Anthro Exam 1 Study Guide
Anthro Exam 1 Study Guide Anth 1010
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anth 1010 at Tulane University taught by Erin Patterson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Anthropology Exam 1 Outline Lauren Ellis I. Origins of Evolutionary Thought A. Terms 1. Anthropology: study of humans in a cross-cultural context 2. 3. Culture: the sum total of learned traditions, values and beliefs that groups of people and a few highly intelligent animal species possess 3. LinguisticAnthropology: study of language, its origin and use 4. Archeology: study of the material culture of past people 5. BiologicalAnthropology: study of humans as biological organisms, considered in a evolutionary framework — Subfields: 1) Primatology - study of non-human primates and their anatomy, genetics, behavior and ecology 2) Paleoanthropology - study of fossil record of ancestral humans and their primate kin 3) Skeletal Biology (study of musculoskeletal system, human growth/development and the skeletal anatomy) and Human Osteology (study of human skeleton) 4) Paleopathology - study of disease in ancient populations 5) Bioarcheology - study of human remains in an areological context 6) ForensicAnthropology - study of human remain applied to a legal context 6. Fixity of Species: each living form possesses a fixed essence that can never change 7. Taxonomy: science of classifying and naming living things 8. Inheritance of acquired characteristics: theory of evolutionary change proposing that changes that occur during the lifetime of an individual, through use or disuse, can be passed on to the next generation (wrong) 9. Catastrophism: view that the Earth’s geological features are the results of sudden, cataclysmic events (natural disasters affect species) 10. Uniformitarianism: theory that the same gradual geological processes we observe today operates in the past 11. Adaptive Radiation: diversification of one founding species into multiple species and niches through natural selection 12. Fitness: measure of relative reproductive success of individuals 13. Reproductive Success: the number of offspring an individual produce sand rears to the reproduce age 14. Selective Pressures: forces in the environment that influence repressive success in individuals 15.Adaptation: evolutionary shift in response to environmental changes B. Concepts/People: 1. Evolutionary Theory - idea of fixity of species and young earth (Aristotle) —> Scientific Revolution —> idea of changing species and old earth - biological variation in all species - more offspring are produces than can survive (competition among individuals) - individuals with favorable variations have greater fitness and pass on the favorable trait - successful variations accumulate and a new species may appear - geographic location also contributes to the formation of a new species - natural selection occurs at the individual level, whereas evolution occurs at the population level 2. Pre-Darwinism People a) Archbisphop James Usher - used Bible to calculate date when world was created b) Carolus Linnaeus - wrote “System Naturae” 1735; Linnaean naming system for all organisms - genus and species labels - basis for taxonomy c) Georges-Louis LeClerc - wrote “Natural History” 1749; did not believe in fixity of species d) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck - believed in inheritance of acquired characteristics (wrong) e) Georges Cuvier - catastrophism f) James Hutton - uniformitarianism 3. Darwinism People a) Thomas Malthus - wrote “An Essay on the Principal of Population” 1798; says that population sizes are limited by resource availability and that more offspring are produces than can survive b) Alfred Wallace- wrote “On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely form the Original Type” 1858; says that new species are created by environmental factors c) Charles Darwin - wrote “ On the Origin of Species” 1858; talks about adaptive radiation, says mechanism of evolution is natural selection II.Genetics A. Terms: 1. Blending inheritance: discredited 19th c. idea that genetic facts averaged out/blended together when passed onto offspring 2. Particulate inheritance: concept of heredity based on transmission of genes 3. Law of Segregation: the to allies of a gene found on each pari of chromosome segregate independently of one another into sex cells\ 4. Law of IndependentAssortment: genes found on different chromosomes are sorted into sex cell independently of one another (ex: color and shape are independent) 5. Homozygous: having two copies of the same allele at the same locus on a chromosome 6. Heterozygous: having different alleles at the same locus on a chromosome 7. Genotype: genetic makeup of an individual, usually at a particular locus 8. Phenotype: the observable or detectable physical characteristics 9. Polydactyly: having an extra “digit” 10. Codominance: the expression of two alleles in heterozygotes; neither allele is dominant or recessive so they both influence the phenotype (ex:ABO Blood Type) 11. Polygenic traits: traits influenced by genes at two or more loci B. Concepts: - each parents contribute genetic material equally - Punnet squares allow you to predict allele combinations for future generations - Gregor Mendel: discovered basis of inheritance in 19th c. • considered true-breeding lines - Modes of Mendelian Inheritance 1. Autosomal dominant inheritance -Achondroplasia 2. Autosomal recessive inheritance -Albinism 3. X-linked recessive inheritance - Hemophilia - Non-Mendelian Inheritance 1. Polygenic Inheritance 2. Mitochondrial Inheritance (mtDNA) - inherited from a single lineage (mother), no recombination of genetic material 3. Pleiotrophy - when the action of one gene affects several different traits - Waardenberg Syndrome (light eyes and deafness) III. Evolutionary Forces and Speciation A. Terms 1. Mutation: any change in genetic coding (DNA) - point mutation or entire chucks of chromosomes - ex: Sickle-Cell Disease, HbS allele is the trait 2. Gene flow: the exchange of genes between populations (movement of genetical material), drives evolution 3. Genetic Drift: changes in allele frequencies by random factors, in small populations - an allele can get “lost” and the one remaining goes into “fixation” 4. Founder Effect: extreme form of genetic drift in which allele frequencies are altered in small populations that are taken from or remnants of larger populations - ex: Ellis-Van Crevald (form of dwarfism) inAmish population in Lancaster, PA 5. Genetic Bottleneck: temporary dramatic reduction in size of a population or species - ex: Southern Elephant Seal - repopulation but without gene resistance to disease 6. Homologous traits: having similar traits from shard ancestry 7. Analogous traits: having similar traits due to similar use, not shared ancestry (convergent or parallel evolution) 8. Cladistics: classification using ancestral and derived traits to distinguish patterns of evolution within lineages 9. Speciation: process by which a new species evolves from an earlier species 10. Biological species concept: defines species as interbreeding populations reproductively isolated from other such populations 11. Ecological species concept: group of organism exploring a single niche, emphasized the role of natural selection separating pecked with one another 12. Niche: position of a species within its biological and physical environments (diet, terrain, predators, etc.) 13.Anagenesis: evolution of a trait or species into another over a period of time 14. Cladogenesis: evolution through the branching of a species 15.Allopatric speciation: speciation occurring via geographic location 16. Parapatric speciation: speciation occurring when 2 populations have continuous distributions and some phenotypes in the distribution are more favorable than other 17. Sympatric speciation: speciation occurring in the same geographic location B. Concepts 1. Pre-mating Isolating Mechanisms - habit isolation - temporal isolation - behavioral isolation - mechanical isolation 2. Post-mating Isolating Mechanisms - sperm-egg incompatibility - zygote inviability - embryonic/fetal inviability - offspring inviability - offspring sterility IV. Primate Taxonomy A. Terms 1. Power grip: when the fingers clamp down on an object with the thumbs making counter pressure - holding a tool 2. Precision grip: when the intermediate and distal fingertips and the thumb press against each other - writing a pen 3. Primitive trait: trait inherited from the last common ancestors of the considered group 4. Derived trait: trait present in an organism, but absent in the last common ancestor of the considered group 5. Arboreal: live in trees 6. Rhinarium: moist, hairless pas at end of snout, enhances sense of smell B. Concepts - study primates because of shared DNA(homologous models), similar environments (analogous models) and to learn about ourselves… although must remember that they are not the same - primates live in tropical, warm areas (Africa, North of LatinAmerica, Central America, SoutheastAsia) — The Primate Pattern —- 1. Limbs and Locomotion a) tendency toward an erect body posture b) flexible generalized limb structures c) prehensile hands - five digits on each hands - adapted for grasping or holding d) power grip and precision grip 2. Diet and Teeth a) lack of dietary specialization (omnivorous - diet consisting of various foods) b) generalized dentition (heterodont - have many types of teeth - canine, molars, premolars, incisors) c) dental formula - 2:1:2:3 3. Senses and The Brain a) color vision (old world primates) b) depth perception - binocular vision: vision characterized by overlapping fields provided by forward-facing eyes - stereoscopic vision: ability to perceive objects in 3-D c) reduction in olfaction d) large and complex brains e) prolonged period of infant dependent and life history f) single births (except: callitrichids - marmosets and tamarins) g) tend to live in social groups (exception: orangoutangs) h) tendency toward diurnal activity patterns (exception: lemurs, tarsiers, etc.) — Primate Taxonomy — (Debate over Suborders) Stepsirhini Prosimii - Lemurs - Lemurs - Lorises - Lorises - Pottos and Galagos - Pottos and Galagos - Tarsiers Haplorhini Anthropoidea - Apes - Apes - Monkeys - Monkeys - Humans - Humans - Tarsiers A. Prosimians (Lemurs, Lorises + Pottos & Galagos, Tarsiers) - nocturnal, arboreal, rhinarium, dental comb (teeth stick out), claw on second digit for grooming 1. Lemurs • Island of Madagascar • omnivorous (eats both plants and insects • Ring-Tail Lemurs are diurnal and very social (unique from other Prosimians) 2. Lorises (includes Pottos & Galagos) • SEAsia andAfrica • entirely arboreal • omnivorous • Sunda Slow Loris have elbow glands that secrete a liquid for communication and have a slow quadrupedal motion (no leaping or jumping) 3. Aye-Aye (unique species, very different) • Island of Madagascar • very rare, close to extinction • nocturnal • pointy, moist nose; bat-like ears; bushy coat/tail • 18 sharp teeth - grow continuously! with unique dental formula (1:0:0:3) • long wire-like middle finger to tap on trees to hear insects moving • nicitating membrane (third eye lid to moisturize and protect) 4. Tarsiers • Tropics of SEAsia Prosimian Traits Anthropoid Traits Unique Tarsier Traits - large eyes - no tapetum lucidum (layer of - completely carnivorous tissue - 180 head rotation - dry nose - suction cup ﬁnger tips tog rasp trees - nocturnal/arboreal - free moving upper lip B.Anthropoids (Monkeys,Apes and Humans) - larger bodies and brains - “higher primates —> more social - reduced olfaction - increased reliance on vision (color vision, etc.) - lower jaw = fused at mid line - no dental comb - longer gestation. maturation and parental care - Apes and Humans: upright posture and no tail Anthropoids Platyrrhini (New World Monkeys) Catarrhini (Old World Monkeys,Apes and - 70 species Humans) - Mexico and C.America - Africa mostly - nostrils face out to the side - nostrils face downward - prehensile tails (can grasp, function as a - diurnal - single births only limb) - almost exclusively arboreal - bigger than New World Monkeys - diurnal (except owl monkey 1. LesserApes (ex: Gibbons and Siamans) - SEAsia - hook-like fingers - long arms with flexible joints; short legs, upright spine - swing from trees (brachiation) - Ischial callosities (butt pads) - monogamy - little sexual dimorphism 2. GreatApes (Orangutangs, Gorillas Bonobos, Chimpanzees) a) Orangutangs - only GreatApe to live inAsia - islands of Borneo and Sumtra - habitat destruction threatens their survival - long, red, shaggy hair - pronounced sexual dimorphism - long arms, mobile hip joints, prehensile hands/feet - spend a lot of time in trees (females and babies are arboreal) use all four limbs to swing (not effect at brachiation) - mates defend form the ground - solitary diurnal primates (interaction solely for mating purposes) - long inter birth period (av. 7 yrs.) - dependent offspring until about 15 yrs b) Gorillas - biggest of GreatApes - sexual dimorphism (males and females look different) - dark brown/black fur - ground dwellers (terrestrial) - quadrupedal (move on four limbs) —> knuckle walk (although capable of bipedal stance c) Chimpanzees (Pan troglogytes) and Bonobos (Pan paniscus) - share 97% of DNAwith humans - multi male, multi female groups —> break apart and reform throughout day - males form strong bonds, unlike females V. Primate Behavior A. Terms 1. Evolutionary biology: study of evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on earth 2. Ecology: study of the relationship between organisms and all aspects of their environment 3. Behavioral ecology: study of evolution of behavior, emphasizes the role of ecological factors as agents of natural selection 4. Behavior: anything an organism does that involved action in response to internal or external stimuli, the response of an individual, group or species to its environment 5. Social structure: composition, size and sex ratio of a group of animals — influenced by — a) Body size b) Basal Metabolic Rate c) Diet d) Distribution of Resources e) Predation f) Dispersal Patterns g) Life Histories h) Distribution and Types of Sleeping Sites i) Activity Patterns j) HumanActivities
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