EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
1. EstatesGeneral: An assembly of the three estates of France. Before King Louis XVI is forced to call them in 1789 to pass tax reforms, they hadn’t met in 175 years. The third estate, knowing that the clergy and nobles would likely vote together, which would mean that their vote would be meaningless, wanted the delegates from all three estates to be put in the same room and to vote by head instead of each estate getting one vote. Louis is horrified that the Third Estate is now referring to themselves as a National Assembly, and that they want to vote by head. He locks them out of their meeting room, so they meet in an indoor tennis court instead. This leads to…
2. Tennis Court Oath: The oath that the Third Estate made when they first met in the tennis court, that they would meet wherever necessary to write France’s first constitution. Eventually they were joined by the rest of the Estates General and came to call themselves the National Assembly.
If you want to learn more check out What is krebs cycle?
3. Bastille: July 14th, soon to become the French Independence Day. The Bastille was a fortress and prison; the people declare the governor of the Bastille must turn over his weapons; when he refuses, they storm the Bastille, execute the governor, and parade his head around the city on a pike.
4. Great Fear: Occurred mostly in the countryside; Rumors spread that the local nobility would turn against the peasants. To prevent this from happening, many peasants stormed manors; they destroyed record books of what the peasants owed the nobility.
5. Decrees of August 4: A meeting of the National Assembly where nobles stood and decreed peasants debtfree on their land.
6. Declaration of the Rights of Man: France’s first constitution; declared that all men were equal in political rights and set up a constitutional monarchy, where the king’s power was limited by an elected assembly.
7. Legislative Assembly: The assembly that was brought into being by the Declaration of the Rights of Man. Very radical composition; most didn’t agree with the constitution, and wanted a republic.
8. National Convention: The second new government in the French Revolution; A republic with a composition that was even more radical than the Legislative Assembly. Instituted the first modern draft and the Reign of Terror. Don't forget about the age old question of How do you find quantity demanded?
9. Reign of Terror: A time when the National Assembly was run by 12 men known as the Committee of Public Safety. From their position of power, they carried out a “purge” of France in 1793 in which they executed thousands of people accused of counter revolutionary tendencies with little or no trial.
10. Robespierre: a control freak with an icy personality; leader of the Reign of Terror that is eventually executed when the National Convention begins to fear their own safety, as Robespierre seemed to have gotten far out of control.
11. Danton: charming speaker; known for his ability to draw and inspire a crowd. 12. Girondins (Girondists): a political party that emerges in the Legislative Assembly; pro republic, made up mostly of the middle class, wanted laissez faire government. 13. Jacobins: a political party that emerges in the Legislative Assembly; true radicals; also prorepublic, but wanted a government that would support the lower class with minimum wages and price control. Eventually took over in the National Convention and had King Louis and his wife, Marie Antoinette, executed. We also discuss several other topics like What are the basic concepts of microeconomics?
14. Directory: The third form of government in the French Revolution. More moderate than the National Convention. A republic with an executive branch known as the Directory with 5 men in leadership.
15. Napoleon: takes part in a coup d’état that overthrows the Directory. In the government that follows, he is named Consul, but at first had to share his power with 2 other consuls. Continues to rise to power, until, by permission of the French people, he becomes Emperor. He is eventually taken down by Britain.
16. Continental System: Napoleon tried to destroy Britain economically by not allowing people in the French empire to buy British goods. Was very unpopular among his own people, as it created scarcity.
17. Russian campaign: Napoleon puts together 650,000 men and marches into Russia. Instead of fighting them head on, the Russians retreat, burning the land behind them. As a result, Napoleon’s army begins to die of starvation, disease, and the severe Russian winter. After losing half a million soldiers, Napoleon returns to his empire to raise a new army, but the German people have begun to rebel, soon leading to Napoleon’s defeat. Don't forget about the age old question of What does it mean to take an anthropological approach to language?
18. Conscription: Modern draft; all military age men were drafted to the frontlines 19. Hundred Days: Napoleon’s attempt to reclaim his power. After being banished by Britain to a small island called Elba, he puts together 1500 men and tries to march through mainland Europe. Though joined by veterans that had served under him previously, they were defeated in 1815 at Waterloo, and Napoleon is banished for good to another island called St. Helena.
20. Agricultural Revolution: 18th century; beginning in England, people began experimenting in the ways that they farmed, adopting a more scientific approach that led to an increase in yield and improvements in livestock.
21. Industrialization: the burst of major inventions and economic expansion; people developed machines to make things that were once made by hand, increasing efficiency and decreasing the price of goods.
22. James Watt: Perfected the steam engine (but did NOT invent it himself) 23. Henry Cort: created a process called Puddling and Rolling that purified pig iron, allowing the production of iron to greatly increase.
24. Bourgeoisie: the middle class; in industrial society, mostly made up of factory owners and other people who had benefited from industrialization Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 4 layers of the atmosphere and their unique characteristics?
25. Proletariat: the lower (working) class; those that worked in factories 26. Child Labor: children usually worked in textile factories or mines; for a time, factory owners hired orphans to work for them for little or no wages (though the factory owners Don't forget about the age old question of Why are ventricles important?
did provide them with food and a place to live); the government got involved in the mid 1800s to set age limits on those allowed to work and set hour limits for certain age groups 27. Luddites: attacked factories and destroyed machines
28. Josiah Cox Wedgwood: credited with the industrialization of the manufacture of pottery 29. Natural Rights: rights that are just part of nature. Include life, liberty, and property (the Founding Fathers phrased it in the more popular “live, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”.)
30. Natural law: the idea that the entire universe is government by “natural laws”, so it runs itself. People extended this to the economy, believing that it was a machine that could run itself.
31. Laissez faire: “handsoff”; a system of government idealized by classical liberals in which the government stayed out of the economy and allowed it to regulate itself. 32. Adam Smith: spokesperson of classical liberalism; believed in a free economy 33. Malthus: Essay on Population; looked at population trends in Europe and tried to explain the ebb and flow; said poor relief was worse for workers because it encouraged them to marry early, meaning they had babies earlier, and the population rose, which led to more poverty.
34. Ricardo: economist; “Iron Law of Wages”; said that if you don’t meddle in the economy, wages will automatically adjust to a level that allows the worker to subsist and perpetuate (survive and reproduce) at a natural rate.
35. Bentham: Still liberal like the people above, but also thought that there WERE times when the government should intervene; his beliefs were known as Utilitarianism. Thought his contemporaries were too idealistic, that if government didn’t occasionally step in it would be a disaster
36. Utilitarianism: public problems ought to be dealt with rationally; government should focus on “greatest happiness for greatest number of people”. If the policy does not pass that test, then it shouldn’t be passed.
37. J.S. Mill: On Liberty; talked about freedom of the individual. Pointed out that even in democracy, the individual still suffers; up to 49% of the population had to follow the majority, even if it caused them to suffer. Government should be confined to law and order and defense.
38. Classical Liberalism: emerged in the 18th century; associated with the middle class; focused on individualism, laissezfaire government, natural law, freedom of contract, and free competition
39. Edmund Burke: spokesperson of conservatism; horrified by ideas of the French Revolution; did not believe in natural rights; thought instead that rights are earned over time by individuals and families by their contributions to society. Saw the French Revolution as the height of arrogance.
40. Conservatism: associated with the aristocracy; believed that if traditions had survived the test of time, then it must be because they were better; to change traditions was arrogant. Old ways preserved order, and anything else was just chaos.
41. Hegel: wrote a theory of history known as Dialect; believed that if you take any given point in time, any given civilization will be shaped by the dominant culture of the time. The dominant culture was known as the thesis. As the thesis evolves, it splits and produces the antithesis. When the thesis and antithesis clash, it produces the synthesis, a middle ground between the two. The synthesis will go on to become the thesis of another time. Dialectic is about moving forward by clashes.
42. Utopian Socialism: proposed a perfect world; did not think reforms were sufficient and wanted instead to completely reorder society. Popular among French intellectuals. 43. Marxism: Dialectic Materialism; Scientific Socialism; developed by Karl Marx; believed in Hegel’s Dialectic and thought that capitalism was the thesis of the time and that eventually there would be a clash between the middle and working classes, and that the working class would come out on top.
44. Substructure vs. Superstructure: Substructure is the means of production and is the basis of everything else (the superstructure); When Dialectic occurs, it happens in the substructure, over the nature of the economy.
45. Dialectical materialism: historical events are the result of the conflict of social forces and are a series of contradictions and their solutions. The conflict is believed to be caused by material needs
46. Crystal Palace: the site of the first World’s Fair; a huge building made out of iron and glass, industrial goods not seen in such mass quantities anywhere in the world at the time; filled with all the treasures of the prospering Great Britain. (1851)
47. Chicago World’s fair: 1893; known as the Columbian Exposition; celebrated 400 years since Columbus arrived in the Americas; 200 buildings were built for the occasion, and the city was filled with electric light
48. Thomas Edison: thought for electricity to become widespread, every housebuilding would have to have a private generator to power it
49. Nikola Tesla: had the idea to generate massive amounts of electricity in one place and use wires to transport it to faroff places. Won the contract for Chicago’s world’s fair, beating Thomas Edison and leading to the modern system of electricity.
50. Nationalism: pride in one’s culture/nation/history/language; defined the 19th century 51. Geist: spirit; the thought that a group of people shared a Geist that was unique to their culture
52. Herder: German intellectual that expressed nationalism; thought that there was a common history shared by all Europeans based on centuries of history and interaction 53. Fichte: German intellectual that expressed nationalism; thought that members of different ethnic groups had their own spirit and cultural unity, manifested in a common language, history, and territory
54. Bismarck: engineered German unification under Prussia
55. Zollverein: a union of German states that had economic interests. Goods flowed freely within Germany, but not between Germany and other areas
56. “Blood and iron”; thought to be what made history turn (warfare and industrial might); Bismarck’s idea
57. Hohenzollern: the ruling family of Prussia; with Bismarck’s help, became the rulers of all of Germany
58. FrancoPrussian War: The French were provoked by Bismarck with the Ems telegram, a message from the Prussian king that Bismarck stripped of polite language so that it read as very rude and offensive toward the French, who then attacked Prussia in July 1870; the war lasted into the beginning of 1871, when they were defeated by Prussia.
59. Alsace & Lorraine: An area between France and Germany that shared a lot of culture with Germany, but had traditionally been French land; though they wanted to stay with the French, as part of the peace negotiations after the FrancoPrussian war, they were given to Germany
60. Imperialism: the expansion of one nation/country into other areas that do not traditionally belong to it
61. David Livingstone: Christian missionary that explored Africa in an attempt to spread Christianity and end slaver by introducing other methods of making money 62. Henry Stanley: American journalist sent to find Livingston in Africa
63. King Leopold: king of Belgium; hired Stanley to go to the Congo and make agreements with local chieftains that allowed him to seize the Congo as his property through very manipulative means; started a freeforall, with other countries fighting for their own African territories.
64. Cecil Rhodes: his British South Africa Company was chartered by the British government and led to Britain’s control over parts of Africa
65. Boer War: 18991902; Britain’s greatest imperial campaign on African soil 66. Boxer Rebellion: (probably will NOT be on the test, as it is in chapter 26 and Dr. Bohanan told us we didn’t need to read that chapter yet); a violent altercation in which the Boxers, a Chinese secret society, laid siege to foreign legation quarters in Beijing; a dozen nations sent troops to put down the rebellion, and China was forced to accept a long list of penalties.
67. Suez Canal: connected the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, allowing Europe easier access to Easter Africa and Asia
2. Gold Coast
7. Union of South Africa
I labeled the maps with the numbers provided above. Be sure to remember to bring a blue scantron sheet to the test Monday. Also, Dr. Bohanan hinted that most of the book questions will concern Italian Unification (found in Chapter 24) and the entirety of Chapter 25, so be sure to read over those. We didn’t get to Asia, so don’t worry about reading Chapter 26 or the last part of the study guide geography section.