Exam 1 for SMAD 101
Exam 1 for SMAD 101 SMAD 101
Popular in Intro to media arts and design
Popular in Art
Dr. Edwardo Langworth
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordan Butcher on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SMAD 101 at James Madison University taught by George Johnson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Intro to media arts and design in Art at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Media Communication in an Information Age Hard Technology: the technology itself Soft Technology: i.e. software, manual Agricultural Society (8,000 BC to present) Less developed countries Food and land Work on a farm Industrial Society (1750 to present) More congested Manufactured goods and energy Work in a factory Oneway print and electronic media Information Society (1955 to present) Information is more important than physical products Work in an information environment Globalization: extending business, communication, etc. across the world (making the world seemingly smaller/closer) US Workforce Agriculture Industrial Service Information Types of Media Mass Media Point to multipoint Sender controls the message Message for the mass i.e. watching your favorite tv show (point to multipoint) Telecommunications Interpersonal and point to multipoint Mediated by technology i.e. cell phone allows you to talk to one or many people Personal Media Point to multipoint, point to point, interpersonal, or intrapersonal Use technology to personalize i.e. cat videos on YouTube (point to multipoint) i.e. sending an email (point to point) Technological Determinism: one’s dependence on technology Mediamorphosis: the change of communication media, perceived needs, competitive and political pressures, and social and technological innovations Principles of Mediamorphosis: Coevolution & Coexistence: as new forms emerge, it influences the development of other existing forms Metamorphosis: new media emerges from older media Propagation: new media propagate dominant traits from earlier forms i.e. telegraph to twitter (limits the number of characters you can use) Survival: all forms of media are compelled to evolve and adapt Opportunity & Need: new media aren’t adopted on technological merit alone Delayed Adoption: takes longer than expected to become commercial success Convergence of Media: integration of media into a common technological base Diffusion of Innovations: process were a innovation spreads in a social system Digital Convergence i.e. the printer, scanner, and fax machine used to be three separate machines and now they are “allinone” Factors leading to digital convergence: 1) Interactive allows one to one interaction 2) Demassified personalized 3) Asynchronous no specific time, convenient for you 4) Convenience information is easily converted, manipulated, and reached Types of Convergence Device/Technological (i.e. remote talks to the tv) Corporate/Economic Operational/Cultural (i.e. how we use social media) Types of Innovations Sustaining Innovation: improvement on something that existed (i.e. typewriter became electric) Disruptive Innovation: taking a product and replacing it (i.e. word processor ‘destroyed’ the typewriter) Diffusion of Innovations Saffos 30 Year Rule 1 decade: excitement and confusion with little penetration 2 decade: flux with beginning of penetration rd 3 decade: technology is taken for granted Rogers 5 Critical Attributes of Successful Diffusion (1) Relative advantage (2) Observability (3) Compatibility (4) Reliability (5) Complexity Fidler’s Sixth Principle Familiarity needs a link to the past Steven Johnson 10/10 Rule 10 years to make it and 10 years to market Stages of Diffusion: Awareness > Interest > Decision > Trial > Adoption Digital Native: immersed in the digital age since birth Digital Immigrants: slowly fazed into the digital culture over past few decades Adoption Curve Innovators: the first in line for new products **Product “takes off” here Early adopters: wait a couple of months before purchasing **Product begins diffusion here Late adopters: wait until the hype has died off **By this point, the product has begun diffusion at fast pace (likely being replaced with next best thing) Laggards: “old people” in denial of technological age progression Digital vs Analog Digital: takes a sample and turns it into 0s and 1s Analog: all information is transmitted including noise and has continuous variation Digital Advantages: less noise, easier to manipulate, compressible (i.e. 40 encyclopedias to 1 dvd), intelligent channels (i.e. thermostat changes throughout the day to your desired temperature), and integrated networks Marshall McLuhan Global Village Immediate transfer of information Globalization Common experiences are defined by the media (i.e. 9/11) Communication Process and Theory Intrapersonal Communication: communication with self i.e. writing in a diary Interpersonal Communication: face to face communication i.e. talking to a friend (can be machine assisted and not in person) Mass Communication: point to multipoint communication i.e. watching the news on television Functions of Mass Communication Surveillance: providing newsworthy information Correlation: interpreting information and prescribing action Transmission of Culture: educating people about a cultures’ values and social norms Entertainment: entertain people without offering any other functional value Shannon & Weaver Linear Communication Model Westley & Maclean Gatekeeping Model x: events A: individual (author) C: editor B: audience Arrow A to C: shows a message Arrow C to B: shows a mediated message Arrow “fCA” shows the editing process from editor back to the author Arrow “fBC” shows a letter to the editor from the audience Arrow “fBA” shows a letter to the author from the audience Uses and Gratifications Theory: people take an active role in choosing media for the purpose of gratifying needs Alex Tan’s Typology of Needs Cognitive: conscience need Affective: result of emotion Personal Integrative: need to see so I can say I saw it Social Integrative: need to see so you can fit in Escapist: need to leave (i.e. you’re snowed in for days and need to get out) Expectancy Value Theory: function of the expectancies one has and the value of the goal toward which one is working i.e. you expect a woman, so you watch the news that has a woman anchor Dependency Theory: people become dependent to technology and the media *There is a threeway interaction between media, audience, and society Hegemony: if you have power over the media, you can continue to enhance your power McCombs & Shaw the media set the agenda of what are considered important issues media doesn’t tell us what to think but what to think about Spiral of Silence Noelle Neuman: fear of isolation causes people to evaluate popularity of opinions th Solomon Asch: if 9 out of 10 people choose one thing, the 10 person will mostly follow Forms of Bias in the Media Media Bias: the media has built in features that privilege some information while minimizing others Partisan Bias: a cause is deliberately biased i.e. JMU grad student was murdered so her station favors gun control legislation Propaganda Bias: deliberate intention of making a case for policy without stating i.e. JMU pamphlet doesn’t say “Come to JMU!” but you know what they’re trying to do Unwitting Bias: the way we select stories Bias by Selection: make selection based on the amount of space Bias by Experience: humanistic approach, eliminate human suffering Bias by Market: advertising Corporate: track to see what you buy Government: use of federal funded money Bias can be good or bad. Think of ways to argue either side. *Audiences sometimes want slanted views, but bias puts pressure on the consumer to seek other perspectives Media Effects Media’s Direct Powerful Effects Hypodermic Needle/Magic Bullet Hypothesis: the media affects us immediately Prosocial copycat actions positive effect i.e. watching show about breast cancer made women go out and get a breast exam Antisocial copycat actions negative effect i.e. watching show about burning a cat and the children burned down their trailer from burning the cat Media’s Indirect Powerful Effects Two Step Flow: opinion leaders such as teachers shape your opinion Multi Step Flow: not direct like two step flow, but same concept. War of the Worlds Orson Welles gave a radio broadcast about Martians invading Earth, and people believed him. Welles was told to state during the broadcast that this was just a story but he refused. People assumed that Earth was actually being invaded. This instilled fear and mistrust in the American people towards the media. Active Audience Selective Exposure: what we want to see Selective Attention: time you focus on the media Selective Perception: perceive message that tends to support our morals Selective Retention/Recall: retain things that we find interesting Selective Behavior of Social Categories: what is proper in social situations Crystallization: when someone has vague opinions about a certain topic, they are more likely to believe/trust whatever they hear about that specific topic Reinforcement: when someone is preexposed to an idea, they want to reinforce their beliefs of that idea Albert Bandura: experiment with parents beating up bobo dolls and children mimicking **watching violence in the media may not cause violence but it can encourage it Stalagmite Theory: Cultivation Theory: people ages birth5 and 75+ are the easiest to manipulate through tv Cultivation Differential: difference between people who do and do not view media Why Violence (over other genres)? give the people what they want less expensive translates easily to other cultures (comedy isn’t the same worldwide but guns, fighting, blood, etc. are) 1970 Commission on Obscenity: no cause and effect relationship between porn and crime 1986 Meese Commission: violent sexual pornography leads to crime in society Helen Gurley Brown: (1960s) said women can make money, have sex, and do whatever men can do Minorities in the Media Latino Media El Misisipi was the first paper KCORAM was the first radio station Black Media Originally produced by white abolitionist and eventually taken over by early black writers Northern Star was the first paper Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas: The American Slave Gay and Lesbian Media Friendship and Freedom was the first publication Will and Grace & Ellen are two television shows David Goodstein and Milk wrote Fired for Gayness Asian Media Yellow face: making a Caucasian look Asian using makeup Margaret Cho’s acting coaches told her she didn’t act Asian enough Closed Society: government discourages freedom of thought and expression Information is filtered so that the people stay uninformed Positive freedom i.e. North Korea Open Society: the media monitors and reports on government operations encourages participatory democracy negative freedom i.e. United States Four Types of Systems Libertarian (Free Press) System government is committed to present all views corporations own most of the media outlets i.e. United States Social Responsibility System media ensures that government isn’t abusing it’s powers i.e. Britain Authoritarian System government has total control over the media used as propaganda by arm of state i.e. Middle Eastern Countries SovietCommunist System media is publically owned and unmotivated by profit used to educate and promote socialization and conformity to the masses i.e. China and Cuba High Culture: producers and consumers heavily depend on a shared understanding of the context within which the media content is presented. Low Culture: little regard for selection of color, word, or imagery (pick on/make fun of) Cultural Imperialism: spread of culture into a society of another generally without the society’s consent Cultural Hegemony: powerful corporations can influence the content of global media indirectly influencing globalization of culture Print media requires literacy of the language in which it is written, is expensive to produce, and easy to control Broadcast media is easy to control, expensive to set up, and has the widest range of price (radio being the lowest and tv being the highest) Digital media is the least expensive, hard to regulate, and has the fastest delivery “Mean World Syndrome” (movie watched in class) George Gerbner: studied media violence Happy Violence: for entertainment purposes versus showing a bad situation where violence is occurring Fish Born in Water: the fish doesn’t know he is in water because he doesn’t know any different, just like we don’t know the difference between before and after media because we don’t know a time before media Three main questions to pull from the movie: 1. What is mean world syndrome? 2. What is happy violence? 3. Why is violence popular?
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