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PSY 452 Unit 1 Study Guide

by: Brianna

PSY 452 Unit 1 Study Guide PSY 452

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Study Guide for Chapters 1-4 and Lecture (1/20-2/10) *Notes from lecture on 2/12 not included*
Cognitive Psychology
Study Guide
Psychology, cognitive psycology
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianna on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 452 at Colorado State University taught by Delozier in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 02/11/16
Cog. Psy. Unit 1  Study Guide Cognitive Psychology Unit 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 ● Terms: ○ Introspection: careful examination of one's own inner thoughts ○ Serial Processing: one process is completed before the next one can start ○ Parallel Processing: two or more processes occurring at once ○ Dissociation: average performance on one task but impaired performance on a  different task ○ Double Dissociation: some individuals have the ability to perform well on one  task but poorly on the other, while other individuals exhibit the opposite ● Introspectionism ○ Wilhelm Wundt & Edward Titchener ■ sensation taxonomy ○ Major Problems ■ unaware of processes influencing our motivation and behavior ■ self­report may be distorted ■ delay between having conscious experience and relaying it ■ aware of outcome, not the process itself ● Behaviorism ○ focuses on scientific approach ○ measures stimulus and response ○ Basic Principles: ■ Psychologists should focus on only what is directly observable ■ Psychologists should explain behavior, not thought or  consciousness ■ Theories should be simple ○ Ivan Pavlov started idea ■ used with animals ○ Watson ■ the process of thinking is a behavior to be examined ○ B.F. Skinner ■ reinforcement learning ○ Rat Study (Tolman, Ritche & Kalish) ■ rats trained on simple maze, then put in complex maze ● in complex maze, rats remember where food  originally was and go that direction ● disproves behaviorism just for reward ○ Human Learning ■ B.F. Skinner wrote, Verbal Behavior Cog. Psy. Unit 1  Study Guide ● language is learned because of positive  reinforcement ● work with animals can be applied to humans ■ Noam Chomsky wrote review ● Skinner's theory cannot explain language ■ Work on memory was difficult for behaviorism to account for ● Bousfield gave people list to study ○ people would recall lists in  categories ■ suggests they  organize information, evidence for cognition ○ Major Problems ■ exaggerated importance of reward/punishment ■ minimized importance of goals and past experiments ■ dissatisfaction for behaviorism in 1950’s ● Cognitive Psychology ○ looked at internal processes and structures and external stimuli and responses ○ Computational View of the Mind ■ Underlying Assumption: the mind is like a computer ● info goes in, stored, comes out ○ Information Processing Perspective ■ Assumption: mental processes occur in a series of steps ● speech recognition, comprehension, find answer,  decide to answer, decide how to answer, speak ○ Information Processing Approach ■ Bottom­Up Processing ● also known as serial processing ● processing directly affected by stimulus input ■ Top­Down Processing ● processing influences by individual's expectations  and knowledge ■ cognition is both bottom­up and top­down processing (parallel  processing) ● Modern Cognitive Psychology ○ Assumptions: ■ mental processes exist ■ can be studied scientifically ■ humans are active processors of information ○ Experimental Cognitive Psychology ■ involves controlled experiments to test the internal processes of  cognition ○ Cognitive Neuroscience ■ assessing brain activity with behavioral activity ■ able to see where and when brain activity occurs Cog. Psy. Unit 1  Study Guide ○ Cognitive Neuropsychology ■ studies brain damaged individuals performance on cognitive tasks ■ supports separate processes/modules ○ Computational Cognitive Science ■ "artificial brain" ■ uses computers to model human cognition Chapter 2 ● Terms: ○ Law of Pragnanz: the simplest organization of visual information is what is  perceived ○ Geons: basic shapes or components that combine into an object ○ Anton's Syndrome: condition where blind patients mistake visual imagery as  perception ○ Top Down: our general knowledge guides perception ○ Bottom Up: perception guided by raw sensory information from the environment ○ Template Matching: compare stimuli with templates from our memory ○ Feature Analysis: recognize objects by identifying its components (distinctive  features) ○ Recognition­by­Components: recognize objects by separating them into geons ○ What/Ventral System: identifies objects ○ Where/How/Dorsal System: identifies object location ○ Change Blindness: the inability to detect changes in an object or scene ● Perception ○ Using Conceptual Information ■ Palmer ● viewed a scene for 2 sec, then random object  flashes quickly ● look at recognition accuracy ● Results: ○ when context appropriate, more  accurate at identifying (80%) ○ when context inappropriate, less  accurate (40%) ● Explanation: ○ bottom­up and top­down work  together for context appropriate Cog. Psy. Unit 1  Study Guide ○ top down processing in context  inappropriate makes identification more difficult ■ Potchen ● viewed x­ray slides, asked to classify as  normal/abnormal ● 3 Conditions ○ No cue ○ X­ray from routine physical ○ X­ray from survey for cancer ● Results: ○ control, 40% correct detection ○ routine physical, 42% correct  detection ○ cancer survey, 83% correct  detection ● Explanation: ○ able to use top­down to access the  information given ● Object Recognition Theories ○ Template Matching ■ machines use this ■ Problems: ● can't account for the flexibility of human perception ● can't account for the perception of obstructed  objects ○ can't see full image, doesn't match  the template ● too many templates ● unclear how it could account for more complex  objects ○ Feature Analysis: ■ features compared to stored lists of features in memory for  identification ■ Evidence in Favor: ● quicker to discriminate among letters that don't  share features ● Gibson ○ subjects had to decide whether 2  letters are the same or different Cog. Psy. Unit 1  Study Guide ■ G vs. W (feature  dissimilar), faster ■ P vs. R (feature  similar), slower ● Neuroscience ○ neurons are sensitive to certain  orientations of lines ■ Advantages: ● a small number of features can be used to  recognize many objects ● simulations with the models are similar to human  data ■ Problems: ● doesn't explain how you can recognize  letters/number in different orientations ● difficulty explaining recognition of complex objects ○ Recognition­by­Components ■ explains recognition of complex objects ■ Biederman ● "object alphabet" consisting of 36 geons can be  combined to identify any object ● 1.4 billion possible combinations from just 3 geons ● Object­Centered; we can recognize objects from  different views ■ Focus On: ● areas where deep concave angles form ● line intersections ○ Modern ■ mixture of object centered for general distinctions and memory of  objects for finer distinctions ● Face Recognition ○ Thatcher Effect ■ eyes/mouth inverted ■ barely notice the distortion upside down ■ evidence that we process faces as a whole, not by features ● top­down processing sees "normal face" ● bottom­up processing helps us fix it ○ Is it special? ■ face recognition involves system different than object recognition Cog. Psy. Unit 1  Study Guide ■ face memory can be disrupted, but depends on the familiarity of  the stimuli ■ one idea is that we are specialized to recognize single objects and groups of features ○ Prosopagnosia; inability to recognize faces (damage to fusiform face area) ■ Cases ● Macrae & Trolle ○ could not recognize anyone, only  simple objects ○ couldn't recognize self ● Sacks ○ The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat ● Own Race Bias ○ tendency to be poorer at identifying individuals of another race ○ the way we categorize people affects ability to recognize them ○ in­group vs. out­group categorization ○ Hehman et al. ■ white students studied faces grouped by race or university then  tested ■ Results; ● worse at identifying other race faces when they are  not in your "group" (university) ● Visual Systems ○ What/Ventral System ■ conscious ■ subject to top­down influences ○ Where/How/Dorsal System ■ unconscious ○ Ungerleider and Mishkin ■ gave monkeys tests for object recognition and object location ■ Results; ● monkeys with temporal lesions could do the where  test, couldn't do the what test ● monkeys with parietal lesions could do the what  test, couldn't do the where test ○ Haffenden and Goodal ■ used poker chips and asked subjects to show size of chip ■ Results; ● judged chip different sizes depending on  surroundings Cog. Psy. Unit 1  Study Guide ● illusion didn't hold when they got to pick it up ○ Profitt et al. ■ overestimated steepness of hills ■ with use of board, made better judgment ● Size Estimates ○ our experience with objects can influence our size estimates ○ Bruner & Goodman ■ children made estimates of size of cardboard coins ○ Wesp et al. ■ drop darts onto target, counted attempts before hitting target then  estimated size of target ■ Results; ■ the fewer attempts needed to hit the target, the  larger the estimate of the size ○ Proffitt ■ estimated hill with backpack vs. no backpack ■ Results; ■ estimated further distances with backpack  (difficulty) ● Change Detection ○ change detection can be affected by our prior knowledge and biases ○ also affected by instructions signaling what should be noticed ○ Change Blindness ■ Simons and Levin ● one person stops stranger to ask for directions ● two men cut though with a door ● a new person is now receiving directions ● only half of people notice ○ Biases ■ Yaxley & Zwaan ● showed smokers and nonsmokers object that  changed ● sometimes smoking object changed, sometimes  nonsmoking object ○ Results; ■ nonsmokers same at  nonsmoking and smoking ■ smokers detected  change in smoking quicker Cog. Psy. Unit 1  Study Guide ■ prior experience,  drawn to smoking object ● told nonsmokers experiment is about smoking ○ Results; ■ better at detecting  change for smoking object Chapter 3 ● Terms: ○ Focused (selective) Attention; focusing on one source of information and ignoring others ○ Divided Attention (multitasking); two tasks being performed at the same time ○ Shadowing; repeating aloud one audio message while another audio messages  is also presented ○ Neglect; visual attention disorder where stimuli presented to the undamaged side of the brain are undetectable ○ Cross­Modal Attention; the synchronization of attention across two or more  different modalities  ○ Ventriloquist Illusion; perception that sounds are coming from their visual source ○ Face­in­Crowd Effect; threatening faces are detected quicker than faces with  other expressions ○ Illusory Conjunction; combining 2 features from different stimuli to perceive an  object that isn't there ○ Selective Attention Task: subjects respond to one source of information while  ignoring another  ● Selective Auditory Attention ○ it is easier to distinguish between 2 audio messages on physical difference over  meaning ○ Recent Developments ■ top down processes in auditory system enhance processing  stimuli ● Selective Visual Attention ○ Spotlight ■ see only small area but can be redirected to focus on anything ○ Zoom Lens ■ we can decrease/increase the area of focal attention ■ more accurate ○ Distraction Effects Cog. Psy. Unit 1  Study Guide ■ external and internal stimuli ■ anxious people more distracted than non ■ task­relevant stimuli more distracting than not ■ greater distraction when task is low­load (easier) ○ Stroop Task ■ words spell out color written in different color that text ■ automatic vs. controlled processes ■ top­down processing makes it difficul ○ Illusions ■ Rubber Hand ● misperception that a rubber hand is one's own ● rubber hand is touched at same time as individuals ■ Body Swap ● misperception that part/all of another's body is  one's own ● shaking hands while looking through the other  person's viewpoint ■ Barbie Doll ● size of body is misperceived as one's one in  reference to size of objects in environment ○ Unattended Stimuli is processed less thoroughly ● Disorders of Visual Attention ○ Neglect ■ Attentional Systems ● Goal­Directed ○ influenced by expectations,  knowledge, and intentions ○ uses top­down processing ● Stimulus­Directed ○ use when unexpected and important stimulus occur ○ uses bottom­up processing ■ Cases ● Mrs. S ○ suffered a stroke affecting right side  of brain ■ neglect in left visual  field ○ misses food on left side of plate,  only applies lipstick to right side ○ swivels to right to find something  that may be missing ● Posner Cog. Psy. Unit 1  Study Guide ○ neglect is failure to disengage  attention ● Vuilleumier et al. ○ two pictures presented at same time  in both visual fields ○ neglect subjects couldn't describe  both pictures ○ could identify degraded pictures  better than level of chance ■ Reducing Neglect ● training of both attentional systems ● Visual Search ○ angry faces easier to detect than non ○ moving objects easier to detect than not ○ Feature Integration Theory ■ easier to detect objects defined by a single feature than by two or  more ■ similarity between target and distractors influences ease of search ■ mostly parallel processing ■ Isolated Feature ● single feature enough to find target ● done in parallel ● not attention demanding ● only have to consult one feature map ■ Combined Feature ● a combination of features needed to find target ● done by checking each item ● demands attention ● must combine information from 2 or more maps ■ Feature Maps ● each map has information about the location of it's  feature ○ loaded without attention ■ Limitations ● Similarity Among Distractors ○ faster when all the distractors look  like each other ● Similarity Between Target & Distractors ○ slower when the distractors and  target look alike ● Illusory Conjunctions ○ combine features to "see" target  everywhere ○ Stimulus Familiarity ■ Wang ● used N and backwards N, measured reaction time Cog. Psy. Unit 1  Study Guide ● manipulated number of distractors ● Results; ○ found "N" quickly no matter the set  size ○ found backwards "N" slower as set  size increased ■ Upside Down Elephant ● Results; ○ found the "dead" elephant faster  than the "live" one ○ more used to seeing elephant in  correct orientation ○ Top­Down Processes ■ we search for objects where we think that are most likely to be  found ○ Bottom­Up Processing ■ have to look at each feature before finding target ○ Conclusions ■ familiar combinations of features can be loaded with little attention ■ One Idea ● when distractors are familiar, we can group them  into 1 unit ○ makes the unfamiliar stand out ● Consciousness ○ Issues ■ Sentience ● subjective awareness/experience ● only available to individual having experience ■ Access to Information ● ability to report the content of our experience  without reporting the process ■ Self Knowledge ● ability to have conscious awareness ○ Is Consciousness Unitary ■ split brain patients have 2 consciousness's ● left; dominant, responsible for interpreting events ● right; low­level processing ● Automaticity ○ doesn't require attention ○ occurs outside of consciousness ○ ballistic ○ goal­unrelated Cog. Psy. Unit 1  Study Guide ○ occurs in parallel not serially ○ How to Make Things Automatic ■ practice, practice, practice ■ consistent mapping (same thing in same situation every time)  ■ inconsistent mapping requires attentional control ● Limited Attention ○ tested using divided attention tasks ■ subjects do more than one task at a time or attend to more than  one message at a time ○ Shaffer ■ skilled typists recite nursery rhymes aloud while typing ● measured typing speed in wpm ● Results; ○ typists perform both tasks with only  10% loss in wpm ■ difficult to interpret ■ are they switching between both tasks? ● need attention only in bursts ● Selective Attention ○ pretty good at ignoring stimuli we are not attending to ○ Dichotic Listening ■ Cherry ● subjects noticed very little about unattended  message ○ didn't notice change in language ○ did notice if gender changed ■ Moray ● subjects could not recognize words presented over  and over in unattended ■ The Bottleneck ● limited ability to extract auditory information  presented simultaneously ● Early Filter ○ happens between intake of sensory  information and meaning ○ information is only analyzed  physically ○ Cocktail Party Effect ■ Moray ● played  name in unattended ● 33%  unnoticed ○ Treisman ■ switched messaged  from attended to unattended Cog. Psy. Unit 1  Study Guide ● messa ge was followed ● Late Filter ○ information is analyzed physically  and for meaning ○ only relevant meaning will make it  through to awareness ● Moveable Filter ○ early or late depending on needs  and resources ○ Johnston and Heinz ■ subjects listen to 2  different word lists ■ shadowed for  physical characteristics or meaning ■ Results; ● took  longer to react when shadowing for meaning ● Moral: all stimuli are evaluated for physical  characteristics ○ further processing takes more  resources ● Attention & Driving ○ 85% of people use phone while driving ○ Brazil, Israel, and Australia prohibit phones while driving ○ 13 states ban use while driving ■ do permit hands­free devices ○ women and younger more likely to use phone ○ Redelmeier & Tibshiranis (1997) ■ examined data from 699 drivers in accidents ● scanned cell records ■ risk of accident 4x higher when using cell ● no benefit from hands free ● 2005 AUS study found same ■ almost as dangerous as driving drunk ○ Strayer, Drews & Johnston ■ tested students in driving simulator while on phones hands free ■ Results; ● slower breaking time increases likelihood and  severity of accidents ● alone; 780 with phone;912 ● evidence for attentional theory ● everyone says their own driving stays the same on  phone or not ○ Cause ■ Peripheral Interference Hypothesis ● interference from holding phone Cog. Psy. Unit 1  Study Guide ● Solution ■ hands­free phones ■ Attentional Hypothesis ● diverting attention to conversation itself ● Solution ■ pull over and park ○ Texting and Driving ■ includes attentional component of handling phone ■ banned in 35 states ■ Drews et al. ● subjects perform task in driving simulator ■ text friend ● Results; ■ more crashes ■ more swerving ■ lower following distance Chapter 4 ● Terms: ○ memory span; number of items an individual can recall immediately in correct  order ○ chunks; stored units formed from smaller pieces of information ○ rehearsal; reiteration of verbal material ○ recall; retrieving information from memory ○ recency effect; tendency for the last items in a list to be recalled easier than  items from the middle of the list ○ dysexective syndrome; damage to frontal lobe causes impaired functioning of  central executive (deficits in organizing and planning) ○ reading span; largest number of sentences that can be recalled more than 50%  of the time ○ operation span; maximum number of items (arithmetic and words) from which the last word can be recalled ○ Decay: loss over time ○ Interference: distractions ○ Primacy Effect: words rehearsed more, given more attention ○ Recency Effect: isn't competing with additional information ○ Proactive Interference; older learning interferes with new learning ○ Retroactive Interference; new learning interferes with old learning ○ Central Executive: tells your memory what to do Cog. Psy. Unit 1  Study Guide ○ Phonological Loop: processing and brief storage of speech based information ○ Visuo­Spatial Sketchpad: processing and brief storage of visual and spatial  information ○ Episodic Buffer: storage system ● Short Term Memory ○ Capacity ■ Miller’s Magic Number ● 7 chunks ■ lower with words with long pronunciation ■ 3 ­ 4 chunks without rehearsal ○ Duration ■ only a few seconds ■ Reasons ● Decay ● Interference ○ Serial Position Curve ■ boost in memory performance at beginning and at end ● Primacy Effect and Recency Effect ■ forgetting can tell us about the difference between short and long  term store ■ Glanzer & Cunitz ○ free recall with 10 or 30 second delay ■ Brown­Peterson ○ hear group of consonants, 3 second delay, recall ○ Results; ■ longer the delay, less correct recall ■ showed memory decays ○ Forgetting ■ Interference ○ Proactive Interference ○ Retroactive Interference ○ Waugh & Norman ■ forgetting is due to interference not  decay ■ study series of digits at different  rates (4digits/1sec, 1digit/1sec) ● probe digit procedure ■ remember one specific digit after  tone ● time passes and  more digits are presented ■ Results; ● worse at recall when  more digits are presented ● Working Memory Cog. Psy. Unit 1  Study Guide ○ Argument: we should change ST memory to working memory ○ allows us to examine short­term store ○ a system combining processing and short­term memory functions ■ includes spatial, visual, and verbal processes ○ Model ■ Central Executive ● no storage capacity ● can process any information ● Major Processes ○ Task Setting; simple planning ○ Monitoring; checking task is  performed well ○ Energization; sustained  attention/concentration ■ Phonological Loop ● processing and brief storage of speech based  information ● 2 Parts ○ Phonological Store; the "tape loop" ○ Subvocal Rehearsal Process; inner  speech ● Phonological Similarity Effect ○ immediate recall of words in list is  more difficult when words sound similar ● Evidence ○ Articulatory Suppression; repeat  simple word over and over while listening ■ interferes with  learning of acoustic info ○ Word Length Effect; pronunciation  time inversely related to recall ■ Baddeley ● study  words that differ in the number of syllables ● results  are different based on the length of the word ■ Naveh Benjamin &  Ayres ● tested  digit span of English, Spanish, Hebrew, and Arabic ● given a speeded digit reading task ● IQ test  bias to English speakers because of how long it takes to  pronounce digits ■ Visuospatial Sketchpad ● temporarily maintains visual and spatial information ● can enter from perception or memory ● Brooks Cog. Psy. Unit 1  Study Guide ○ 2 different tasks, one visuospatial  one phonological ○ 2 responses ■ Vocal; say "yes" or  "no ■ Visuospatial; point to  "yes" or "no" ○ categorized each corner of letter as  extreme top/bottom or in middle ○ verbal task: read sentences and  clarify if noun or not ○ Results: ■ block letters take  longer when pointing (visuospatial) ■ only impairs  performance in visuospatial ■ Episodic Buffer ● stores briefly from long­term memory ○ Capacity ■ people with higher levels of working memory have higher (fluid)  intelligence  ■ Attentional Control ● High in Working Memory ○ superior resistance to distraction ○ fewer lapses of attention ○ more flexible allocation of attention ■ Dual­Component Model ● memory capacity and attentional control important


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