PSY 2301, Chap 1 Notes
PSY 2301, Chap 1 Notes 2301
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ANTH 1101 - 002
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Upasana Raja on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2301 at Temple University taught by Ronald D. Taylor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Human Development: The scientific study of age-related changes in behavior, thinking, emotions, and personality Norms: Average ages at which developmental milestones are reached. Maturation: The gradual unfolding of a genetically programmed sequential pattern of change Norm-Referenced Tests: Standardized tests that compare an individual child's score to the average score of others her age Lifespan Development: The current view of developmentalists that important changes occur throughout the entire human lifespan and that these changes must be interpreted in terms of the culture and context in which they occur; thus, interdisciplinary research is critical to understanding human development Physical Domain: Changes in the size, shape and characteristics of the body Plasticity: Individuals of all ages possess the capacity for positive change in response to environmental demands Interdisciplinary Research: Research from different kinds of disciplinary perspective (e.g., anthropology, economics and psychology) is needed to fully understand lifespan development Multicontextual Nature of Development: Individual development occurs within several interrelated context (e.g., family, neighborhood, culture) Cognitive Domain: Changes in thinking, memory, problem solving, and other intellectual skills Social Domain: Change in variables that are associated with the relationship of an individual to others Nature-Nurture Debate: The debate about the relative contributions of biological processes and experiential factors to development Quantitative Change: A change in amount Qualitative Change: A change in kind or type Normative Age-Related Changes: Changes that are common to every member of a species Stages: Qualitatively distant periods of development Social Clock: A set of age norms defining a sequence of life experiences that is considered normal in a given culture and that all individuals in that culture are expected to follow Ageism: A prejudicial view of older adults that characterizes them in negative ways Normative History-Graded Changes: Changes that occur in most members of a cohort as a result of factors at work during a specific, well-defined historical period Nonnormative Changes: Changes that result from unique, unshared events Critical Period: A specific period in development when an organism is especially sensitive to the presence (or absence) of some particular kind of experience Sensitive Period: A span of months or years during which a child may be particularly responsive to specific forms of experience or particularly influenced by their absence Atypical Development: Development that deviates from the typical development pathway in a direction harmful to the individual Naturalistic Changes: The process by studying people in their normal environments Case Study: An in-depth examination of a single individual Laboratory Observation: Observation of behavior under controlled conditions Survey: Data-collection method in which participants respond to questions Population: The entire group that is of interest to a researcher Sample: Subset of a group that is of a researcher who participants in a study Representative Sample: A sample that is the same characteristics as the population to which a study’s findings apply Correlation: A relationship between two variables that can be expressed as a number ranging from -1.00 to +1.00 Experiment: A study that tests a casual hypothesis Experimental Group: The group in an experiment that receives the treatment the experimenter thinks will produce a particular effect Control Group: The group in an experiment that receives either no special treatment or a neutral treatment Independent Variable: The presumed causal element in an experiment Dependent Variable: The characteristic or behavior that is expected to be affected by the independent variable Cross-Sectional Design: A research design in which groups of people of different ages are compared Longitudinal Design: A research design in which people in a single group are studies at different times in their lives Sequential Design: A research design that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal examinations of development Cohort Effects: Findings that are the result of historical factors to which one age group in a cross-sectional study has been exposed Ethnography: A detailed description of a single culture or context Research Ethics: The guidelines researchers follow to protect the rights of animals used in research and humans who participants in studies
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