Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide chem 10061-001
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Matthew Goetz on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to chem 10061-001 at Kent State University taught by David bowers in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see general chemistry 2 in Chemistry at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Exam 1 Study Guide 0 Organic Chemistry The study of carbon compounds Mainly bound to H Also bound to N O F P S Cl Br and I 0 Important structural and chemical properties of Carbon Ability to catenate Small size allows orbital overlap and strong bonds Very stable bonds Does not readily form ionic compounds 0 Hydrocarbons Organic compound made of Hydrogen and Carbon 0 Naming Organic Compounds Prefix Root Suffix Root is the number of the longest continuous carbon chain Roots are meth for 1 eth for 2 prop for 3 but for 4 pent for 5 hex for 6 hept for 7 oct for 8 non for 9 and dec for 10 Suffix for alkanes is ane Each prefix identifies branches off of a main carbon chain 0 Alkanes Hydrocarbons With only single bonds Called saturated hydrocarbons 0 Alkenes Hydrocarbons With a CarbonCarbon double bond Unsaturated hydrocarbons With restricted rotation due to double bond 0 For their names the alkene suffix is ene 0 These may also be cis and trans isomers due to the double bond Trans are When the chain is the opposite following the double bonds Cis are When the chain is mirrored on both side of the double bonds EH CH3 EH3 H rig Ci Ia G r a f H H H CH3 Fit fatum 0 Alkynes Hydrocarbons With at least one CarbonCarbon triple bond Unsaturated hydrocarbons Suffix is yne pe11tjr11e This is pentyne because the longest chain of Carbons is 5 Carbons long It has the 2 as a prefix for there is a triple bond between Carbon 2 and carbon 3 Functional Groups Specific combinations of atoms that react in a set way These combinations determine the physical and chemical properties of molecules They also determine polarity of molecules for they may have dipoles Alkene A hydrocarbon with a double bond Alkyne A hydrocarbon with a triple bond Alcohol A carbon bound to an oxygen that is also bound to a hydrogen The names for these have a 01 suffix Haloalkane This is anywhere where just a halogen is bonded to a carbon These are named with the name of the halogen as a prefix Amine This is where a Nitrogen is bound to a carbon It is primary secondary or tertiary depending on of H s Primary is two hydrogens Secondary is one hydrogen Tertiary is no hydrogens attached to the nitrogen The name ends with an amine suffix Example Methylamine Aldehyde This is when a carbon is attached to an O and a terminal H These are named with an al suffix Ketone This is when an O is double bonded to a C in a carbon chain The names of these are ended with an one suffix Carboleic Acid This is when there is a COOH present These end with an oic acid m This is when two oxygens are bound into a carbon chain They are named with an oate suffix Amide This is when both a N and an O are bound to C s These are named with an amide suffix Nitrile This is when a carbon is triple bonded to a N They are named with a nitrile suffix This section has 2 major equations heat added om T L AFr5 L 393 I And it iiii iw changein EET39I IEETEILWE pem heal WHEE The rst equation is used to show energy change throughout a single phase The second equation is used when there is a phase change involved LiquidGas Equilibrium Vaporization and condensation occur at an equal rate in a vacuum Liquids always have vapors above them giving them a vapor pressure Vapor pressure is the pressure exerted by that vapor on the liquid An open system is one in which no equilibrium is present A closed system is one in which a liquidgas equilibrium is present Therefore evaporation and condensation happen at the same time and rate At higher temperatures molecules evaporate faster The effects of temperature on the pressure of gas is nonlinear and expressed with by the Clausius Clapeyron equation which I unfortunately may not nd online in a good representation So I will try to explain it the best I may verbally This equation is the natural log of pressure two divided by pressure one change in heat of vaporization divided by the constant 83143 x 1temperature 21temperature 1 My apologies that this equation may be poorly represented This equation shows the relationship between temperature and pressure change in a system Triple point A temperature and pressure where all 3 phases are in equilibria Critical temp Highest temperature at which gas may condense Critical pressure Pressure required to liquefy a gas Tvnes of Intermolecular Forces in order of descendingstrength Iondipole Interaction between an ion and a polar molecule Such as when H20 dissolves a salt and makes electrolytes Dipoledipole Interaction between 2 dipoles Best ordered in a solid lattice Hvdrooen bonding Force involving a Hydrogen bound to an F O or N This is a strong force due to highly polar bonds lon induced dipole and dipole induced dipole A nearby electric eld distorts the electron cloud of a nonpolar molecule May either push away the electrons of pull them closer Very temporary forces only present as long as electric eld is present Can induce a temporary dipole Disoersion Forces Instantaneous brief interactions Universal Very weak Constantly form and break Depend on polarizability Higher surface area on molecules allows more dispersion forces to form Brief arbitrary interactions between nonpolar covalent molecules Polarizability Ease with which an electron cloud is distorted Large species have higher polarizability more easily distorted Follows size trend Liquid State Pronerties Surface tension Energy required to increase the surface area of water Due to exterior water molecules trying to move down and interior molecules rising against them This causes an upward pressure on the surface of the water Capillarity Rising of liquid against gravity Occurs as liquid is brought up by cohesion and then adheres to the wall of the container by adhesion If this is constantly done the liquid will rise as it sticks to the surface of the wall Viscosity The resistance of a liquid to ow Occurs when liquid adheres to a surface and then its intermolecular forces hold back other molecules that are trying to ow past Higher temperatures reduce viscosity Small spherical molecules have very low viscosity as they may glide past each other e The Solid State Crvstalline solids Well de ned shapes due to orderly arrangement of molecules Amorphous solids Poorly de ned shapes due to lack of orderly arrangement 0 Unit Cell Smallest part of a crystal that portrays the whole structure of the crystal 0 Coordination number Number of nearest touching atoms 0 Simple cubic cell Contains one atom of the substance Has a contact number of 6 Bodv centered cubic cell One atom in the center and one surrounding Contact number of 8 Face centered cubic cell Contains four atoms Has a contact number of 12 Atomic solids Atoms held together by only dispersion forces Molecular solids Held together by combinations of lFs lonic solids Lattices of anions and cations Metallic solids Crystal structure Delocalized electron sea Network covalents Covalently bonded atoms in a 3D lattice Like diamond or graphite
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