Key Terms * Absolute Space Mathematical space described through
points, lines, areas, planes, and configurations, whose relationships .can be fixed precisely through. math reasoning. Places specific geographical settings, worin distinctine
physical, social, and cultural attributes Regions - territories that encompass...many places.yallvor
most of wbuch share attributes different from her hithe attributes.. of places. elsewhere in
> places are. socially constructed - ginen different meanings t b y different groups for different purposes
Sense of Blace the feelings evoked among people as'
ą result of the experienus. and memories they... associate with a place and to the symbolism
We also discuss several other topics like How physical impossibility is used to critique pseudoscience?
thay .attatch to that place. Su n t - I can also refer to the characters of a place as seen by outsiders
ordinary landscape (or vernacular landscapelo every day Il landscapes that people create in the course of their lives Leveryday-material features built forms . . : .
Symbolic landscare represent particular values...V.. -Hwaspirations. Thent buildis..and financers. want to We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of dynamics in music?
impart tw.drlarger publics : un srepresentations and synabolic meaning in * Topological space measured by the nature and | degree of connectivity between vocations (whether they I are linked, how they are linked, etc.). (metro system map) * Socio economic space + described in terms of sites
. and situations, routes, regions, and distribution patterns 1 spatial relationships are fixed through measures of time,
Cost, profit, production, and physical distanu. * Placeussness the eradication of distictine places and the making
of standard landscapes that results from an Insensitivity
to the sqmfiaanse of place
N STRAWWW.TWITY A KASAYSAYAN MARITASARINUS SENWWIKIM Don't forget about the age old question of What do structural functionalists mean?
[key terms .- X_human freography – deals with the spatial organization
- t ot human actinties and.. with people's relationships . | Di. thesr eonrronments ---------
- *hysicut, heography - deals with Earthi naturel processes. -
and their outcomes. “Elimatex.weather. Land forms/e.lology .. X. Identity the sense that you make of yourself through .
your subjective feelings based on your every day experiences - and sociat relations. com ama If you want to learn more check out Which flowers are used as natural dyes for cotton industry?
If you want to learn more check out Where did romulus set up a sanctuary for criminals?
..... - . - Latitude angular distance of a paint on Earth's surface.si -
-measured m. degrees minutes and seconds north or south from
the equator lines. m. arand. 91086, parallel to equator . 1 x longitude angular distance of a point measured from ... - east..or west from the Prime mendian un teenwich, England
map projection systematic rendering on a flat. Surface 14. of the geographical coordinates of features found on Faxn surtuce.. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the major features of representative democracy?
thenei un always be some distortion ...
• Moll weidbe projlation Size of countries are true, shapes distorted
Mercator projection directions and shapes are true size: distorted
Azimuthen. Fiquidistant projection distances true, direction; ... - --- area and shape are datorted. - - - : . ..
O Rabinson projections distance, direction, area, shape are distorted
Geographic information System (G19) - Software in... AIS. -.t in corporates programs to store and access spatial data, - ..
1. to manipulate this data and to draw maps .... . ... anows analysts to emphasize the spatial relationships among
the objects being mapped ...... * Geographical imagination allows us to understand changing
- patterns, processesand relationships among .peoples places, and regions & Spatial Analysis the study of maing geographic ...
phenomenas location, distance, spac, accessibility. i. and...
--- Spatial interacting are 3 key, uncepts. . . .
Chapter one Key terms * Spaticul ...diffusion – the way that things .
I spread througin. Space and over time * Time-space convergence the rate at which placus. . Il move closer together. In traner, or communication time or costs.
Presults from a decrease in the. Fraction of Distance ? *F-0.D). reflection of the time and wrt. Of, overcoming distance. A cogmtine Images --mentall :maps) ame. psychological and
representations of locations that spring from people's
Individual ideas and impressions of these u.cations * Cognitive Distance - the distance, that people. perciene as
existing in a given situation * Cognitive Space - defined and measured in terms of people's
valves, feelings. beliefs, and perceptions about locations, districts,.. and regions.
Places.. are socially constructed, while regions, are deficitories...A.
sense of place is a feeling ane gets as a result of expenences in that olar. A summone landscape is built of meaning and representatives an borayle. Ordinary landscape fs built or material. topological space notices - connectivitys Among plaus, socioeconomic space ..notices the infrastinctive amoundo a Time-space convergence can be seen as the shrinking of the world
due to the degree of transportation available. This results from
a decrease in the friction of distance. Stime + cost of overcoming distance) X Distance - Decay function the rate at which a particular
| actity or phenomenon diminishes with whereasing distance :
to the farther people have to travel, the less likely they are to do sor
Key Terms ----._Hearth areas geographic setting where_new.prachties. --- --- have developed_and from which they have spread
-... Minisystems asociety, with a reciprocal social economiy...... ------ world_empire group of minisystems that have been - ...
thaosocked into a unamon political system - - w
F wealth flows francia producer classes to elite. Classes by faxes < brought about colomation and exchanization * colonization the physical settlement in a new territory to p ople from cut. colonizing staye
. -------- - In consequence of the law.ufos.menishing, neturn... -- e over time, as world empires_kept forming and trache was established
x capitalism emerged a forno. of economic and social .
.. Organization characterized by the profit motwe_and the . control of the means of production, distrabution, and
. exchange of goods_ by private ownership .. *_world- system interdependent system of countries linked
by telitical and economic competition ..s regions notret_absocked Into the world. Iteystem ? external areas ... * Imperialism the deliberate exercise_ militery power
and economic infivence by powerful states to advance . Land Seung their national materests.
com . _ colonialsm limouves the establishment and maintenance
.! Of Political and legal doon kation by a state ouere.. .
a separate and alien. Seulety ". . X Core regions those that donmath trade , control the most
advanced technology hame heen levels of product wity w/ diverse econonsy xperipheral regions -dependent and disadvantageous .--
trading relationships with primatwe Or. Obsolescent technolgierican .. under developed or namany specialized economies., low productivity Q X Semi - Peripheral Regions able to exploit peripheral -
regions, but are themselves exploited and dommated by come reyians
Key Terms * Hegemony domination over the world economy and interest J. exercised by one natunistate...a partwiar epocha. A Dinsven cok labor. _. involves the specialization of different
people.p-regionen and countries in certain Kinds of economic achiuties. x-comparative advantage specializatuns m. colonies that
did not dublicate ore compete with the domestic....
suppliers within conę tanthesle.g. Bananas sunt, be grown in Europe) > Neocolonialisma - economic and politicos strategies. by umuch
- powertye states in care economies indirectly... maintain or
extend their influence over other areas..or people * commodity chains. 7 networks. of labor and producation
proussess that m. Originath. In the extraction or production - of raw materials and worse end results is the delivery
and consumptions of a finished commodity , so * Globalization the increasing interconnectedness of differenti
- parts of the world through common processes of economic, .
environmentar, political, and cultural change . *. Spatial justice - to consider the distrabution of society's
benefits and burdens at different Spatial scales, stating into account both vanations in people's needs and in . . their contribution to the production of wealth and social well-being.
& Hearth areas are where agnaltral praction is developed, aneh led
to an economy to make an mini system, many minisystems. being absorbed into a common political system would be a wond empire. Because of the law of diminishing returns, world empines needed more resources to sustain their growing populations, this colonization was necessary in order Ho obtain resources from other lands. This was done by imperialism, which luses military power to control other states: 1 colonization is the physical settlement of a new territory, and
colonialism is simply the control over another country, Neocolonialism -- -- -- -----. -...
----- -------- --- - -
-- ---------- ---- ----_
& At the end of each chapter are learning Outcomes Revisited', which are summaries of the chapter. Check them out it
- you don't have time to read the whole chapter! Chapter Two
---------- ---- ------------------------- - --
* International anison of Labor a driven by the needs. 1 . of the wore and maposed through it's economu and military strength I - interdependency ieach - plau and reguen carries com patrasar-----...
ele within the competitive world system because of thesta soles, - the places melu seguns are dependent on each other
-------- - heral of the words countries, eventually becoming momed . . -- - some extent in the interdependence of the capitalust system .....
. neuen development: - industrial. reiwting effects were cheven.
I across the globe, resulting in an European core
imperial overtretun - when Hegemony_by_a country has. Weakened
Spatial Inequality_ globalization has intensifisel_differences ---- --Hin prosperity between the core and periphery
4 3.BILLON Deeple live off of $2:00 a day, 1000 people are worth 3.5 tril --- today's Lore' - Morth Amenca, European Union Japan nd
Spatial Justice requires us to consider, the distrubution of societys...
l benefits and burdens at different Spatial Scales, gking bato.aceant ... l both vanations in people need and in their contribution to the ..
production of wealth and social well-being. * the 3 tiered world system (core penphery, semi) IS AVID.
1 . . -ve command oncom - ---- -- -- -- ---- . -- - - ------------ - - --
-memoration--- . - '. ---- - -- ---- -------
mees ------ Services on ---
- -- -- --
Chapter 3 Key Terms & angus a count of the number of people in a country, region, city * vital records * report birthsy deaths,marriages, divorces, anel same daseles A Density a numerical measure of the relationship between
1. the number of people and some other unit expressed as a natio J*_crude Density, also called arithmetic density
I to the total number of people divided by the total land area
Nutritional: Density ratio, between the total population and Al the amount...ok land under cultivation in an ginen unit of area & t Agricultural Density rative between the number of agriculteralis
- (ppy earning a living from farming) per unit of farmakle land . | A Health Density ration between the number of Physicians
to the total population - - . . . . * Demography - The study of the characteristics of
. ... ... we tage. Sexe yramid-wrepresentation of the population
I based on its composition according to age and sex * cohort a group of individuals who 'sherre a common..
temporal. demographic experience
1 censuses are extremely expensive and labor : Intensive for gouts, ll so they occur in frequently. . .
1* difference in collection times between countries make que tel ... data clifficult to compare... .
w a l! Censuses. tena w.th.ander represent non-mainstream kinds of households a f census is a central to the way govts operate and how serinces are given
population distrubution + where people are concentrated ; accessibility,
topography, soll fertility, climate/ weather, water availability shape distrubutun & population composition the subgroups that make up a population th provides insights on how the population behaves and will behave
age-sexy pyramids display variatwons within subgroups of populations
Rey Terms -- . . - Mobility the ability to move from one place to another, T. A nergration long-distance move to a new location ----
$. emagration moving from a partiwlak locatwa., Out: migrent in --. immigration among tu_ų particular location., in-migration_. - -
internatinais migratwn timone from one cantry to another . intendent migration moves that all within a country or region ...
push factus events conditions that impetan.person to move from a locatin -
pull factors forces of attraction that influence ppl to move to a location ,* voluntary migration - mdanidiad chooses to move -- -
Xforced meatun migratwn, accurs against ones will lausn factors _int huenda * Refugees individuals who.crossnotunar borders. Seeking Safety_amed asylum in
internally_displaced persons (2013) hamber of indiuiduals who are....
uprateek within the boundaries of their own country oecause of conflicto * Guest workers - laborexs qiventemporary_visasti mark for limited time
tundocumented workers individuals who arrive in the country. . .. 6 - without Official entry-visas and are considered by the ... ..
government to be .m. the country illegally... x transnational migrants ppl why set up homes and/or work . .
1. in more than one country .. *_Amenity-Prigration 5 miqrant seeks not necessarily employment,
ut cultural, enronmental or-sociau benefits in a new country / city
- -- - home crude bertarate (CBR)?catw of number of line burths per 1000 people in se year. ti Total Fertility Ratl (IFR) measure of anerage number of, children a woman will have. Lande Death rate (COR) ratio of number of deaths per 1000 ppl.in. a year *infunt mortality rate - deaths of infant ander tyear at age perleue Ave.brittis.
ey Terms ... .-... Sustainable development seeks a balance among econome growth
! environmental impacts, and social_ equity...... ... Bio piracy commercial exploitation of biological materials, thay
is diumsmattery and patenting that material without compensating the peoples whose knowledge reveased the name of
them. ec.on-whos territory it. was discovered ---- & Nature → a soual creation as much as it is the physical chiverse
sovety → Sum_of the traventions, institutions, and relationships. ------ .-.-.t created and reproduced by human beings_ across.... .
. ..partiwlar places and time.. Help
Technology physical_objects or._artifacts, actuaties or processes, knowledge .. Nature-Suutety maeractions . -.---------- .. .- -----
* Cultural elology — the study of how human society has adapted
- to environmental challenges like aridity_anel steep landscapes
1 Through Hannologies such as incigasion_anet Terracing and .. . organizing people to construct and maintain these systems. . . ---- Pontican Ciology Storesses that hinaen-enmronment relations
can be adequately understood only by relating patterns of ... resource, use to political and economie forces, particularly the . way that natinal states and capitalist_ecnome practices
can lead te, as well as exacerbaite, environmental degradation. -- bromantiusm philosophy that emphasized the interdependence. 1 of humans and nature. . .. . .. - . -. *Transcendentalism mystical and spiritual. Lire replaces a prmitwe
and Savage one ble the Spirit dominater. the flechu. ------- x conservation y holds that natural resources should be used
thoughtfully and that immans should serve as stewards, ..
not explotters of the natural world. .- Preservation nature is_ soured and should be preserved .
Not used at all. .......
Chapter 4 Key. Terms --- .. . ... . . & Ennronmental Ethics a plulosophical perspeetue that
prescribes. moral principles as guidance for our son treatment of nating purpose water
in * Eco feminisin hotas that patriaahy is.at. the center
of our priesent environmental malaise, aned, has promoved
the exploitation anel subordination, af. both. nomen and nature Deepi Ecology + Selfrealization (nungans - must learn to recognize
they are part of a nonhinan world) and biospherical
egalitarianism (all components. Of Earth deserve vespeet) . Environmental Justice this movement considers the pollution Of neighborhoods by factores, hazardous waste dumps, etc. to be the result of a structured anel institutionalized inequality
that is pervasine in both the capitalist: core and the
periphery. is, .. . * Ectheology-> addresses the current environmental crisis through
belief systems thests will. overcome the inadequuges :of
humanly created institutions. vawes, other creatures + Goel's Intent. X Anthropocene, Paul Crutzens term face our era- the.
amenti geological..era In Earth's history in which the extent..
Of.mt human actuities from agriculture to industrialization Leto urbanization have had far-reaching ehteetti ohutok ecosystems
A ELOSYS terorisme a community of ourferent species interacting
with each others and with the larger ennronment around the * Ecological Imperialism -- the introduction of exotiy plants and
animals into new ecosystems. - vrne
go to www.cowspiracy.com, or watch
conspiracy . on Netflix to learn the Chapter 4 I truth about where the majority of CO2
I emissions come from key terms . L
virgin. Soil Epidemics._* a population is susceptible to a dureart
| - because they have.nopeituraftmmunity .presos.. . . ...... exposure to a disease. Notre brought from a new area: .. ..
columban Exchange. f the interaction between the cene --Old worlof Europes and stuen. New World (Americas) mustrated.........
by the vogages by columbus..... Dienaographic collapse. near-genocide of patine..populations
the coumbias Exchange Started the demographic... collapse of Northe American populations, mastuy due to the - Nagin -soil epidemic at that time, ..
* Climate change a change in the state of the climate
I that can be identifred using statistical testa Refers to me .... . tatuat aimate change and human-caused climate change...
* Global warming an mérease in sodda temperatures... and.com
change in dimate assauated with hereasing levels of ... - CO2, metane, and other_trace grasses_ green borse gases ... .X Greenhouse Gases result from human activities such as the
--- bourbana ef fossil fuels cement parochotumi deforestation animal agriculture
Global change the comaboncotim of politicalye.conomic, sociale |--hacturicult and enmanmerrat. problems with which timana t beings aeross Earth maste currently contende * Environmental detechnie na dorine holding that human.. . .....
activities are shaped and constrained by the environment
----- ---- - ------
- ** moment
50 questions on test
- 40 multiple choice
- 10 true, tanse. ..
Review Chol X Humenn Geography recognizes interdependenca
* Place, region, landscapes' 4 sense of place, place lessness
the X GIS geographical information systems & know your map projections (focused on .in. X cognitive maps * Absolute space, topological, etc
. & cognithe distancar o friction of distancer & distance-decay function. .
Atine -space convergence ..Ch 2 & heart areas - min systems
* Internatural oriusjon.. of. labor y colonight.com., hevellonialisna (780-new) *. settler çovonialism · .. - * wond systems theory, tunenen development - & interdependhyr . .
* globalization .. Ch. 3 A demoqraphy,
tcensus limitations? - * poplatum distrahu tini VS. pop. composition
Pop' density . . . . . - e age - set pyramas. useful? * birth/ fertility rate... death /mortality rater
e migration vs. mobility." we different kinds of migrations nestunal, labor, vountary,forudsete
grest workers, refugees, ID puni xpush it pull factors
- land use it impact pg (134)
- water use & access pg (140) Ch. 4
biomass / hydropower I Review H Ch.4.& nature and society relatunshup . .. Tr . fenmonmental determinism
* commodification of native ..
* I PAT determines we pack -- core-penkberg relatuns.
& political ecology -- -- - conservatwo. Vs_preservation --------- --- - .-.. . .
Key terms. .------ -- - -- ----- ------ -- - -- -------- ... relatunship bolt environmental changer to colonialy.
m d usealle.. -- -- -- .. --Xanthropocene f unthropogenue. Climate change -------- -..-.
-- -- -- -- -- --- --- - ---- -- ----- -- - -- - - .. Ch. 4 .--- P AT_ Environmental Impact Espopulatum kaffluence tealth Technology . .. -_Anthoopocene new geological era_defined by human, actuhnyimpact --Anthropogenic aimate change. → climate change caused by Kumain actwty..
.. Spatial inequality --- _- the distrubutwn_and production of the world's energy regarles, and - - .consumption, are deeply spatially menen.. .
& Biomass total mass of organisms in a giren area of volume se populations of the periphery rely on bromass for energy needs i
prob tems! - wood. burning = aur pollution deforestations the permanent cleaning - - t--out and obestruction of forest, by fuerisood consumptum . --
- Hydropower dams. built to supply. hydropower have profond... . Le negative environmental impacts -- - --- - - -- --
- Land use environment dramatically affectedy.most dramatic is loss t of forest cover loss of diversity, destabilization of O2 and CO2.
cultivation expansim because not thereased demand desertifications. wetland Share - destructuri clearing of_grasslands... ------- & Water - core poplaturs have low water calts, periphery have high to costs y
to "water crisis" ~ water as a public good is being rapictly turning into . . l a prise la privatized commodity Funcreased prices and
--- alless ability problems ------- ---- --- --- - -- . .. .