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BIOL 2500 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Vega Foster

BIOL 2500 Exam 1 Study Guide BIOL 2500 - 001

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A comprehensive guide to exam 1, covering all notes from the first day of class through February 10th, 2016. Auburn University, Spring 2016, taught by Shobnom Ferdous
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Shobnom Ferdous
Study Guide
biology 2500, Human Anatomy and Physiology, bio 2500 auburn university, Auburn University, auburn anatomy, biol 2500, bio 2500, anatomy, auburn anatomy and physiology, shobnom ferdous, auburn
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vega Foster on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2500 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Shobnom Ferdous in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 192 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
BIOL 2500 Shobnom Ferdous – Human Anatomy and Physiology I Auburn University Spring 2016 Exam 1 Hippocrates farther of western medicine Herophilus/Eristratus - vivisections of criminals middle ages - anatomy outlawed gross anatomy (macroscopic) - large visible microscopic anatomy - too small for naked eye branches 1 developmental - conception to adulthood 2 embryology study of developments before birth 3 gross/macroscopic - large body structures 4 systemic - cardiologist 5 regional - ear, nose, throat 6 cytology/histology 7 radiological anatomy - study of anatomy using non-invasive x-ray image // Wilhelm Rontgen 1 Anatomic position a. standing erect b. facing forward a upper limbs hanging to sides a palms face forward 1 supine - laying on back, face up 2 prone - lying on belly, face downward table 1.1. superior - above inferior - caudal ventral - anterior dorsal - posterior medial - midline lateral - away from middle intermediate - between proximal - origin of body part of point of attachment - elbow proximal to wrist distal - father from origin of body - knee distal to thigh superficial (external) - toward or at body surface deep (internal) - lungs are deep to skin bilateral - two sided ipsilateral - same side contralateral - opposite side 1 Two Body Regions a axial - head, neck, trunk b appendicular 2 three planes a sagittal - vertical plane that divides body into right/left i midsagittal - equal ii parasagittal - unequal b frontal - vertical plane divides body into anterior/posterior c transverse - horizontal plane divides into superior/inferior 2 two main body cavities a dorsal - cranial vertebral b ventral - divided into 2 separated by diaphragm i thoracic cavity - superior to diaphragm, contains heart/lungs 1 pleural cavities (2) - lungs 2 mediastinum - pericardial cavity - heart ii abdominopelvic cavity - inferior to diaphragm, not separate by muscle 1 abdominal 2 pelvic Membranes serosa - thin, double layered membrane, lines walls of ventral body cavity and outer surfaces of organs visceral serosa - covers organs   parietal serosa - lines cavity walls  pleurisy(inflammation of pleaurae)/peritonitis (inflammation of peritoneum) - roughening of pleurae or peritoneum causes organs to stick together and drag across one another Chapter 3: Ultrastructure cells - only arise from other cells, structure complements function >200 types of human cells  red blood cell - no nucleus - free  skeletal muscle cell - cylindrical, multi-nucleated, long  neuron - axon and dendrites - may not be detectable  sperm - flagellated - free Basic Structural Similarities 1 plasma (cell) membrane - outer boundary a intracellular/extracellular, controls what enters/exists b very thin (5-10 nanometers) c req. electron microscope to see d ICF/ECF fluid separated e flexible lipid bilayer f membrane proteins --> fluid mosaic g surface sugars form glycocalyx, membrane structures help hold cells together w/ cell junctions Composition of Plasma Membrane 1 lipid bilayer (75% phospholipids, 5% glycolipids, 20% cholesterol) a phospholipids polar head- hydrophilic b nonpolar tails - hydrophobic c glycolipids - 5% lipids with sugars d cholesterol - 20% lipids with cholesterol e lipid rafts - 20% i Outer membrane ii may be attached to proteins to serve as site receptors iii proteins needed for cell signaling, or endocytosis iv dynamic assembly of saturated phospholipids, sphingolipids, or cholesterol b plasma membrane proteins (50% by mass) i integral proteins ii peripheral proteins Membrane Proteins  allow cell communication with environment, half the mass of plasma membrane  specialized membrane functions  Integral Proteins o embedded in lipid bilayer, most transmembrane (both sides) o transport  channels - let in/out  carrier - substance binding induces conformational change o receptor  bind substances - relay messages o enzyme  catalysts - speed reactions o cell junctions  tight junctions - proteins of cells fuse (digestive tract)  desmosomes - velcro protein filaments extend from adjacent cells/ connect (skin, heart)  gap junctions - channels of adjacent cells connect (smooth muscle, heart) o cell identity - give specific identity via glycoproteins  Peripheral Proteins o loosely attach to integral proteins o transport o receptor o enzyme o cell identity o cell junctions cytosol - thick, semi-transparent, jelly-like fluid- mostly water, but contains proteins, salts/ions sugars Transport Processes (1/20/16) plasma membrane is selectively permeable - some molecules easily pass through, some do not  movement depends on electrochemical gradient = concentration gradient + electrical gradient across plasma membrane and which direction substance needs to go Types of transport: 1 Passive Transport - no ATP needed, move down concentration gradient (high to low) 4 types a Diffusion - speed affected by size/temp 1 simple diffusion - substances pass through lipid bilayer 1 lipid soluble molecules 2 small molecules 3 oxygen, carbon dioxide, lipid soluble vitamins 1 Facilitated diffusion - move across membrane by protein channels or carrier proteins 1 glucose 2 amino acids 3 ions 2 Osmosis - water moving through a semi-permeable membrane 1 Osmolarity - total concentration of solutes in a solution 2 HYPERTONIC - Shrink (above, excessive) 3 HYPO- burst (below, under, low) 4 Isotonic used for intravenous solutions 1 Bulk flow (filtrations) - movement of solutes and water from high pressure to low pressure 1 Active transport - ATP needed; (low to high), 3 types a requires ATP to move substances against concentration gradient b vesicles - membranous sacs 1 Bulk (Vesicular) transport - large substances transported in vesicles a endocytosis - bringing substance into cell 1 phagocytosis - engulfing molecules bacteria (Eating) 2 pinocytosis - engulfing water - "drinking" b Exocytosis - removing substance from cell 2 Primary Active Transport - involves ATP and transport proteins to move substances against concentration gradient a Ex: Na+/K+ ATPase pump (3 Na+ out for every 2K+ in) 2 Secondary Active Transport - simultaneous movement of 2 substances through transport protein; 1 provides energy to move other a co-transport (symport) - substances going in same direction b counter-transport - antiport - going in opposite direction membrane potential - difference in electrical charge across plasma membrane resting membrane potential - membrane potential when cells in resting state - about 70mV  inside of cell has overall negative charge relative to outside high protein anions Need voltage difference across membrane because a change in membrane potential is what causes muscles to contract DRAW and LABEL SLIDE 18/22 1 K+ diffuse out of cell --> negative charge on inner plasma membrane 2 K+ move into cell attracted to negative face 3 negative membrane pot. (-90mV) is established when K+ out = K+ into. concentration gradient promotion L+ exit exactly opposes electrical gradient for K+ entry. 4 Na+ enters cell through leaky channels bringing resting membrane potential to ~70mV K+ and RMP  K+ diffuses out of cell through leakage channels down conc. gradient  negatively charged proteins cannot leave o cytoplasmic side of cell membrane becomes more negative  K+ is pulled back by more negative interior because of electrical gradient  When drive for K+ to leave cell is balanced by its drive to stay, RMP is established o most cells have RMP around -90mV o Electrochemical gradient of K+ sets RMP  Na+ also affects RMP o attracted to inside of cell because of negative charge o membrane is more permeable to K+ than Na+ o Cl- does not influence RMP  3 NA+ out for every 2 K+ in homeostatic imbalance - burned patients cells have damaged plasma membrane, substances flow freely in and out, compromising concentration gradients by losing fluids, proteins, and ions Tissues (1.25.16) atoms --> molecule --> organelle --> cell ---> tissue ---> organ --> organ system --> organism Tissues group of cells similar in structure and serve a similar, specialized function 4 major categories of tissues: 1 Epithelial - covering (digestive tract organs and other hallow organs, skin (epidermis) a covers body surfaces b lines body cavities and ducts c forms glands d everywhere, visible skin, lining of gut, blood vessels, respirator passages, ducts, just about any surface, area-nose, ear-eye 2 connective - support (bones, tendons, fat and other soft padding tissue) a protect and supports body and organs b binds tissues together c stores energy d insulates e transports substances 2 muscle - movement a muscles attached to bones (skeletal) b muscle of heart (cardiac) c muscles of walls of hallow organs (smooth) 2 nervous - communication and control a initiates, transmits, and interprets impulses that coordinate the body Epithelial Tissue 1 cells closely packed with little extracellular space 2 all have specialized cell-cell contact a tight junctions b desmosomes c gap junctions 2 Polarity - have top (apical surface- faces lumen (interior)) and bottom (basal surface) a epithelial tissue (ET) is always attached to connective tissue (CT) via b basement membrane: the point of attachment for ET and CT, made-up of i basal lamina - glycoproteins from ET + collagen fibers ii reticular lamina - glycoproteins from CT + collagen fibers 2 Avascular - no blood supply a get nutrients from blood vessels in underlying connective tissue 2 High regeneration rate (like zombies) a because exposed to friction, external environment, surface cells rub off b mitosis to replace lost cells 2 specializations a cilia - hair-like projections, help propel substances ex. naval cavity, trachea b microvilli - extensions of plasma membrane, increase surface area (greatly increases absorption of nutrients in small intestine. A Arrangement a simple - single layer of cells, areas with minimal ear and tear, areas of diffusion, of exchange and absorptions b stratified - 2+ layers of cells, high wear and tears c pseudostratified - single layer that looks stratified some cells do not reach the surface, if do reach surface, - secrete mucous or have cilia a transitional - many layers, cells can stretch or expand A Shape 1 squamous - scale-like 2 Cuboidal - cube 3 Columnar - column Types Function Location 1 Simple Squamous Diffusion/filtrations kidney glomeruli; air sacs of lungs; lining of hear; blood vessels 1 Simple Cuboidal secretion/absorption kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of small 2 Simple Columnar secretion/absorption glands, ovary surface digestive tract, gallbladder, oviducts, 1 Pseudostratified secretion some regions of columnar uterus 2 stratified protection trachea, upper squamous respiratory tract protection keratinized - skin 1 stratified cuboidal non-k= mouth, protections 2 stratified esophagus, vagina columnar stretched ducts of large glands male urethra, pharynx 3 transitional ureters, bladder, urethra 1 Simple squamous 1 Endothelium - type of epithelium that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels 2 Mesothelium - the epithelium that lines the pleurae, peritoneum, and pericardium. Epithelial Tissue - Glands one or more cells that make and secrete a product endocrine - produce hormones and secrete into bloodstream via exocytosis exocrine - secrete product onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities structural classification of exocrine glands 1 unicellular - mucous and goblet cells 1 produce mucin i secret product by exocytosis 1 multicellular - consist of duct and secretory unit 1 duct type i simple = unbranched duct ii compound = branched duct 1 secretory unit i alveolar (acinar) - secretory cells form small sacs ii tubular = secretory cells form tubes iii tubuloalveolar = alveolar + tubular functional classification of exocrine glands - based on how product is secreted 1 holocrine - "whole membrane rupturing" 1 sebaceous glands - expels product and dead cell 2 apocrine - "membrane budding" 3 mecrocrine - secrete their products by exocytosis as produced 1 sweat glands, salivary glands 2 mammary gland considered mecrocrine BUT mammary gland is spocrine: (secrete milk lipids via aprocrine process) and mecrocrine (secrete non-fat components) mecocrine - secretion in duct Tissues II (1.27.16) Connective Tissue 4 classes 1 Connective Tissue Proper 2 Cartilage 3 Bone 4 Blood Functions of connective tissue 1 binding and support a bone, connective tissue proper 2 protection a bone, connective tissue proper 2 insulation a connective tissue proper 2 transportation a blood 2 stores energy a connective tissue proper Characteristics of connective tissue 1 all connective tissues arise from mesenchyme = embryonic tissue a all CT contains cells and the extracellular matrix (CT is largely extracellular matrix) 2 cells widely scattered within extracellular matrix (except adipose tissue) a extracellular matrix is non-living, cells scattered widely within it and hold cells in place 2 most highly vascularized (except cartilage) Extracellular matrix of connective tissue consists of: A Ground substance- material in space around cells; consists of proteins and fluid, gel-like B Fibers a collagen fibers - collagen (fibrous protein) STRONGEST b elastic fibers - elastin (rubber-like protein) stretch and recoil c reticular fibers - collagen, thin branch extensively Connective Tissue Cell Types all connective tissue have different cell types that exist in mature and immature forms different classes and subclasses of connective tissues 1 macrophages - "eat" foreign molecules 2 fibroblast - secrete fibers until the mature into fibrocytes 3 leukocytes - (WBC white blood cell) - immune response 4 mast cells - inflammatory response 5 adipocyte - fat cell blast = forming (immature) cyte = mature 1 Connective Tissue (CT) Proper A Loose CT a Areolar Loose CT i during inflammation, tissue acts like sponge to soak up fluid causing edema - swelling part of body due to build up of fluid ii nutrients pass through this from blood vessels to other types of cells (like epithelial cells) a Adipose Loose CT - supports and protects organs, stores fats, insulates i white fat - stores nutrients ii brown fat = has lots iii mitochondria that can produce heat instead of atp iv adults don't have much broken fat, babies do because lack of ability to heat by shivering b Reticular CT i network of reticular fibers in loose ground substance ii soft, internal skeleton that support other cells (white blood cells, mast cells, and macrophages) A Dense (Fibrous) CT a dense regular CT i ligaments - bone to bone ii tendons - muscle to bone iii aponeuroses - sheet like; attach muscle to muscle or bone iv fascia - "plastic wrap" for muscles b dense irregular CT c Dense elastic CT 1 Cartilage A Characteristics a matrix - gel-like (up to 0% water) b avascular i nutrients from blood vessels in perichondrium b cells called chondroblasts (immature) mature into chondrocytes c can withstand tension and compression B Types a Hyaline cartilage b Elastic cartilage c fibrocartilage 1 Bone A Characteristics a matrix i calcium salts ii collagen fibers b vascularized c cells called osteoblasts (immature) d mature into osteocytes B Types a compact bone i osteon (Haversion system) ii Lamella - bone matrix ring iii lacuna - space containing the osteocyte iv central canal (haversion canal) v Volkmann's canal - transverse canals vi canaliculi - microscopic canals between lacunae b spongy bone i trabeculae (thin plates) 1 Blood a characteristics a matrix - plasma (90%waeR) b cell types a red blood cells (erythrocytes) - no nucleus, 02 and CO2 i if there is no nucleus, what cellular process is not functional b white blood cells (leukocytes) - nucleated, 5 types i neutrophils ii lymphocytes iii monocytes iv eosinophils v basophils b platelets (thrombocytes) - blood clotting Muscle tissue 3 types 1 skeletal a voluntary movement, locomotion b manipulation of environment, facial expression c skeletal muscles attached to bones of skin d sarcolemma- e sarcoplasm- 2 cardiac - branching, striated, uni-nucleate cells that interdigitate at specialized junctions a as contracts, propels blood into circulation - involuntary control b walls of heart c striations due to arrangement of myofilaments d 1 nucleus and many mitochondria e cells connect at intercalated discs (specialized junctions, gap junctions) 2 smooth - spindle shaped w/ central nuclei, no striations, cells arranged closely to form sheets a propels substances or objects (foodstuffs, urine, a baby) along internal passageways b involuntary control Nervous Tissue 1 Nerve Cell = neuron - generate and transmit electrical impulses a dendrites - processes that receive and respond to stimuli b axon - transmits electrical impulses throughout body (makes contact with other cell types, like muscle cells) 2 Supporting cells Membranes - different tissues put together to form a specialized function 1 cutaneous - skin - ET and CT a skin is an organ system a outer layer is stratified squamous epithelium that is keratinized epidermis) and underlying dermis (dense irregular connective tissue) 2 serous - lining ventral body cavity and organs - ET and CT 3 mucous - line body cavities open to exterior a stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelia and underlying layer of areolar loose CT 2 synovial - line joint cavities - loose areolar CT and adipose CT Integumentary System (1.1.16) area - 2 meters^2 - largest organ in body - 16% of body weight deeper layer of skin is well vascularized blood vessels, sensory and autonomic and sympathetic nerve fibers ensuring communication to and from brain skin - cutaneous membrane (ET and CT) 1 epidermis 2 dermis hypodermis is not part of skin - subcutaneous tissue Epidermis  outermost layer  avascular  keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium  4-5 layers of epithelial cells  most cells produce keratin (fibrous protein that provides protection)  thick skin on palms of hands and soles of feet - 5th layer stratum luicum located between stratum corneum and stratum granulosum  new cell production occurs by mitosis and in deeper layers  older cells at surface and desquamate (slough off) - new skin every 25-45 days (10lbs a year)  keratinocytes at stratum corneum are dead Cells of the Epidermis - all layers except stratum basal are called keratinocytes) 1 keratinocytes - produce keratin (tough protein) a intracellular fibrous protein that gives hair nails and skin their hardness and water-resistant properties b produced at basal layer and migrate upward c when they reach free surface, they are dead d tightly connected by desmosomes e millions slough off every day 2 melanocytes - make pigment melanin (skin color, UV protection) a synthesize melanin (made contained in deepest layer of epidermis) (pigment) b deepest layer of epidermis c melansomes - intercellular vesicles d melanin moves into spidery arms of melanocytes and taken up by keratinocytes e shade the kerinocyte nucleus - uv protections, production is stimulated by UV f UV has enough energy to break chemical bonds 1 Dendritic cells (langerhans' Cell) -immune function a arise from bone marrow and migrate to epidermis b function as macrophages engulfing bacteria, foreign particle and damaged cells that occurs in layer c macrophages that activate immune system d form a network (layer) in the epidermis - immune barrier - 2nd line of defense 1 Tactile cells (Merkel Cells) - sensory receptor for touch a found in epidermal/dermal junction b associated with nerve endings --> epithelial tissue does not have nerves c merkel cell + nerve = touch receptor Layers of Epidermis 1 Stratum basale (germinativum) 2 Stratum spinosum 3 stratum granulosum 4 stratum lucidum (only thick) 5 stratum corneum Thick skin contains five layers (strata) and is found in high abrasion areas (hands, feet) thin skin - only four layers of strata stratum corneum (horny layer)  avascular  outer most stratum, superficial layer and exposed to outside environment  20-30 cells thick keratin and thickened plasma membranes protect against abrasion and penetration  prevents dehydration of underlying tissues  glycolipid between cells waterproof  entire layer is replaced during aa period of four weeks stratum lucidum (clear layer)  2-3 layers of dead cells filled with keratin  clear under microscope  smooth and seemingly translucent layer of epidermis  cells are densely packed with eleiden, clear protein rich in lipids derived from keratohyalin which gives transparent appearance and provides barrier to water only present in thick skin (palms, fingertips, soles of feet)   lies superficial to stratum granulosum stratum granulosum (granular layer)  3-5 layers of cells that are alive but organelles beginning to disintegrate  2 populations of granules in the cells  keratohyline granules - forms keratin  lamellated granules - form waterproofing glycolipids  first step of keratinization occurs here: o cells flatten o nucleus and organelles break down o accumulate granules o cells die stratum spinosum ("prickly layer"  5-7 cells thick  web-like system of intermediate pre-keratin filaments attached to desmosomes o allows them to resist tension and pulling  keratinocytes in this layer appear spikey, -->prickle cells  scattered among keratinocytes are abundant melansomes and dendritic cells  contains melanin granules produced by underlying melanocytes  Langerhan's cell network in this layer ---> immune cells stratum basale "basal layer" - basement (stratum germinativum because of active mitosis)  deepest layer  single layer of cuboidal or columnar epithelial cells o actively mitotic o daughter cells pushed up into stratum spinosum o most destined to become keratinocytes o some migrate into dermis to form epidermal derivatives o a  contain melanocytes (10-25%) and some dendritic cells  small percentage of merkel cells, part of nerve receptor associated with nerve fibers in underlying connective tissue Dermis - "core" of integumentary system  innermost layer  dense irregular connective tissue  blood and lymph vessels, nerves and other structures, hair follicles and sweat glands  dermis is made of two layers of connective tissue that compose an interconnected mesh of elastin and collagenous fibers, produced by fibroblasts  two layers 1 papillary layer - just below stratum basal - 20% o made of areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers - very vascularized o projections called dermal papillae extend superiorly and indent the epidermis o palms and soles - larger and dermal papillae lay on top of dermal ridges, together they form epidermal ridge o dermal papillae contain capillary loops, free-nerve endings (meissners corpuscles - touch receptors) 2 reticular layer - 80% of dermis, thicker layer o dense irregular CT i collagen fibers - strength - binds with water to keep skin hydrated ii elastic fibers - stretch/recoil - iii most fibers run parallel with skin iv flexor lines - folds that occur near joints where skin can't move freely Dermal modifications result in characteristic skin markings flexure lines on digit on palm Hypodermis - beneath the dermis, deep dermal layer not considered true integumentary layer, but stores fat for insulation and shock absorption anchors skin to underlying bone and muscle pathway for blood vessels, nerves, to reach skin's upper layers Skin color : pigmentation only thing that is different in different races 3 pigments : melanin, carotene, hemoglobin determine color melanin major player made of tyrosin (AA) yellow to reddish brown black color depends on enzyme in melanocytes tyroinase, cuts the amino acid chain at different lengths passed to melanosomes in keratinocytes *** skin color depends on amount and color of melanin produced, NOT number of melanocytes, number is the same SKIN COLOR  freckles and moles are local accumulations of melanosomes  light stimulates melanocytes to make melanin - tan o helps protect dna by absorbing the light o UV has ability to break bonds  another protein, carotene is a yellow to orange pigment usually found in plants (carrots) o only provides small amount of color o accumulates in stratum corneum and in fatty tissue of hypodermis o most obvious in thickened skin (palms and soles) Accessory structure of skin hair, nails, and glands glands: important physiological features of skin 4 types: 1 sweat glands sudoriferous a produce sweat to cool body develop from epidermal projections se a Eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands - exocytosis i through a duct without affecting cells of gland ii most cofine, produce hypotonic sweat for thermoregulation iii deep coiled secretory portion in the dermis with a releasing duct that extends to surface of epidermis to a pore iv secretion is sweat = water and salt, blood filtrate, also contains vitamin c and a microbicide called dermicidin, some nitrogenous waste (urine) v prevents over heating of the body through evaporative heat loss, maintains homeostasis vi glands located everywhere except nipples and genitalia most common on hands and forehead b apocrine sweat glands - pinching i less abundant (rare) but larger than eccrine ii coiled secretory portion with duct that opens into hair follicles (different) iii found in axillary (arm pot) and pubic areas iv secrete viscous milky or yellowish sweat that contains fatty substances and proteins v odorless when released, bacteria break down sweat, leading to body odor vi sticky and viscous causes yellow pits vii not active until puberty, secretion under nervous and hormonal control viii thought to be analogous to sexual scent glands of lower mammals (pheromones) Ceruminous glands - ear wax  modified apocrine glands found in lining of ear  secrete sticky bitter substance called cerumen  insect deterrent, block foreign objects from entering ear mammary glands -specialized sweat glands (modified apocrine gland) that secrete milk sebaceous glands (oil) alveolar gland present everywhere except palms and soles of feet particularly numerous on face, neck, and chest secrete sebum made of oily lipid and cell fragments, oily holocrine secretion bactericidal properties softens and lubricates hair and skin when gland becomes blocked by excess sebum, forms pimple if excess oxidizes and dries = blackhead if not, infected = whitehead become active during puberty Hair  keratinous filamentous growing out of epidermis  made of dead, keratinized cells  not on palms, soles, lips, nipples, external genitalia  used to sense things touching us, blocks heat loss, physical trauma (cushion), light (sunblock) filter things (nose, ears, dirt bugs, eyelashes, eyebrows- sweat)  grows 2.5 mm per week in cycles  anagen - growing-phase catgen - regressive phase - cells produce hair die and bulb of hair shrivels   telegen resting phase, after rest the hair cells proliferate again to from a new hair and the old ones falls out  head hair follicles remain active (in anagen) for 6-10 years, lose 90 hairs a day, eyebrows 3-4 months o longer active, longer you can grow hair Hair follicle  hair matrix is actively dividing area of bulb that makes hair  associated with each hair follicle are smooth muscle cells called arrector pili muscles  contracts n response to cold temps or a frightening situation, pulling follicle upright (hair stands on end) shape of follicle determine texture of hair flat = curly round = straight Baldness  hair follicles have limited cells, if hair is not replaced as quickly as it falls out, thinking results or baldness (alopecia) terminal hair is replaced by thin whispy vellus hair (infant hair)   male pattern baldness is most common, genetically determined  a gene in the follicle changes its sensitivity to DHT (dehydrotestosterone) in adulthood shortens follicular growth cycle so that hairs are shed before they even grow long enough to exit the follicle Nails - scale like modification of epidermis, hard keratin Integument system function- protection - forms a barrier 3 ways 1 chemical barrier a skin secretions slightly acidic which slows bacterial growth, acid mantle b bactericidal substance in sebum, human defense in skin c protective peptides d melanin protects against UV rays 2 physical barrier a continuity of skin and hardness of keratinized cells limits entry of foreign substances b glycolipids entry of foreign substances c glycolipids make skin water proof but some things can pass through d hair on head for insulations i eyebrows slow flow of seat into eyes 1 in nose and ear trap airborne particles 2 biological barriers a Langerhan's cell help activate immune system b dermal macrophages are phagocytic cells that defend again microorganisms c dna absorbs UV radiation and transfers it to atomic nuclei as heat which dissipates in water body temperature regulation increase in temp. stimulates sweat glands to being secretory activity evaporation of seat pulls heat away from the body and cools us (500 ml to 12L a day) in cold weather, blood vessels constrict so warm blood bypasses skin allowing temp to drop and conserve heat in body core - cold hands sensation - cutaneous receptors (exteroreceptors) -epidermis touch receptors meisnners' corpuscles dermis touch receptors - associated with merkels cells in epidermis pain receptors nocicpetors temp receptors - thermoreceptors pressure receptors hair follicle receptors - hair movement metabolism when skin is exposed to sunlight, cholesterol in blood is converted to vitamin d precursor transported to liver and kidneys to be metabolized into vitamin d vitamin d aids in ca absorption in small intestine skin produces important proteins - collagenase blood reservoir - holds 5% of blood volume, when organs need more blood, shunted from skin-shock, pale Excretion - limited amounts of nitrogenous waste via sweat glands Disorders of skin most common cause of skin cancer - exposure to UV radiation Three types of skin cancer 1 basal cell carcinoma 2 squamous cell carcinoma a second most common skin caner b lesions arise on head, ears, scalp, lower lip and hand c curable if it does not spread 2 melanoma a cancer of melanocytes and most dangerous b highly metastic and resistant to chemotherapy c originate from preexisting moles that get larger Burns  cause tissue damages resulting from excessive heat and exposure to chemicals  catastrophic loss of body fluids containing proteins and electrolytes leads to dehydration and electrolytes imbalance then renal failure (kidney shutdown) and circulatory shock (inadequate blood circulation due to reduced blood volume)  1st degree burn - sun burn  2nd degree burn (deep partial thickness) - damages epidermis and upper layer of dermis o blisters o burned area is red and painful but skin regeneration occurs with little or no scarring within 3-4 weeks if skin is taken care of  3rd degree burn - burned area appears gray-white, cheery read, or blackened with little or no edema o nerve endings destroyed, so no pain o skin grafting advised o burned considered critical if:  over 25% of body has second degree burns  10% has 3rd degree  3rd degree burns on face hands or feet o rules of nine - method used to estimate extent and severity of burns o 11 areas, each accounting for 9% of total body area plus 1% for genitals o head and neck - 9% o upper limps - 18% o trunk - 36% o perineum - 1% o lower limbs - 36% To save patient suffering from severe burns: lost fluid must be replaced via IV infancy to adulthood: skin thickens and accumulates more subcutaneous fat; sweat and sebaceous gland activity increases, leading to acne -optimal age appearance during 20s 30s after age 30, effects of cumulative environmental assaults show Aging skin epidermal replacement slows, skin becomes thin, dry, and itchy (decreased sebaceous gland activity) subcutaneous fat and elasticity decrease, leading to cold intolerance and wrinkles increased risk of cancer due to decreased number of melanocytes and dendritic cells hair thinning ways to delay aging uv protection, good nutrition, lots of floods, good hygiene all of the following except to skin color except: layer of skin for fingerprints - papillary dermis dogs tracks human by dead cells - which of following is not associated with dermis - keratin not accessory gland of skin - sebaceous, Ceruminous, and mammary are all Skeletal System (2.8.16) Lecture Exam chapters - history-skeletal system endochondral and intramembranous ossification will be in test 2 Functions of skeletal system 1 protects 2 supports a bones support body 2 movement/locomotion a bones serve as attachment sites for skeletal muscles - when contract move bones to move body parts 2 mineral storage a bones store minerals i CA and P = 99% of body Ca stored in bone 2 produces blood cells a occurs in red marrow of certain bones 2 energy storage a fat, a source of energy, is stored in yellow marrow of bones 2 hormone production (osteocalcin a produces osteocalcin - hormone important for bone formation (osteocalcin secreted by osteoblasts) Classification of bones 206 bones in human skeleton Two groups: a Axial skeleton a long axis of body b skull, vertebral column, rib cage b Appendicular skeleton a bones of upper and lower limbs - arms, legs b girdles attaching limbs to axial skeleton 1 Long bones (humerus, femur) 2 short bones (talus) 3 flat bones (sternum) 4 irregular bones (vertebrae) bones are organs because they contain different types of tissues bone (osseous) tissue predominates, but a bone also has nervous tissue, cartilage, fibrous connective tissue, muscle cells, and epithelilal cell in its blood vessels three levels of structure a gross a compact bone - dense outer layer - smooth solid b spongy (trabecular) bone - consists of lattice of trabeculae: open spaces between trabeculae are filled with red or yellow bone marrow c every bone has dense outer layer (compact bone) + inner spongy bone - consists of lattice work of flat pieces and psicles called trabeculue a Articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage covering both ends diaphysis - shaft in middle compact bone contains medullary cavity, cavity in diaphysis filled with bone marrow, modified connective tissue 1 epiphyses - ends of long bone 2 periosteum - two layers - membrane covering external surface of bine except at articular surfaces a outer - fibrous layer (dense irregular connective tissue) b inner - osteogenic layer i contains osteogenic cells, that differentiate into bone cells b rich supply of nerve fibers and blood vessels - pass through shaft medullary cavity via nutrient formina c provides attachment points for tendons and ligaments d osteogenic cells - undifferentiated cells 2 endosteum a sense irregular connective tissue b contains osteogenic cells that differentiate into bone cells Gross Anatomy: flat bones spongy bone covered by compact bone diploe: Gross anatomy: short bones roughly cube shaped bone spongy bone covered by compact bone has periosteum and endosteum no diaphysis or epiphyses ex: carpals and tarsals sesamoid bones - type of short bone in tendon Gross anatomy - irregular bones don't fit in above categories spongy bone covered by compact bone has periosteum and endosteum no diaphysis or epiphyses ex: vertebrae and coxial Bone marrow Red bone marrow site of hematopoiesis - blood cell formation in newborns - medullary cavity of diaphysis, in all area of spongy bone in adults - found mainly in epiphyses of humerus and femur in diploe and some irregular bones, like hip bones yellow bone marrow stores fast in adults in medullary cavity of diaphysis Gross anatomy continued Hematopoietic tissue in bones -red marrow is found within trabecular cavities of spongy bone and diploe of flat bones such as sternum in newborns, medullary cavities and all spongy bone contain red bone marrow in adults, red marrow is located in heads of femur and humerus but most active areas of hematopoiesis are flat bone diploe and some irregular bones Microscopic anatomy of compact bone a osteon (haversian system) a fundamental unit b Lamella unit - bone matrix ring c Lacuna - space containing osteocyte d central canal (haversion canal) - for blood vessels, lymph cells, nerve cells e Vokmann's canal - transverse cabals: connect blood/nerve supply of periosteum to central canals f Canaliculi - microscopic, canals g between lacunae, connect all osteocytes of an osteon together, allows nutrients and wastes to be transferred between osteocytes Microscopic anatomy of spongy bone lamellae irregular arrange, osteocytes in lacunae connected by canaliculi, NO OSTEONS NO volksman's canal a trabeculae - spicules b lamella - bone matrix ring, irregularly arranged c lacuna - space containing the osteocyte d canaliculi - microscopic canals between lacunae Gross anatomy: long bones 1 articular cartilage - hyaline cartilage covering both ends 2 diaphysis - shaft a compact bone b contains medullary cavity, cavity with diaphysis c filled with bone marrow - modified connective tissue Cells of bone tissue 1 osteogenic cells (osteoprogenitor ) cells - stem cells a found in periosteum and endosteum b mitotically active c differentiate into osteoblasts 2 osteoblasts - matrix synthesizing cell responsible for bone growth a mitotically active b secrete bone matric and enzymes for mineralization 2 osteocytes a mature osteoblasts b not mitotically active c do not secrete bone matric but maintains bone matric d communicate with and control activity of osteoblasts ad osteoclasts e function: NOT SECRETING MATRIC BUT STILL VITAL IN MAINTAINING BONE MATRIX 1 bone-lining cells 1 osteoclasts a multi-nucleated cells b differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells c bone resorption - break down bone - process by which osteoblasts break down bone and release minerals resulting in transfer of calcium from bone fluid to bone Bone Composition 1 organic components - 35% of bone tissue by mass a cells (osteogenic, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts) b osteoid - ORGANIC PART OF MATRIC i grand substance - consists of glycoproteins ii collagen fibers b Organic components gives bones flexibility and tensile strength 2 Inorganic components -65% of bone tissue by mass a hydroxyapatite = calcium phosphate salt is principal bone salt b found in an around collagen fibers in bone matrix c gives bone its characteristic hardness and bone's ability to resist compression d other minerals - magnesium, manganese, and fluoride proper combination of organic and inorganic bone skeletan system Review which vesicular transport occurs in some white blood and macrophages phagocytosis body cavity diagram sweat glands - sudoriferous glands all skin surfaces except nipples and parts of external genitalia 3 million per person two types eccrine (meocrine) sweat glands palms, soles, foreheads, ducts connect to pores thermoregulation secrete sweat apocrine sweat glands axillary and genital areas viscous milky or yellowish sweat with fatty substances and proteins bacteria break down sweat, leading to body odor larger than eccrine with ducts emptying into hair follicles began at puberty


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