Study Guide for Exam 1
Study Guide for Exam 1 P SC 1113 050
Popular in American Federal Government
Popular in Political Science
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by sarahrichmondOU on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to P SC 1113 050 at University of Oklahoma taught by Glen Krutz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 684 views. For similar materials see American Federal Government in Political Science at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE BRING TO CLASS ON TUESDAY FEB 16: *Blue typeface scantron #4521 (be careful—this is NOT the normal green scantron!) *A blue book of any size *You can find both of these at the front of the bookstore by the registers ENGAGEMENT & INTRODUCTORY NOTIONS ABOUT GOVERNMENT Social capital--the bonds of trust and reciprocity(the idea that if you give things, you get things back) between citizens that holds modern societies together Representative Democracy o Citizens in a representative democracy hold public officials accountable through periodic elections and the rule of law o Our representative democracy is characterized by majority rule and protections for minority rights o Electoral majorities determine who is elected to office, and majorities in power determine our laws and how they are administered o Certain rights, like freedom of speech & religion, are beyond the reach of majority control. WHY aren’t young Americans voting??? o Too busy/conflicting schedule (because of college, work, military, etc.) o Out of town (college, military) o Not interested o Registration problems (it is too difficult for young people in college to receive an absentee ballot—it would be easier if it could be done online) o Did not like candidates or campaign issues A major reason candidates don’t appeal to 18-24 year olds is because their campaign’s focus isn’t 18-24 year olds Why? Because young people aren’t voting, so why should they focus on their issues? This leads to young people continuing to not vote because they don’t see their issues being addressed in campaigns o Inconvenient polling place/transportation problems Young Americans are not experiencing politics first hand like older generations did, they’re seeing it second hand on television and social media, so they are not as engaged/interested It MATTERS who participates & engages in the system We can look at participation in TWO WAYS: o From the standpoint of POWER o From the standpoint of QUALITY OF LIFE The POWER standpoint o The more engaged a citizen or group of citizens is, the more influence they have o It is important to know the difference between: Preferences/views of citizens The INTENSITY of their preferences/views o There are 2 types of preference o LATENT preferences The preference is present & perfectly CAPABLE of emerging or developing, but at the time it is not obvious or active. A citizen with a latent preference is not as engaged in the campaign Doesn’t affect the campaign nearly as much due to their lack of extreme action & dedication (voting over and over again, etc.) o INTENSE preferences These types of citizens usually run the campaign Often vote over and over again Extremely engaged in the campaign The QUALITY OF LIFE standpoint o Greater participation means a stronger democracy o Social capital o Young Americans are participating now more than before 2008, but still at a much lower level than other age groups o Ideology(set of beliefs, concepts, ideas) & partisanship(one-sidedness, bias) increasingly affect engagement Tradeoffs – a balancing of factors that are not all achievable at the same time o Tradeoffs exist between 2 related factors on a continuum(scale) o We face them in our daily lives o Governments also face them o Examples of key tradeoffs National government power vs. states’ rights (Founding & federalism) Individual liberty vs. collective interests (civil rights & liberties) Representation vs. responsiveness (legislative behavior) CONSTITUTION & FOUNDING Articles of Confederation failure—why didn’t it work? o The national government could not impose taxes on citizens; it could only request money from the states Requests for money were usually not honored, & as a result, the national gov. did not have the money to pay for national defense or fulfill its other responsibilities o The national government could not regulate foreign trade or interstate commerce The government could not prevent foreign countries from hurting American competitors Could not prevent states from passing laws that interfered w/ domestic trade o The national government could not raise an army; it had to request the states to send men State governments could choose not to honor Congress’s request for troops, making it hard to defend the nation o Each state had only one vote in congress regardless of its size, so populous states were less well represented o The Articles could not be changed without a unanimous vote to do so, so problems could not be easily fixed o There was no national judicial system Judiciaries are important enforcers of national government power Framers believed that the government should not deprive people of their liberties and should be restricted in its power over citizens’ lives Key issues the Framers grappled with at the convention (tradeoffs) o Small states vs. large states o Large states called for a BICAMERAL legislature consisting of 2 houses (VIRGINIA PLAN) Representation would be population based (higher population yields more representation) National government can legislate for states and veto state law o Small states called for a UNICAMERAL legislature with one house, in which each state would have one vote, thus smaller states would have the same power as larger states (NEW JERSEY PLAN) Representation would be state based (each state equally represented) National government provides defense but does not override state authority o Slavery and freedom Following the revolution, some of the northern states had either abolished slavery or instituted plans by which slaves would gradually be emancipated None of the southern states had abolished slavery and none wanted the Constitution to interfere with the institution In addition to supporting the agriculture of the South, slaves could be taxed as property and counted as population for purposes of a state’s representation in the government o Federal Supremacy vs. State Sovereignty Some favored a strong national government that would legislate for the states in many areas & would have the power to veto laws passed by state legislates Others feared that a strong national government may become too powerful & use its authority to oppress citizens & deprive them of their rights They advocated a central government with sufficient authority to defend the nation but insisted that other powers be left to the states o Individual liberty vs. social stability Some wanted and expected their new government to guarantee the rights of life, liberty & property Others believed it was more important for the nation government to maintain order, and this might require it to limit personal liberty at times All Americans, however, desired that the government not intrude upon people’s rights without reason The Great Compromise o Article 1 10 sections describe the structure of Congress, the basis for representation and the requirements for serving in Congress, the length of Congressional terms, and the power of Congress Congress would consist of 2 chambers: the Senate & the House of Representatives Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators, making for equal representation Representation in the House would be based on population Senators were to be appointed by the state legislatures, a variation on the Virginia Plan Members of the House of Representatives would be popularly elected by the voters in each state Members of house limited to 2 years in office Senate limited to 6 Congress given power to tax, maintain an army and a navy, and regulate trade and commerce o Much stronger executive branch than the Articles of Confederation o Slavery issue and 3/5 ’s compromise Slaveholding states were allowed to count all their free population, including free African Americans and 60% (3/5 ’s) of their enslaved population To mollify the north, the compromise also allowed counting 60% of a state’s slave population for federal taxation, but no such taxes were ever collected Principles underlying the US Constitution o Limited government o Stronger central government Supremacy clause—proclaimed that the Constitution, laws passed by Congress, and treaties made by the federal government were “the supreme Law of the Land” and in a conflict between the states and the nation government, the nation government would triumph Elastic clause—grants Congress the power to pass all laws necessary & proper for carrying out the enumerated list of powers o Separation of powers Created to ensure that the national government wouldn’t become too powerful Divided into 3 branches: Legislative, Judicial, & Executive Congress can pass laws, but the president can veto it System of CHECKS AND BALANCES also created, giving each branch of government the power to restrict the actions of the others, thus requiring them to work together If a bill passes both the house of reps and the senate with a 2/3 vote in its favor, it becomes law even though the president refuses to sign it o Federalism Selling points of Constitution (see also Federalist #10,51) o Majority rule vs. minority rights o Majority rule Allows for people to vote for or against an issue Most popular vote will win o Minority rights The group that does not have the majority rule will not be discriminated against Their basic rights cannot be taken away from them & they will still be represented o Even though the majority rule is in play, the people without the popular vote will still have the same benefits as the people with the majority or winning vote o Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists o Federalists Supported ratification of the constitution Tended to be wealthy, well-educated landowners, businessmen, & former military commands who believed a strong government would be better for both national defense & economic growth o Anti-Federalists Opposed ratification of the constitution Feared the power of the national government & believed state legislatures, with which they had more contact, could better protect their freedoms Most distrusted the elite and believed a strong federal government would favor the rich Amendments o Since ratification in 1789, the Constitution has been amended only 27 times o First 10 amendments are known as the Bill of Rights Intended to quiet the fears of Anti-Federalists that the Constitution did not adequately protect individual liberties o First, amendments are proposed by congress o Then then must be approved by 2/3 majority in House & senate before being sent to the legislatures in all the states o If ¾ of state legislatures vote to approve an amendment, it becomes part of the Constitution Enduring institutional issues o Which level of government should lead? o What is the proper tradeoff between individual rights & community well-being? FEDERALISM What is Federalism? o Federalism is an institutional arrangement that creates two relatively autonomous levels of government, each possessing the capacity to act directly on behalf of the people with the authority granted to it by the national constitution Enumerated powers o Found in Article I, section 8 o These powers define the jurisdictional boundaries within which the federal government has authority The elastic clause o Enables Congress “to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying” out its constitutional responsibilities While the enumerated powers define the policy areas in which the national government has authority, the elastic clause allows it to create the legal means to fulfill those responsibilities Different concepts of Federalism o Marble Cake Federalism based on a pragmatic mixing of authority and programs among the national, state, and local governments o Layer Cake Federalism based on a clear delineation of authority and programs among the levels of government Federalism in practice = complex o layer-cake, marble-cake Federalism o New Federalism (a theory of what should be) the Federal Government has become too big & powerful, should have return of authority to the states Nixon & Reagan - the 2 presidents for New Federalism o Robertson and Judd's normative thesis some states get better quality of life than other states states & cities compete against each other to attract businesses, race to the bottom thesis says it shouldn't be this way, states should have less power not wanting to take power away from Federal Government, just from states o Federalism and city & state competition competition can be good downside is opportunity cost ex: money spent to build a venue instead of ABC can be taken in both directions, both pros & cons BENEFITS of Federalism o Promotes policy innovation & political participation o Accommodates diverse viewpoints of citizens in states across the country o Gives states an incentive to engage in policy innovation DOWNSIDES of Federalism o Can set off a race to the bottom among states Race-to-the-bottom: a dynamic in which states compete to attract business by lowering taxes & regulations, often to workers’ detriment o Can cause cross-state economic & social disparities o Can obstruct federal efforts to address national problems Federal Funding o Funding support for state & local governments from feds o can come with strings, usually always with rules o there are many mandates that come with Federal Funding CATEGORICAL grants: federal transfers formulated to limit recipients discretion in the use of funds & subject them to strict administrative criteria that guide project selection, performance, & financial oversight, among other things o ex: Medicaid, food stamp program BLOCK grants: come with less stringent federal administrative conditions & provide recipients more flexibility over how to spend grant funds o ex: Workforce Investment Act program, Surface Transportation Program o block grants’ flexibility has been undermined over time as a result of creeping categorization (when the national government places new administrative requirements on state & local governments or supplants block grants with new categorical grants) Unfunded mandates: federal laws & regulations that impose obligations in state & local governments without fully compensating them for the administrative costs they incur o the federal government has used mandates increasingly since the 1960s to promote national objectives in policy areas such as the environment, civil rights, education, & homeland security o ex: The Clean Air Act o the continued use of unfunded mandates clearly contradicts new federalism’s call for giving states & local governments more flexibility in carrying out national goals Interstate compacts: voluntary arrangements between two or more states designed to solve their common problems and that becomes part of the laws of each state CURRENT EVENT IN PLAY FOR EXAM—MARIJUANA LAWS*
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