta (non-dualism) and Samkya (dualism). 2) Be able to describe the 4 Margas: Karma Bhakti Jnani and Raja. Anwsers Part One Identification of Gods 1) Agni 2) War 3) Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva (Siva) 4) Brahma 5) Siva has a third eye of perception, he wears a tiger skin, and would dance naked in cemeteries covered in ashes. 6) Vishnu 7) Cakra (disc of world power), Mace, Lotus, Conch 8) Deva Shakti or Durga 9) Genesh 10) Kali 11) The Black one, Treads over Siva (her husband), presides over wrath and destruction, she is the embodiment of a mother’s anger, however she is seen as good because without destruction there can be no change. 12) She bestows fertility and wealth, goddess of earth, rivers, speech, poetry, literature, art, and music, she is the Shakti of Brahma. 13) She is the Shakti of Siva, the invincible, deadly beautiful one, her Vahana is a lion, keeper of the gods weapons for war against the demons. 14) You would hope that Lakshmi, the goddess of Fortune, was on your side. 15) Ganesh(a) Part Two: Avatars of Vishnu 16) An avatar is a physical representation of a spiritual being. 17) There are said to be ten, however we only nine are said to have lived so far. 18) This could be that with each reincarnation the avatar moves up in rank to a higher level of consciousness. 19) There is a record of Rama, as the Hero of Ramayana (book of Rama) who ruled over a golden age Ramarajya (kingdom of Rama) ca. 3800 BCE. (Note: Archeological evidence has been found that proves this was an actual palce.) 20) He was, Lord Ram’s greatest friend/devotee, helped rescue Sita and conquer Sri Lanka. He was depicted as a intelligent and sly monkey god. 21) Krishna is an infant ‘trickster’, a butter thief child, a brave youth, and eventually a guru (wise teacher). 22) Kalki is the 10 and final avatar of Vishnu, he will come at the end of the final era as the conqueror bringing judgment on earth. It is important to note that he has been to earth many times just not yet in our cycle. Part Three: Important Terms and Concepts Define 23) Hinduism: wide categorization of Indus religions 24) Apophatic: a religion with no images either physical or mental 25) Kataphatic: a religion which can define gods or ideas with images 26) OM: a mantra, the primordial sound of creation 27) Brahman: the Absolute (reality) 28) Sanatana Dharma: eternal teaching of law and duty 29) Vahana: Vehicle 30) Shakti: energy of all gods 31) Purusha: The gods as consciousness 32) Varnas: caste 33) Maya: illusion (magic), what we know is an illusion 34) Reincarnation: rebirth into the cycle 35) Karma: action 36) Ashramas: stages in life 37) Macrocosms: the soul of the universe (cosmology) 38) Mircocosms: individual jivas, our souls 39) Advaita: not two, one 40) Dvaita: always two 41) Avidya: ignorance 42) Prakriti: inert matter 43) Samkhya: knowledge needed to gain Moksha 44) Moksha: liberation 45) Samsara: cycle of rebirth 46) Jivas: our souls 47) Mantras: sound or series of sounds Part Four: Practices & types of Life 48) Describe the relationship between microcosm and macrocosm. a. They are of the same Brahman just varying aspects of it. The universe is the macrocosm while the microcosm is human “souls.” 49) Identify the four caste (varnas). a. Brahmin: priestly cast b. Kshatriya: princes/warrior class c. Vaisya: merchants d. Shudra: untouchables (entry level humans) 50) Explain how Maya effects Brahman. a. Maya (the illusion) is what causes avidya (ignorance) and makes our jivas forget its self as part of the Brahman. 51) What is Karma and what three effects can it have on the jivas? a. Karma is action and becomes in all cases religious action. Three effects are caused from this Prarabdha, action experienced during the same life. Sancita, which then becomes the latent action which has yet to bear fruit; and Agamin/Sanciyama which is the Sancita when it comes to another life. 52) Each person can experience four Ashramas, what are these and when could you experience them? a. First you are a student (Bramacharya) you will remain until you reproduce, next you will be a householder (grihasta) in which you will remain until your children become householders. After you will be a forest dweller (Vanaprasta) *note you will not actually have to live in the forest* you will downsize and start to contemplate. Lastly you could become a renunciate (Samnyasa) after you turn 60 in which you spend your remaining life in study. 53) What are the four eras of Cosmology? a. The four eras of the Mahayuga (great cycle) are the Krita Yuga (paradise), Treta yuga (forgetting ), Dvapara Yuga (decline), then the Kali Yuga (dark age) after which the world will be destroyed then reformed to do the same thing all again. 54) What does the lotus flower represent? a. The lotus flower represents transcendence, which can be seen by its inhabitances of three elements: earth, water, and then air. 55) Describe Advaita Vedanta. a. Advaita Vedanta means non-dualism, that there is only one reality, such as Vishnu’s dream (which is the universe). 56) What is Dvaita, how does it relate to Prakriti and Purusha? a. Dvaita is the dualism between Prakriti (inert matter) and Purusha (consciousness). Purusha became trapped in Prakriti creating Gunas (mixtures). 57) What are the qualities of Gunas? a. Sattva (pure purusha): consciousness, light b. Rajas (mixture of both): Dynamism, creativity c. Tamas (Pure Parkriti): inertia, slothfulness Part Five: Teachers (Old & New) 58) Who was Sankara (788-820CE)? a. An Apophatic philiosopher who said that everything is real but we misperceive it. 59) What is Ramanuja most noted for? a. Ramanuja is most noted for the idea of a personal god (Isvara). 60) Madhva was the first to teach what? a. Was the first to suggest that a duality emanated from the Brahman (dualism). 61) Kapila taught what concept? a. The duality of Purusha and Prakriti and the creation of the Gunas. 62) Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833) founds Brahmo Samaja and merges Hinduism with which other religion? a. He founded the congregation of Brahaman and merged Hinduism and Christianity. 63) Gadadhar Chatterjee (1836-1886) and the Ramakrishna Movement declares this revelation. a. This mysitical reformer stated that all religions are essentially true. 64) Dayananda Sarasvita does this as a reaction to the Brahmo Samaja. a. Founded the Aryas, who seek to re-establish the golden age of Hinduism. 65) What is Mohandas K Gandhi known for? a. He lead revolution to independence through non-violence. Part Six: Paths 66) There are two distinct types of text, what are the names and what is the difference? a. The two types of text are the Shruti (the heard text, oral tradiation prior to enforced writing), and the Rishi (the seer, who heard the text, we know who the author is.) 67) There are four traditions of the Vedas; Yajur, Sama, Atharva, and __. a. Rg- which is quoted the most, and most translated to English. 68) Each of the Vedas contains four parts, name them. a. There are four parts to each Veda, Samhita (hymns), Brahmana (priestly documents), Aranyaka (forest treatises), and Upanisad (sittings). 69) What are the three aspects of a Smriti text? a. The three aspects of Smriti or remembered text are Epics, Stories, and codes of law and ethics. 70) Yajna was the original form of devotion, what did it entail? a. It said that all beings exist to sacrifice to gods and establish balance, sacrifices increase relation to caste, and Sati (the widow sacrifice). 71) What are the four types of Margas? a. Karma (action), Bhakti (devotion), Jnana (knowledge), and the Raja or Royal path. 72) Describe the Raja. a. The Raja is a more recent innovation which combines the elements of the other paths, it ties in more with modern science. 73) What is the difference between Karma and Bhakti. a. Karma is the path of action that emphasizes Rules and ethics, Bhakti is the path of devotion that emphasizes love to a deity. 74) What does the Jnana path mean? a. The Jnana is the way of knowledge (Gnosis), which emphases contemplation and study. 75) What is yoga? a. Yoga is a physical and mental discipline to a god or Reality. 76) How is Yoga accomplished? a. It is accomplished through dharana (concentration) and dhyana (mediation). 77) Name four of the seven Chakras (centers of consciousness). a. The seven are Crown, third eye, throat, heart, solar plexus, sacral, and root. 78) How is Tantra connected to Yoga? a. A Shivite type of worship which relases the Kundalini at the base of the spine, and mounts the skull to unite with Purusha. 79) What is the difference between Bhakta & Sant? a. Bhakta is a devotion tradition of Southern India, while Sant is the idea of a holy man as a Northern India tradition.
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