Study Guide for Exam 1
Study Guide for Exam 1 PSY430-01
Popular in Human Sexuality Behaviors
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Asia Glenn on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY430-01 at West Chester University of Pennsylvania taught by Deborah Mahlstedt in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality Behaviors in Psychlogy at West Chester University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Know Bolded terms of Chapter one and two! Chapter 1 Key Terms: 1. Sexuality: a general term for the feelings and behaviors of human beings concerning sex. 2. family of origin: the family into which one is born and raised. 3. Sexually Transmitted Infection: infection that is transmitted from one person to another through sexual contact. 4. Sexologists: a person who engages in the scientific study of sexual behavior. 5. Quadruped: any animal that walks on four legs 6. Phallus: symbol of power and aggression 7. Temple Prostitues: women in ancient cultures who would have sex with worshippers at pagan temples to provide money for the temple or to worship the gods. 8. Bestiality: the act of having intercourse with an animal 9. Homoerotic: the representation of same- sex love or desire 10. Pederasty: sexual contact between adult men and post pubescent boys 11. Plantonic: Named after Plato’s description, a deep, loving friendship that is devoid of sexual contact or desire 12. Patriarchal: a society ruled by the male as the figure of authority, symbolized by the fathers absolute authority in the home. 13. Yin and Yang: according to Chinese belief, the universe is run by the interaction of two fundamental principles: yin, which is negative, passive, weak, yielding, and female; yang, which is positive, assertive, active, strong, and male. 14. Karma: the belief that a person’s actions in this and others lives determines his or her fate in future lives. 15. Female Infanticide: the killing of female infants 16. Kamasutra: ancient indian sex manual. 17. Polygamy: the practice of men or women marrying more than one partner 18. Celibacy: the state of remaining unmarried; often used today to refer to abstaining from sex 19. Chastity: the quality of being sexually pure, either through abstaining from intercourse or by adhering to strict rules of sexuality 20. Cognitive Dissonance: uncomfortable tension that comes from holding two conflicting thoughts at the same time. 21. Confession: a catholic practice of revealing one’s sins to a priest. 22. Penitents: those who come to confess sins 23. Entremetteuse: historically, a women who procures sexual partners for men or one who taught men about lovemaking. 24. Asceticism: the practice of a lifestyle that rejected sensual pleasures such as drinking alcohol, eating rich food, or engaging in sex. 25. Anti-miscegenation laws: laws forbidding sexuality, marriage, or breeding among members of different races. 26. Free Love Movement: a movement in the early 19th century that preached love should be the factor that determines whether one should have sex Chapter 2 Key Terms: 1. Theory: a set of assumptions, principles, or methods that helps a researcher understand the nature of a phenomenon being studied. 2. Thanatos: according to Freud, the self0destructive instinct, often turned out ward in the form of aggression. 3. Ego: the part of the personality that mediated between environmental demands (reality), conscience (superego), and instinctual needs (id). 4. Psychoanalysis: system of psychotherapy developed by Freud that focuses on uncovering the unconscious material responsible for a patient’s disorder 5. Psychosexual Development: the childhood stages of development during which the id’s pleasure- seeking energies focus on distant erogenous zones. 6. Libido: According to Freud, the energy generated by the sexual instinct. 7. Id: the collection of unconscious urges and desires that continually seek expression. 8. Superego: the social and parental standards an individual has internalized; the conscience. 9. Erogenous zones: areas of the body that are particularly sensitive to touch and are associated with sexual pleasure. 10. Fixation: the typing up of psychic energy at a particular psychosexual stage, resulting in adult behaviors characteristic of the stage. 11. Oral Stage: a psychosexual stage in which the mouth, lips, and tongue, are the primary erogenous zone. 12. Anal stage: a psychosexual stage in which the anal area is the primary erogenous zone. 13. Phallic stage: a psychosexual stage in which the original region is the primary erogenous zone and in which the Oedipus or Electra complex develops. 14. Oedipus Complex: a male child’s sexual attraction for his mother and the consequent conflicts 15. Electra complex: the incestuous desire of a daughter for her father 16. Latency Stage: a psychosexual stage in which libido and sexual interest are repressed. 17. Genital Stage: final psychosexual stage in which a person develops the ability to engage in adult sexual behavior. 18. Repression: a coping strategy by which unwanted thoughts or prohibited desires are forced out of consciousness and into the unconscious mind. 19. Unconscious: all the ideas, thoughts, and feelings, to which we have no conscious access. 20. Behaviorists: theorists who believe that behavior is learned and can be altered. 21. Operant Conditioning: learning resulting from the reinforcing response a person receives after a certain behavior. 22. Behavior Modification: therapy based on operant conditioning and classical conditioning principles used to change behaviors. 23. Aversion therapy: a technique the reduces the frequency of maladaptive behavior by associating it with aversive stimuli. 24. Self-actualization fulfillment of an individual’s potentialities, including aptitudes, talent, and the like. 25. Unconditional positive regard: acceptance of another without restrictions on their behaviors or thoughts 26. Evolutionary theory: a theory the incorporates both evolution and sociology and looks for trends in behaviors. 27. Cognitive theory: a theory proposing that our thoughts are responsible for our behaviors 28. Conditional love: conditional acceptance of another with restrictions on their behaviors or thoughts. 29. Abstinent: the state of not engaging in sexual activity 30. Sexology: the scientific study of sexuality Questions that you should be able to answer: How does this school of thought (psychodynamic, biopsychology, behaviorism, cognitive, humanistic, and feminist) explain human behavior? What was the historical context and influences during the period when this theory was developing? What are important components of each of the theoretical schools of thought? What is sex? • direct intercourse (vaginal and penis penetration), anal, oral, if an orgasm occurs, - Cultural message -> then individual wishes expectations Penetration-> Heterosexual/ heteronorm intercorse Who determines what is sex or sexual? • Men • Dominance When can one say they’ve had sex? Who determines what is normal? • Men • Dominance Who benefits from the dominant view of what constitutes sex? Why do many (including women) think female sex organ is the vagina? Why is this important? • Women are not taught to know their body. They have a lack of knowledge that orgasms do not occur unless the clitoris is stimulated. What biological evidence is there that supports the idea that the clitoris is the adult female sexual organ? How is power involved in the response to these questions? Know the Sexual theories explanations! Psychoanalytical: • Freud, • early development stages determine later sexual behavior • unconscious Behavioral: • learned (operant leanring) • BF Skinner • Can only look at • observation,mimicry • aversion therapy, behavior modification • reinforcement and punishment • find what rewards you • imitation • No free will • Social Learning theory ◦ focuses on people around you ◦ watch rewards and punishments from others mimic what is rewarded mimicry: seeing what others do ◦ peer- pressure, families, television Cognitive: • how you hold yourself based on media, stereotypes, schemas. • Process of how others are viewed and relate them to yourself. • sexual language • sharing information • power processes information about sexuality • Store information in schemas • perceiving what happens around us • biggest sexual organ is the brain ◦ what sexually arouses us is what we think arouses us Humanistic • sexual identity takes discovering yourself yourself to find out • discover yourself • sexual behavior is about fulfilling the hierarchy of needs • need to be self actualized sexually ◦ ultimate sexual needs being met ◦ reaching what I want to do and feel sexually ◦ basic needs need to be met ◦ need unconditional positive regard to feel safe to explore need to feel loved • Free Will Feminist: • maslow’s pyramid; self actualization. • Knowing/ displaying your authentic self and being okay with it. • based on patriarchal forces • oppresses non-heterosexuallity Biological: • based on genes and genetics ◦ percentage of genes determine sexuality • sexuality is predetermined by genes • sexual behavior is a result of anatomical structures and biochemical processes. Evolutionary: • other species practices homosexuality ◦ its natural • adapting ti cultural changes and norms Sociological: • social stigma ◦ how society effects sexuality • dominant and subordinate Queer Theory: • sexual fluidity ◦ mismatching of sex gender desire
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