History of Landscape Architecture Midterm Study Guide
History of Landscape Architecture Midterm Study Guide LARCH 1160
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This 28 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tyler Walker on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LARCH 1160 at Clemson University taught by Dr.Hala Nassar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 138 views. For similar materials see History of Landscape Architcture in Landscape Architecture at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
History of Landscape Architecture Midterm Study Guide ID Slides Origins Paleolithic Age -The Hadza People -an African tribe in Tanzania that still lives today as hunter gatherers -life of Paleolithic humans was recorded in cave art in France and Spain ID SLIDES CAVE ART: LASCAUX, FRANCE THE HAZDA PEOPLE Neolithic Age -Gosseck Hinge, Eastern Germany -7000 year old hinge excavated in 2002 -solar observatory -entrances aligned with winter and summer solstices ID SLIDES GOSSECK HENGE Bronze Age -Carnac in Brittany, France (2500 BC) -multiple parallel lines of stones, believed to have religious significance but true purpose is unknown -Stonehenge in England (2000 BC) - Circle of large stones ID SLIDES CARNAC, BRITANNY STONEHENGE, ENGLAND From 2000 BC Onward -The Uffington White Horse -cut by the Celts in England, AD 100 -figure is roughly 374 X 110 ft -created by cutting away turf ID SLIDES UFFINGTON WHITE HORSE Western Asia to the Muslim Conquest Ziggurat -the Ziggurat was built by the Sumerians -an early expression of humans determination to place their mark on the face of the earth -it was believed to be a holy mountain, God lived at the summit -observatory for the stars -Ziggurat of Ur is considered Sumer’s greatest surviving monument -terraces were planted with trees -walls were of baked brick around a core of mud brick -walls were painted, lower stages black, upper were red, and the shrine itself was covered in blue lazed tiles and topped with a gilded dome -the legendary Tower of Babel was a Ziggurat form The Hanging Gardens of Babylon -Gardens that were placed on ziggurats and appeared to be floating when seen from a distance -first idea of terraced roof garden ID SLIDES ZIGGRAT OF UR HANGING GARDENS OF BABYLON The Assyrians -strong military power -with the domestication of horses under the Assyrians came the first hunting and fishing parks -parks were geometrically laid out and stocked with exotic plants and wild animals -the artificial hill and temple of Khorsabad is considered one of the earliest picturesque landscapes of the western world ID SLIDES THE ASSYRIANS PALACE AT KHORSABAD KING ASHERBANIPAL IN HIS GARDEN The City of Persepolis -capital of the Persian Empire -site was chosen by Cyrus the Great but the actual construction began during the time of Darius the First -very geometric design on a plateau projecting from a mountain -provided great defense -it was a symbol of power and domination over the surroundings ID SLIDES PERSEPOLIS Garden Carpets -the Spring Carpet of Chosroes was a 100 square foot carpet depicting garden with canals, flowers, and trees -worked in silk, gold, and precious stones - if you couldn’t go outside due to weather, the carpet created a garden like atmosphere inside ID SLIDES PERSIAN GARDEN RUG Islam in Western Asia The Round City of Baghdad -Founded by Caliph Al-Mansur next to the Tigris River in AD 762 - Circular form -the Mosque, Al-Mansur’s palace, and market place were at the center -flowers were abundant -the city became a center for the perfume industry -outside of the walls were great gardens ID SLIDES PLAN OF THE CITY OF BAGHDAD The Great Mosque of Samarra -Samarra is a city in Iraq that was founded in AD 850 -Great Mosque had a unique Spiral Minaret -developing Islamic architecture and landscape architecture was inspired by those of earlier civilizations that they came in contact with -Architectural form of the Spiral minaret derives from the Ziggurat -the tall structure was used for the call for prayers ID SLIDES GREAT MOSQUE OF SAMARRA WITH SPIRAL MINARET Skyscape -with Islam, new types of Architecture were added to Islamic cityscapes -Mosques with their Minarets and Domes -Medresseh (school) is a place of learning attached to a Mosque ID SLIDES BLUE MOSQUE OF ISTANBUL Decorative Patterns -Islam forbids the use of ID SLIDES imagery and figures that depict humans or animals for reasons of idolatry GEOMETRIC -other types of patterns emerged -geometric -floral -Calligraphy FLORAL CALIGRAPHY The City of Isfahan -built from scratch, not overtaken -Bridge crosses over river and turns into Char Bagh -became known as City of Gardens -intentionally intertwined built urban fabric and green landscapes -urban fabric- highly geometric -green landscapes- Islamic Gardens withquadrapartile layout ID SLIDES PLAN OF ISFAHAN Western Expansion of Islam: Spain The Great Mosque of Cordova -Plan view- interior body, Patio de los Naranjos (Court of the Oranges) - Interior grid uses columns with horse shoe archs - grid continued into courtyard using orange trees instead of columns outside -this unifies the interior and exterior -irrigation system connected all of the trees making the process of watering much simpler and easier -built by Abd ar-Rahman -after the Muslims left, the Spanish put a church in the center of the Mosque ID SLIDES THE Prayer Hall GREAT MOSQUE OF CORDOVA Courtyard of Oranges Fortress of Alhambra in Granada -Al-hamra means red, red brick was used to build the fortress -Court of the Myrtles -has a very peaceful and serene nature -narrow and elegant reflecting pool -first use of a reflecting pond -Court of the Lions -very dynamic nature, continuous sound from the fountain at the center -Quadrapartile layout ID SLIDES THE Court of the Myrtles FORTRESS OF ALHAMBRA Court of the Lions The Generalife -began as a summer resort for a ruler -elongated quadrapartile layout -water steps- 3 flights of stairs and 3 landings -diverted water from Sierra Nevada -used gravity to power fountains and jets ID SLIDES THE GENERALIFE Courtyard Water Steps Islam and Mughal India Feast of the Birth of Humayun -the Mughals inherited the love of gardens and symbolism from the Persians -the miniature shows -classic features of an Islamic garden - Square water tank with fountain and channels -Chabutra: elevated stone platform on which the emperor sits - vegetation: shade trees, aromatic and edible plants -walls, gates -entertainment and celebration taking place in a garden ID SLIDES FEAST OF THE BIRTH OF HUMAYUN Ram Bagh -Persian word meaning garden -the oldest Mughal garden -built by Babur c. 1528 on Jumna River near Agra -features -large well -Chadar- scalloped stone ramp that carries water between two levels - surface breaks smoothness of water and creates a rippling/sparkling effect -stone Chabutra, “underneath which river flows” -water flowing under Chabutra also cools the stone surface -raised water channels -fountains are gravity fed ID SLIDES RAM BAGH Types of Mughal Gardens 1. Tomb Gardens -commemorative landscapes that have contributed to landscape architecture -the Mughals built their tombs (in gardens) during their lifetime and used them after they had passed -after their death, the tomb garden was passed to holy men and was opened to the public - Concept inherited from the Mongols -the tomb garden is an Islamic Garden with the tomb located at the center of the quadrapartile layout ID SLIDES TOMB OF AKBAR 2. Pleasure Gardens -used primarily for vacationpurposes so rulers could get away from the city and relax -ex. Shalamar Bagh in Kashmir -Islamic garden -site in Kashmir was chosen by Jahangir between the mountains and Lake Dal -construction began during Shah Jahans rule -plan consisted of three leveled and tierquadrapartile gardens -used mirror symmetry -enclosed by walls -each of the three levels had different purposes -Level 1- Emperor’s Public Audience -Level 2- Emperor’s Private Audience -Level 3- Royal Women Private garden -Chini-Kanas- water flows over the wall with holes for candles to sit ID SLIDES SHALAMAR BAGH Chini-Kanas Taj Mahal at Agra -Mughal Tomb Garden built by Shah Jahan in 1632-54 in memory of his wife, Mumtaz Mahal -unlike earlier examples, the tomb is not placed at the center because Jahan wanted to create another Taj across the river for himself -Masterpiece of architecture and landscape architecture ID SLIDES TAJ MAHAL Ancient India The Great Stupa at Sanchi -built by Asoka in 2nd century BC -example of the Indian concept Pratibimba where architectural form is given to imagined structure of the cosmos in order to give humans power over them through symbolism -Stupas are the earliest Buddhist religious monument -originally were simple earthen burial mounds -after Buddhas death they became more religiously significant because his Ashes were put in bricks and sent all over India to be used in construction -Solid Hemisphere represents the dome of heaven -Balcony at the summit represents world mountain, Meru (pillar between heaven and earth) -Central mast represents axis of the world -accordingly under Asoka, the importance of a Stupa changed from a funeral monument to an object of veneration ID SLIDES THE GREAT STUPA AT SANCHI Stupa of Barabudar in Java -consists of 5 coencentric square platforms -3 coencentric platforms on top of the 5 square platforms -72 smaller buddhas around these circular platforms -universal buddha on top of the 3circlular platform -climbing through the 5 square platforms is symbolic of the journey from life to death -3 circular circles are symbolic of the journey afterwards and the realm of void or absolute beyond form or thought ID SLIDES STUPA OF BARABUDAR Ancient China Urban Dwelling and Garden -privacy, quietness, protection, sense of sanctuary and peacefulness -achieved by integrating nature into a built house - town dweller brought into the house symbols of ideal life which are scenes from the natural/ rural environment -rocks and water features were used -rocks symbolized mountains -water features represented lakes, rivers, ocean etc. - vegetation represented forests -Pieces and patches of greens and small gardens spread throughout with a much larger garden located in the back - organic design mimics natural layout of landscapes -geometric outline balances and contains the organic aspects ID SLIDES URBAN DWELLING AND GARDEN City Planning -Peking developed in 3 stages 1 )Pre- Mongol- first city dates back to 12 century BC -coal hill shown at X in diagram below was created from excavations of hunting and fishing grounds 2) Mongol City- Kubla Khan (1297-1367) -preserved all fishing and hunter landscapes created in stage 1 3) Ming City (1409) ID SLIDES PEKING CITY DEVELOPMENT The Imperial Palace, Peking -Geometry- succession of spaces -monumentary scale -central axis -Confucianism in balance with Taoism -excessive geometry in balance with green landscapes and parks ID SLIDES THE IMPERIAL PALACE OF PEKING Ming Dynasty Tomb and Spirit Road -Yung Lo also built his own tomb 20 miles north of Peking -the approach is through a spirit road of giant animal and human sculptures -deflection of evil spirits is reflected in site selection and orientation - site selection uses Geomancy/Feng Shui principles -Feng Shui is an ancient Chinese practice of placement, arrangement and orientation of spaces and objects to achieve harmony and balance with the surroundings ID SLIDES MING DYNASTY TOMB AND SPIRIT ROAD The Devil in the White City Part 1 Answers 1- Why was the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893 built? a- To rival France’s steel industry b- To host the Olympic Games c- To change the design of Chicago th d- To commemorate the 400 anniversary of the discovery of America e- All of the above 2- On the afternoon of Monday February 24, 1890, nationwide, people gathered outside daily newspaper buildings to wait for ----------------------------------- a- The result of presidential elections b- News of rescue operation of one of the White Star Line ships c- Advertisements of job opportunities d- Decision on which American city will host the World Columbian Exposition e- Decision on which country will host the universal exposition of 1897 3- When the Eiffel Tower was unveiled to the world in 1889, it was ------------------------------------------ ----------------------- a- Part of the World Columbian Fair b- Part of the Exposition Universelle of Paris c- One thousand feet high ironconstruction and by far the highest man-made structure on earth d- A& C e- B& C 4- How did John Root overcome the problem of Chicago’s “gumbo” soil? By using---------------------- a- Floating foundation b- Pier and Arch construction system c- Light weight wood structure d- Mushroom columns e- All of the above 5- Which building was the first to be called a skyscraper? a- The Empire State building b- The Montauk c- The Rookery d- The Chicago Tribune e- The Union Stock Yard Building 6- In 1890, who believed that Landscape Architecture needed “greater visibility which in turn would bring greater credibility” and that the World Columbian Exposition could help? a- John Root b- Daniel Burnham c- Fredrick Law Olmsted d- James Ellsworth e- Henry Van Brunt 7- What did both Goethe and Schelling refer to as “frozen music”? a- Sculpture b- Painting c- Photography d- Architecture e- Landscape Architecture 8- Chicago’s architects and members of the exposition board welcomed Burnham’s initial idea to invite New York architects to design the World Columbian Exposition. a- True b- False 9- What architectural style did the architects agree upon for the entire World Columbian Exposition’s buildings? a- Colonial b- Gothic c- Modern d- Classic e- Neoclassic 10- Which site was selected for the World Columbian Exposition? a- Garfield Park b- Jackson park c- A site on Chicago’s harbor d- Oak Park e- Hill Park ***In addition to these ID Slides and Multiple Choice answers, study notes beginningfrom Ancient India onwards
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