Organic Chemistry Study Guide
Organic Chemistry Study Guide CHEM 2760
Popular in Organic Chemistry (2760, Dr. Allen
Popular in Chemistry
This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nathalie Wu-Rivera on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 2760 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Allen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry (2760, Dr. Allen in Chemistry at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Organic Chemistry 2760 Study Guide Exam 1 Spectroscopy: using light (electronegative radiation) to study how molecules behave. Mass spectroscopy: a technique that allows scientists to determine the molecular weight of unknown compounds. Fragmentation: a process of breaking ionized compounds into separate parts. Mass Spectrum Base peak: tallest peak is the spectrum Molecular ion weight (M+): tallest peak in the last cluster of peaks Determining Molecular Formulas Isotopes: M+1 peak and M+2 peak When to know if you have Nitrogen, Bromine, Chlorine or Oxygen in your compound Nitrogen: if you have an odd number for your molecular weight then you have an odd number of nitrogen’s Bromine: if your last cluster has three peaks, (M, M+1, M+2) and your M+2 peak is about the same size as your M+ peak, then you have bromine. Chlorine: if your last cluster has three peaks (M, M+1, M+2) but your M+2 peak is about three times smaller than your M+ peak, then you have chlorine. Oxygen: after you use the formula for carbons in an unknown and have too much hydrogen left over and you know you don’t have nitrogen, bromine, or chlorine. Then you subtract the weight of oxygen till you have a decent amount of hydrogen’s. Formula for carbons in an unknown: .011xintensityof M+¿ Intensityof M+1 ¿ Infrared Spectroscopy: a technique to identify the functional groups present in a molecule If the frequency of incident IR light matches the vibration frequency of any bonds, that light will be absorbed. Only molecular vibrations that change the dipole moment of the molecule will absorb IR. Nitrogen and Oxygen does not absorb IR, vibrations doesn’t change dipole moment. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR): a technique that allows scientist to “see” hydrogen’s in a molecule. If a molecule has a chiral center then the CH2 hydrogen’s count as different hydrogen’s. Coupling: seeing the hydrogen’s on an adjacent carbon. N+1 rule Singlet: no neighbors Doublet: one neighbor Triplet: two neighbors Quartet: three neighbors Approach for drawing structures: 1.)Calcualte Degrees of Unsaturation (DOU): # of multiple bonds + rings 2n+2 Hypothetical alkane – given formula/2 2.)Use the integrations to generate a list of building blocks. 3.)Draw every possible structure with all blocks Then check NMR for neighbors Side note: DOU of 4 is most likely benzene 13C NMR Spectroscopy: odd number of particles then you will have magnetic and will be able to see NMR Magnetic Field 0-10ppm: when looking at hydrogen Magnetic fiend 0-200ppm: when looking at carbons (sensitive) In CNMR, there’s no splitting because 12C= 99% and 13C=1% Carbonyl is the most important functional group in organic chemistry Resonance in carboxylic acid makes it hard t break down. Carbonyl to Nitrogen bond is called an amide bond (peptide bond). Conjugate bases: the more you can spread the charge, lower the energy and makes it more acidity. Boiling point: Acid is hard to boil because of cyclic dimer (stick together with hydrogen bonds). Ester hydrolysis: for ester reactions to occur faster, conditions should be basic or in acidic conditions. Fischer esterification uses an excess of alcohol. Gabriel synthesis: a way to prepare primary amines.
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