PSYS 371 EXAM TWO STUDY GUIDE
PSYS 371 EXAM TWO STUDY GUIDE PSYS 371
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin@BSU on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYS 371 at Ball State University taught by Rohrer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Applied Behavior Analysis in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Applied Behavior Analysis (PSYS 371) Exam #2 Prep (Chs 3, 4, 5, 6, 8) Ch 3 Respondent Conditioning Respondent conditioning: Unconditioned stimulus (ignites behavior) = unconditioned response: Not Learned Ex: The sun is out, so you will put sunscreen on, so you won’t burn Unconditioned stimulus (US): Don’t have to learn skill, Ex: Feather Unconditioned response (UR): Don’t have to learn response Ex: Feather tickles nose Conditioned stimulus (CS): You have to learn behavior Ex: You have to learn what mom says no to means Conditioned response (CR): A learned response to a stimulus Ex: Always know that “no” means bad Ch 4 Positive Reinforcement Define positive reinforcement. Example? Reward to increase probability of behavior reoccurring Ex: Extra credit for attending study session What is an operant response? Example? Behavior with environmental change Ex: Fan with hot room What is the best way to choose a reinforcer? Example? Make sure it’s valid, with the same or more power of behavior chosen Individual to the person working with Ex: Verbal praise vs. physical objects What is the Premack Principle? Example? Pairing a new behavior with one that is new Ex: Having a workout routine by bedside (paired with waking up) What is satiation? Example? There is a need that has been satisfied too much Ex: Having coffee to wake you up, but eventually build up immunity to it What is immediacy? Example? A reinforcer happens at the time of the event If reinforcer happens after the behavior, results are shown to be positive Ex: Giving client high five after they say a word correctly vs. delayed gratification (job after collegedoesn’t happen immediately) How does immediacy effects positive reinforcement? Example? If you don’t reward good behavior, the client won’t try as hard & will be confused Children need immediate reinforcement, while adults are more patient Ex: If you give your friend a gift for their birthday and they don’t thank you immediately, you might think that they don’t like it & won’t get them a present next time What is contingent reinforcement? Example? You give a reinforcer when the job is done to your standard Ex: Cleaning a room with the clothes hung up, the floor is vacuumed What is noncontingent reinforcement? Example? You reward the behavior no matter if the behavior was correct Ex: If the child tries to pronounce the sound correctly, but they don’t, they still get rewarded Cite an example of the probable effect of contingent reinforcement. Ex: The job can become increasingly harder, so the client can become impatient or frustrated Cite an example of the probable effect of noncontingent reinforcement. Ex: You want to reward attempts because it gets them motivated (Positive) Ex: Make someone think they’re doing the right action, but giving false hope & guidance (Negative) What does it mean to wean someone from the behavior modification program? You start to take them off of their program (plan it out at the beginning, but don’t implement it until later) Why is it important to build weaning into the program? To help the client slowly become aware of their progress and their accomplishments as they end their time with the therapist Ch 5 Conditioned Reinforcement What is an intrinsic reinforcer? Example. Something on the inside of the person Ex: Joy, passion, hope What is an extrinsic reinforcer? Example. Anything not on the inside Ex: A high five, hug, sticker, food What is a natural reinforcer? Example. Something is a natural desire that is rewarding Ex: The presence of food or water, pain from experience, encouragement What is a backup reinforcer? Example. As means to an end, use a reinforcer that doesn’t mean anything & pairing it with other reinforcers that mean something Ex: Money (Not worth anything by itself, but enables happiness by things you can get with it) What is a generalized reinforcer? Stimulus that is there more than once like a backup reinforcer Ch 6 Extinction Define extinction. Examples. The removal of the reinforcement Explain why one would combine extinction with positive reinforcement? Replace a bad influence with a good one What is an extinction burst? Examples? It gets worse before it gets better, the behavior will increase then die out How do you deal with an extinction burst? Ignore the behavior & treat as if doing nothing Ex: Child wants candy bar in store, starts crying, & parents ignore What is spontaneous recovery? Behavior comes back over certain amount of time Why/how should a program plan address spontaneous recovery? Start the procedure over again, implement behavior plan again Plan should cover spontaneous recovery Ch 8 Schedules of Reinforcement (Intermittent Reinforcement) What is intermittent reinforcement? Reinforcing the behavior sometimes, but not all the time (not guaranteed to occur) Why is it so influential? Because if the client does not know when the reinforcement is going to be given, they will work harder, and will be attentive more often Be able to define, know the abbreviations for, and understand examples of reinforcement schedules for each of the following: Fixed Ratio: FR, it’s predictable, Ex: 10 reps = more likely to finish after completed 8 reps Ex: 4 commercials = 5 songs Variable Ratio: VR, not predictable counting items (responses) th th th Ex: Doesn’t know when the reinforcement will come after the 5 , 6 , or 7 answer, working in sales Ex: 15 people come in and maybe one will buy something, but you don’t know what time Fixed Interval: FI, You know how much time is inbetween reward Ex: Class schedule (same classes, same days, same amount of time), washing machine always runs for same amount of time Variable Interval: VI, You don’t know when reward is going to come Ex: Fishing (you don’t know how long it’ll take to catch a fish), pop quiz Fixed Interval with limited hold: FI/LH, How long the reward will be available Ex: Take dog out for 10 minutes every hour Variable Interval with limited hold: VI/LH, You don’t know when or how long it’ll last Ex: Take dog once in morning, afternoon, and at night (time is never the same) Fixed Duration: FD, You know how long you have to do it Ex: Working out (plank for 30 sec), paycheck (work for 4 hrs = 4 hr wage) Variable Duration: VD, You don’t know how long you have to do it Ex: Competition (don’t know how long it’ll last) Things to Consider: Intensity is more important than frequency A person is texting at stop light & takes 45 secs after light turns green to accelerate. This is (latency). What are some ways to reduce reactivity? Don’t observe too closely, don’t say what exactly are observing (less obtrusive) What is higher order conditioning? like respondent conditioning, but another step added Ex: SLP is the enemy because the child doesn’t want to talk What is the difference between a primary & a secondary reinforcer? Unconditioned reinforcer is primary (music: don’t have to have react) Conditioned reinforcer is secondary At the beginning of extinction will there be an increase of decrease of behavior? Increase Continuous reinforcement –noncontiguous reinforcement (reward for any response) Teach something new, want to reinforce it (acquisition: want to gain skill)
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