CD 256: Exam 2 Study Guide
CD 256: Exam 2 Study Guide 256
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Arianna Negri on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 256 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Lee in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Child Development at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
PSY 256: Winter 2015 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE This study guide is to be used to help you prepare for the second exam. For each of the topics below, you are responsible for all material presented in the textbook and in lecture. Some of the entries may only have been discussed in lecture. Others may only appear in the book. Most were discussed in both. If there is a topic in the book that does not appear on the study guide, it will NOT be on the second exam. Chapter 5: Early Childhood: Body and Mind 1. Be able to describe children's thinking (and the limitations of their thinking) during Piaget's preoperational period of cognitive development. HINT: Know Concept of Conservation and why children can't solve conservation problems. Be able to give examples of egocentrism, animism, and transductive reasoning. Preoperational intelligence: Paget’s term for cognitive development between the ages of about two and six, it includes language and imagination (which involve symbolic thought) but logical, operational thinking is not yet possible Conservation: The principle that the amount of substance remains the same when its appearance changes Young children fail to understand conservation of liquids because they focus (center) on what they see (appearance), noticing only the immediate (static) condition. It does not occur to them that they could reverse the process and re create the liquid level of a moment earlier (irreversibility) Egocentrism: Piaget’s term for young children’s tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective (egocentrism makes child believes that everyone thinks as he/she does) Animism: The belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive (clouds, trees, exc. Have souls) Transductive reasoning: A child reasons from case to case, ignoring important, well established facts they have yet to learn 2. Understand children’s theories. Know what is meant by theory of mind. Given an example of children’s understanding of false beliefs as provided in class. Theorytheory: The idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear (Why? Theory) Theory of mind: A person’s theory of what other people might be thinking. In order, to have a theory of mind, children must realize that other people are not necessarily thinking the same thoughts that they themselves are. This realization is seldom achieved before age 4. Begins when a child becomes less egocentric. Theory of mind enables a person to comprehend the emotions of other people as well as to realize what other people may or may not know Chapter 6: Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development 1. Describe the developmental changes in children’s emotional development. Know what is meant by emotion regulation and how this differs by gender and how caregivers influence children’s emotion regulation. Initiative Versus Guilt Erikson’s third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them Self Esteem (can lead to pride in one self or guilt and shame): A person’s evaluation of his or her own worth, either in specifics or in general. Self Concept: A person’s understanding of who he or she is, incorporating self esteem, physical appearance, personality and various personal traits, such as gender and size. Emotional Regulation: The ability to control when and how emotions are expressed. ex. Should girls fight to make them strong and brave, play fight like boys? Proper gender norms, caregivers can provide regulations for how to age. 2. Describe the development of children's sense of pride, guilt and shame (also review Chapt. 4, p. 126 AND Chapt. 8 p. 274275) Self Esteem is the main basis for pride in oneself, because it is a belief in one’s own ability, a personal estimate of success and worthiness. Can be affirmed my parents or peers. More self esteem= more confidence and independence. Initiate more and become more motivated, begin to form a self concept. Erikson recognized that most young children have immodest self concept, think of themselves in higher regards than they are so they believe any goal is achievable. *Feeling proud, but not unrealistically so, is the foundation for the child’s ongoing practice of skills. Guilt and Shame: Children caught between their own fears and fantasies\ Guilt=the self blame that people experience when they do something wrong Shame=refers to people’s feeling that others blame them, disapprove of them, or are disappointed in them Many people believe that guilt is a more mature emotion than shame because guilt comes from within the person whereas shame depends on others’ awareness 3. Analyze the following parenting styles: authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive. Authoritarian: An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavviorial standards, strict punishment of misconduct and little communication. Permissive: An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control. Authoritative parenting: An approach to child rearing in which the parent set limits and enforce rules but are flexible and listen to their children. Neglectful/uninvolved parenting: An approach to child rearing in which the parents are indifferent towards their child and unaware of what is going on in their children’s lives. 4. Define empathy and antipathy and how they relate to prosocial behavior and antisocial behavior. Empathy: the ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person, especially when they differ from one’s own (Feeling sorry w/ someone) Antipathy: Feelings of dislike or even hatred for another person Prosocial behavior: Actions that are helpful and kind but that are of no obvious benefit to the person doing them Antisocial behavior: Actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person. 5. Define maltreatment. Explain different attachment styles. Maltreatment: To treat in a rough or cruel way; abuse. Secure attachment: Feel confident that the attachment figure will be available to meet their needs, they use attachment figure as a safe base to explore environment and seek attachment figure in times of distress, securely attached infants are easily soothed by the attachment figure when upsets Insecure attachment: Insecure avoidant children do not orientate to their attachment figure while investigating the environment.They are very independent of the attachment figure both physically and emotionally. They do not seek contract with the attachment figure when distressed. Such children are likely to have a caregiver who is insensitive and rejecting of their needs insecure ambivalent attachment: Here children adopt an ambivalent behavioral style towards the attachment figure. The child will commonly exhibit clingy and dependent behavior, but will be rejecting of the attachment figure when they engage in interaction. The child fails to develop any feelings of security from the attachment figure. Accordingly they exhibit difficulty moving away from the attachment figure to explore novel surroundings. When distressed they are difficult to soothe and are not comforted by interaction with the attachment figure. 6. 5. Describe the four forms of aggression Instrumental: Hurtful behavior that is intended to get something that another person has and to keep it Reactive: An impulsive retaliation for another person’s intentional or accidental action, verbal or physical Relational: Nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people Bullying: Unproved, REPEATED physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themelves 7. Describe and be able to give examples of the following terms/issues associated with gender role development: gender identity, gender stability, gender constancy, gender roles, gender role stereotypes vs. gender differences, and androgyny. Gender differences: Differences in the roles and behaviors that are prescribed by a culture for males and females Gender schema: A child’s cognitive concept or general belief about sex differences, which is based on his or her observations and experiences Androgyny: A balance within one person of traditionally masculine and feminine psychological characteristics. Gender stability: the child knows that their gender is stable over time. A child in this stage knows that boys will grow up to be men and that girls will grow up to be women. Gender constancy: The child knows a person gender stay the same regardless of changes in the person's activitives or appearance. For example, A 6 or 7 year old who had reached this stage knows a person gender stay the same when a person dressup like a member of the other sex or when a person does crosssex activitives. Gender roles: are culture based, and while most cultures distinguish only two genders, some recognize more. Androgyny, for example, has been proposed as a third gender. Other societies have been claimed to see more than five genders, and some nonWestern societies have three genders – man, woman and third gender. Gender roles stereotype vs. gender differences: Both within and across different cultures we find great consistency in standards of desirable gender-role behavior. Males are expected to be independent, assertive, and competitive; females are expected to be more passive, sensitive, and supportive. 8. Describe the theories of gender difference. *Psychoanalytic theory: (Freud) Focus on the phallic stage: Penis Oedipus complex, Electra complex, identification superego: The judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents *Behaviorism: Behaviorists believe that virtually all roles are learned, resulting from nature not nurture. Gender distinctions are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment *Cognitive Theory: How children understand various idea, forming their concepts on the basis of their experiences Gender schema “Cognitive and social learning theories differ in that while both theories explain how the social reality of sex differences is internalized, social learning theory proposes that society socializes children, while cognitive developmental theory proposes that children actively socialize themselves.” *Systems Theory: attempts to understand the interaction between social systems and biological forces. Androgyny : A balance with one person of traditionally masculine and feminine psychological characteristics the idea of androgyny runs counter to systems theory because no single idea can undercut all the values, practices, and traditions of a society Chapter 7: Middle Childhood: Body and Mind 1. Describe and define the cognitive abilities that are present during Piaget's Concrete Operational stage (as discussed in lecture and on pp.239241 & metacognition on p. 245). Concrete Operational thought: Piagetr’s term for the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions Classification: The logical principle that things can be organized into groups according to some characteristic they have in common Transitive Inference: The ability to figure out the unspoken link between one fact and another Chapter 8: Middle Childhood: Psychosocial Development 1. Describe the significance of peers during childhood. Although school age children value acceptance by the entire peer group, personal friendship is even more important to them. Want/need friends Friendship leads to psychosocial growth and provides a buffer against psychopathology 2. Describe how children’s perception of friends changes from preschool to adolescence. Friendships become more intense and intimate as children grow older. B/c social cognition and effortful control improve with age, by age 10 kids know how to be a good friend. As they age… Demand more of their friends, change friends less often, become more upset when a friendship ends, find it harder to make new friends, seek friends who share their interests and values 3. Understand social awareness. Define social cognition. • Social Awareness: Empathy: understanding the other person’s emotions, needs and concerns. • Organisational Awareness: the ability to understand the politics within an organization and how these affect the people working in them. • Service: the ability to understand and meet the needs of clients and customers. Essentially awareness of social situations is about carefully considering what people want, and planning to communicate with them in a way that is intended to meet that need. Social Cognition: The ability to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of human behavior 3. List and define different types of peer relationships (as discussed in lecture). 4. “A friendship is a significant relationship between two people that is based on caring, trust & consideration” (Merki, & Merki, 2004, 249). 5. 1. Casual- Peers with whom you feel socially connected 2. Close- More likely to share real feeling with you and makes you feel 6. more comfortable doing the same 3. Plutonic- A relationship with a member of the opposite gender in 7. which there is affection, but no sexual activity 4. Cliques-A small narrow circle of friends, usually with similar 8. backgrounds or tastes, that excludes people they view as outsiders. Aggressive-rejected children: Children who are disliked by peers because of antagonistic, confrontational behavior Withdrawn rejected children- Children who are disliked by peers because of their timid, withdrawn, and anxious behavior 5. Know about bullies and victims. As discussed in lecture, list the myths of bullying and victimization. Bullying: Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person Bullyvictim: Someone who attacks other and who is attacked as well (Also called provocative victim because he or she does things that elicit bullying, such as stealing a bully’s pencil. ) 1 6. Know the stages of moral reasoning. Peers and culture… What children value, pride and prejudice Advances in Moral Reasoning… Preconvention moral reasoning: Kohlberg’s first level of moral reasoning, emphasizing rewards and punishments Conventional: Kohlberg’s second level of moral reasoning, emphasizing social rules Post conventional: third level, emphasizing moral principles Chapter 9: Adolescence: Body and Mind 1. Describe the early theorists’ notion of adolescent storm and stress. Discuss whether current research supports this early notion. Storm and stress: time of rebellion/ great change/ confusion No, it’s more of a time of maturing sexually and becoming an adult, but it is a great change and time of confusion. 2. Describe the pubertal changes in adolescence. Puberty: a time between the first onrush of hormones and full adult physical development. Women: menarche, estradiol Men: spermarche, testosterone Pituitary gland: A gland in the brain that responds to a signal from the hypothalamus by producing many hormones, including those that regulate growth and control other glands, among them the adrenal and sex gland Adrenal gland: two glands located above the kidneys that produce hormones 3. Describe how being an early or late mature can affect girls vs. boys. Girls: better to be a late mature b/c early has lower self esteem, more depression, and poorer body image Boys: previous generations, boys tended to benefit from early puberty. But now early maturing boys are more aggressive, law breaking and alcohol abusing Late puberty are more anxious, depressed and afraid of sex 4. Describe physical growth during puberty. 5. Know the changes in primary and secondary sex characteristics that occur during puberty. Primary: the parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction, including the vagina, uterus, ovaries, testicles and penis Secondary: physical traits are not directly involved in reproduction but that indicated sexual maturity, such as man bear and women breasts 6. Define and give examples of the 3 forms of adolescent egocentrism. Adolescent egocentrism: A characteristic of adolescent thinking that leads young people to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others Personal fable: An aspect of adolescent egocentrism characterized by an adolescents belief that his or her thoughts, feelings, or experiences are unique, more wonderful or awful than anyone else’s Invincibility fable: An adolescent’s egocentric conviction that he or she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal, such as unprotected sex, drug abuse, or high speed driving Imaginary audience: The other people who, in an adolescent’s egocentric belief, are watching and taking note of his or her appearance ideas, and behavior self conscious 7. Describe Piaget's formal operations stage and give examples of the cognitive changes that occur during this stage. Formal operational thought: In Piaget’s theory, the fourth and final stage of cognitive development characterized by more systematic logic and the ability to think about abstract ideas. Hypothetical deductive thought: reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality Deductive reasoning: reasoning from a general statement, premise, or principle, through logical steps, to figure out specifics Inductive reasoning: Reasoning from one or more specific experiences or facts to a generall conclusion Chapter 10: Adolescence: Psychosocial Development 1. Know what is meant by identity. Be able to define and give examples of James Marcia's four identity statuses. Identity: a consistent definition of one’s self as a unique, individual, in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs and aspirations Role confusion: A situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is Foreclosure: Erikson’s term for premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts parents or society roles and values wholesale, without questioning or analysis Moratorium: An adolescents choice of a socially acceptable way to postpone making identity achievement decisions. 2. Describe the four areas of identity achievement. Religious identity, Gender identity, Political/Ethnic Identity, Vocational Identity 3. Describe the relationship between adolescents and their parents and how it changes during this time. Sometimes distance themselves from the values and behaviors of their elders, not always a good thing. Conflict with parents: bickering, neglect, independence and culture Closeness with family: communication, support, connectedness, control Emotional dependency, Do you know where your teenager is? 4. Describe the significance of peer support. Peer influence becomes more important. Cliques: a group of adolescents made up of close friends who are loyal to one another while excluding others Crowd: A larger group of adolescents who have something in common but who are not necessarily friends Peer pressure: Encouragement to conform to one’s friends or contemporaries in behavior, dress, and attitude usually considered a negative force, as when adolescent peers encourage one another to defy adult author. Deviancy training: destructive peer support in which one person shows another how to rebel against authority or social norms 5. Describe issues related to sexuality and romantic activity during adolescence. From asexual to active: groups of friends exclusively one of sex or the other, a loose association of girls and boys with public interactions within a crowd, small mixed sex groups of the advanced members of the crowd, formation of couples with private intimacies Lack of sex education: learning from peers, parents, school Issues: lack of awareness on pregnancy and STI 6. Know about depression and suicide during this time. Clinical depression: Feelings of hopelessness, lethargy, and worthlessness that last two weeks or more Rumination: Repeatedly thinking and talking about past experiences; can contribute to depression Suicidal ideation: thinking about suicide, usually with some serious emotional intellectual or cognitive overtones Cluster suicide: several suicides committed by members of a group within a brief period of time Para suicide: any potetionally lethal action against the self that does not result in death 6. Describe the current trends in adolescent drug use. 72% of high school seniors drank alcohol at least once in their lives, 46% tried smoking cigs, and 42% tried weed. Alcohol is the biggest, cocaine not so much
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