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Abnormal Psychology 405

by: Kameren Mikkelsen

Abnormal Psychology 405 PSY 405-02

Kameren Mikkelsen
Cal Poly

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About this Document

This study guide covers a detailed outline of what's going to be on the next midterm.
Abnormal Psychology
Kristen Suzanne Wheldon
Study Guide
abnormal, Psychology, cal poly, Kristen Wheldon
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kameren Mikkelsen on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 405-02 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Kristen Suzanne Wheldon in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 171 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
Abnormal Psychology 405 — Wheldon, Kristen Midterm Study Guide STRESS: the relationship between your demands & resources - how do people deal with stress? • coping mechanisms - there are different types of stressors: positive & negative stressors • positive stressor — ex; starting a new job that you are excited about, but is a lot of pressure • • negative stressor — ex; not studying for a big exam you have tomorrow makes you anxious - your body responds the same way to both stressors: • fight or flight response: taxes your resources & your coping skills - what type of stressors are the most difficult for humans & animals to deal with? • unpredictable stressors: the most difficult to cope with - coping strategies: ways we deal with stress (our best efforts) - protective factors: factors to help you cope (ex; intelligence, support systems, optimism) - risk factors: factors that make a person more likely to experience a given problem (ex; someone who smokes cigarettes has a higher risk to get cancer) SUICIDE: it’s a state of being not a trait - if we had to call this state something, what would we rename it? • we could also call it a “state of crisis” - when is it correctly called a “crisis”? • when a person is really stressed out, what moves them from a state of stress to a state of crisis is their ability to cope with the situation • when a stressful situation overwhelms an individual to a state where they cannot cope with it anymore — they go into a crisis - what is the adaptive function of fight or flight? • it’s a way to avoid danger; survive — “fear” emotion associated with it • cortisol: is the hormone responsible for putting a person into fight or flight response - which age groups are more likely to attempt suicide & which are more likely to succeed? women are 3x more likely than men to attempt suicide; but men are more likely to succeed - suicide (golden age 18-24) • women are 3 times more likely than men to attempt suicide • 7th leading cause of death for men; 15th for women • men 65+ are the most likely to succeed at suicide • typically people living alone & socially separated from groups are the most likely to attempt MOOD DISORDERS: affective disorders (affect = what you feel inside) - moods are either really high or really low; extremes - no one specific stressor — rather a “state of being” - impairs the functions of a person’s life - what’s the main different between a manic episode & a hypomanic episode? the amount of impairment (bipolar 1 vs. bipolar 2 — we know the difference because of • how severe the symptoms are) • manic is more severe than hypomanic - manic episode: person shows a markedly elevated, euphoric or expansive mood, often interrupted by occasional outbursts pf intense irritability or even violence - hypomanic episode: person experiences abnormally elevated, expansive or irritable mood for at least 4 days - unipolar depressive disorders / dysthymia: a person experiences only depressive episodes — no ups, just downs - major depressive disorder: neurotic (personality perspective) = more depressed - depression onsets: loss / grieving process • Bowlby: 4 phases —> symptoms peaking 2-6 months after loss 1. numbing / disbelief 3. disorganized / despair 2. yearning / searching 4. reorganization - postpartum depression / blues: 10 days within giving birth, woman needs treatment - dysthymic disorder (persistent depressive disorder): chronic (long-run symptoms); prognosis as persistent depressive begins in adolescence, seeking treatment at 21 • • 5% — 6% of people in the world get this at some point in their lives - major depressive disorder: symptoms include sadness, insomnia, diminished cognitive capacity, low self-esteem different orientations of clinicians — what would be a behaviorists’ explanation for depression? - at some point in time the depression was reinforced by the environment - treatment would focus on changing the environment — specifically what’s reinforcing behavior PERSONALITY DISORDERS: inflexible & distorted behavioral patterns & traits behavioral patterns of individuals with personality disorders are consistent over time * how do you diagnose someone with bipolar disorder? - bipolar personality disorder: not manic to depressive all the time — only one manic episode will diagnose someone with bipolar disorder cluster A: paranoid, schiziod, schizotypal cluster B: histrionic, narcissistic, antisosial, borderline cluster C: avoidant, dependent, obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD dx) * want to know a one-word encapsulation of what that disorder is (ex; histrionic: attention- seeking, whereas schizoid / schizotypal: eccentric) cluster A: - paranoid personality disorder: suspicious, don’t trust others, hold grudges, hypersensitive & argumentative • unknown cause —> inconsistent research • possible parental neglect, abuse, violence (not a genetic disorder) - schiziod personality disorder: inability to form social relationships & indifferent to develop any • cognitive similarities to schizophrenia, but different • these people are fine alone; they find other people intrusive - schizotypal personality disorder: extreme, introvert, sensitivity, eccentricity, oddities • pervasive, social & interpersonal • oddities & eccentricities in the way they do things • odd speech (not fluid / organized), paranoid beliefs, deficits in eye-tracking, deficits in working memory & deficits in ability to inhibit attention to a 2nd stimulus directly following a 1st stimulus • history of child abuse & trauma * schizotypal has a magical thinking component to it — schizoid is someone not interested in having relationships & tends to be more indifferent cluster B: - histrionic personality disorder: emotionality, dramatic, extreme attention • self-centered, vain, tendency to be seductive & to eroticize things, always trying to get attention & self-worth • schema: need for attention & validation of self-worth • extreme versions of extroversion & narcissism - narcissistic personality disorder: only caring about oneself, not able to develop a level of intimacy, exaggerated sense of importance, lack of empathy, heed for attention • hypocritical, retaliatory, self-entitlement • doesn't really have any close relationships • usually emotional needs were not met in childhood — identity becomes invested in “show” when deep down they feel inadequate - antisocial personality disorder: violate the rights of others without remorse • charming, disregard for the rights of others, deceitful, impulsive, irritable & aggressive • symptoms show up before the age of 15 & are seen as conduct disorder - borderline personality disorder: personality is split — no grey area (associated with cutting) • trauma with the mother-child relationship (“love me” from the child is not reciprocated by the mother —> turns into “I hate you”) • impulsivity, anger, unpredictability, instability cluster C: - avoidant personality disorder: extreme social inhibition & introversion • hypersensitivity to criticism & rejection • limited social relationships & low self-esteem - dependent personality disorder: extreme dependence on others, particularly the need to be taken care of, leading to clinging & submissive behavior - obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: persistent intrusion of unwanted & intrusive thoughts or distressing images compulsive behaviors designed to neutralize the obsessive thoughts / images or to prevent • some dreaded event / situation OTHER DISORDERS: - dissociative disorders: conditions involving a disruption in an individual’s normally integrated functions of consciousness, memory, or identity - paranoid personality disorder: pervasive suspiciousness & distrust of others - anxiety disorder: an unrealistic, irrational fear or anxiety of disabling intensity • posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): occurs following an extreme traumatic event, in which a person re-experiences the event, avoids reminders of the trauma & exhibits persistent increased arousal • obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: persistent intrusion of unwanted & intrusive thoughts or distressing images; compulsive behaviors designed to neutralize the obsessive thoughts / images or to prevent some dreaded event / situation - somatization disorder: psychological disorder where instead of allowing problems out emotionally, they turn physical (ex; instead of being anxious & emotionally expressing it, you get chest pains or a stomach ache) — physical ailments are inadequately explained conditioned responses: what would be a classical conditioning example of anxiety? - when you were 4 years old you got bitten by a spider, now when you see a spider or think that there might be a spider you get anxious - exposure: expose someone in little increments to the spider until they are no longer anxious EATING DISORDERS: characterized by a persistent disturbance in eating behavior - anorexia nervosa: intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat • behaviors that lead to significantly low body weight • restriction on energy intake relative to requirements • 2 types of anorexia nervosa: restricting type & binge eating / purging • binge: out-of-control consumption of food —> purge: efforts to remove the food from body - bulimia nervosa: uncontrollable binge eating & efforts to prevent resulting weight gain by using inappropriate behaviors such as self-induced vomiting & excessive exercise - binge eating disorder (BED): bingeing is not accompanied by inappropriate compensatory behavior to limit weight gain — associated with being overweight or even obese - obesity: not an eating disorder from a diagnostic perspective & not included in the DSM-5 • some forms are driven by an excessive motivational desire for food • symptoms include compulsive consumption of food & the inability to restrain eating which diagnoses got kicked out of the DSM-5? - bereavement - autistic disorder & asperger’s • now autism spectrum disorder - ADHD changed - hypochondriasis


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