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Study Guide for Exam 1, HY 101

by: Caroline Crews

Study Guide for Exam 1, HY 101 HY 101

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > History > HY 101 > Study Guide for Exam 1 HY 101
Caroline Crews

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This study guide is for the first test. Feel free to email me with any questions! Good luck!
Western Civ To 1648
Daniel Riches
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Crews on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daniel Riches in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 252 views. For similar materials see Western Civ To 1648 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
Study Guide Exam 1 Civilization  Agriculture o Is needed to sustain a culture o Started around 8,000 B.C. o Domestic plants and animals o More complex communities needed and supported by agriculture o Prerequisite for a civilization but not the most important aspect  4 keys elements stated by Chester Star o Presence of firmly unified states  Boundaries and boarders needed o Distinct social classes  Not everyone has the same social status o Economical independence (interdependence)  Division of labor o Conscience development of the arts  Ancient Near East was the first to show all aspects of the 4 keys of civilization Ancient Near East  Mesopotamia o Between the Tigris and the Euphrates River o Sumerians  Circa 2000 B.C., Epic of Gilgamesh  Marks by city, kings, and special economy  No political unity o Akkadians  King Sargon, circa 2334 – 2279 B.C.  Brought political peace, largest ever  Cultural uniformity  After the death of King Sargon, the civilization fell apart o Babylonian Empire  King Hammurabi, 1792 – 1750 B.C.  Famous for law code  After death, the empire dissolved  City of Babylon was destroyed in 1600 B.C.  Hittites o Asia Minor, present-day Turkey o Adapted many aspects from the civilization before  Egypt o Nile River o Not a lot of contact with other civilization and cultures o Overriding theme of continuity  Assyrian Empire o First group to unity the fertile crescent and Egypt together o Rose in the 1740s B.C. o High degree of centralization  Professional army, sent own local officers to rule regions o People rose up to take back control, 1600 B.C. Differences between Mesopotamia and Egypt  Mesopotamia had garden, and more conflict with other civilizations which led to more conflict o Led to a more military-centered leaderships  Egypt had more security o Led to continuity o Led to a focus on culture rather than military  Mesopotamia leaders o Warriors, fighters  Egypt leaders o Administration, God-like, preserver Common Aspects between Mesopotamia and Egypt  Monarchies  Bureaucratic o Trained, literate officials, trained staff  Union of religion and politics o Egyptian leaders considered to be the Gods, uniting religion and politics  Social and cultural development o First cities o First writing around 3500 B.C.  Pictograms first o Development of math, specially in Mesopotamia The Early Greeks Greek World in the Bronze Age  Aegean Sea  Bronze Age Cultures o Cycladic c. 2500-1900 BC  Non-military force  Island o Minoan c. 2000-1400 BC  Island of Crete  Politically unified  Very similar to the Near East: kings, centralized government, religion and politics were combined (like Egypt), bureaucratic  Little military  Greater equality for women than most cultures at this time  Pay taxes in king; government’s responsibility to collet and redistribute  For this task to be completed successfully, they had to literate (which also means they created their own alphabet) o Mycenaean c. 1600-1200 BC  Greek main land but grew to include the islands and some of Asia Minor  Military culture  Probably not politically unified  Borrowed culture from Cycladic and Minoan  Military elite governed  Demise:  Dorian invasions o Most likely a myth o Foreign military intervention  Series of natural disasters  Plugged into the main civilizations of the Near East o Very dependent on the cultures and trade from their culture o When the cultures of the Near East went into chaos, Greece could not survive Dark Ages and Aftermath  Greek “Dark Ages” c. 1200-700 BC o Consequences for isolation  Serious population decline  Sharp decline of cities  Almost complete disappearance of urban culture; rise of rural culture  Disappearance of large scale governments  Tiny chiefdoms, 2 or 3 towns in total  Very little trade with anyone  Very large decline in culture  The Greeks return to being illiterate  No art, went backwards o Advantages of isolation  Forced an independence  Created a cultural unity  Role of Geography in Greek Development o Water  The Aegean Sea made it very accessible to influence  Connection to the Near East and developing west o Predisposed to smaller localized government o Waterways made it easy to communicate with different tribes and cultures  Rivers, streams, and ocean made it easy and quick to travel o Agriculture  Hard to grow food; the communication help share/trade foods  Social Organizations o Male-oriented o Slave society o Basic social unit was the household  Eight Contrary Renaissance of “Age of Revolution c. 750-650 BC o Renewal of trade contacts in the East o Development of new arts  Stereotypical Greek art and architecture  Development of mythology and epic poems  Greek Gods very fluid  Homer o Probably not a singular person, although the Greeks believed he was one person o Most likely a group of people who started the epic poems o Odyssey and Iliad products of the Dark Ages  These tales were very nostalgic of what it was like in the Bronze Age  Belief in individualism, glory o Were obsessed with people and psychology o Rise of PanHellenic religions shrines and temples and festivals o Rise of the Olympic Games o Connection brought cultural unity o Rise in population was great; consequences:  Return of urban living  Encouragement to trade with Near East  Greater division of labor  Rise of wealthy land owners  Creation of leisure class  To think, create, and govern were their main responsibilities  Colonizing, even across the Mediterranean  Bringing with them their culture, language, etc. The Greek Polis Rise of the Polis  Polis o City-state: self-governing, political unit o Started as the small villages in Dark Ages o Citadels were built; fortresses used for refuge  Geographic reasons for placement  Had shrines to their patron God/Goddess  Economic functions: became a marketplace o Shares a sense of common identity o Majority of “citizens” lived outside the polis o Size of a normal county  Athens o Very densely populated  Most citizens did have political power  Number of men was around 40,00 at height  Rise of aristocracy and wealthy merchant class o Rejected the older form of government from the Dark Ages  Changing military organization o Hoplites  Militia; citizen soldiers  Phalanx  No individualism, teamwork, mutual trust, great sacrifice  Later, there would be a rule stating that the body of the phalanx could reject a commander’s orders collectively  Mixed classes  To be in the phalanx had to have the same property/wealth has a fully-participating citizen in the polis o Lower-status men were support to the phalanx Archaic Greece and the Polis  Governing o All citizens came together to vote/rule  Vocal skills greatly values because that was the only way to get your point across o Justice became a founding value  Intense philosophical investigations Aristotle’s Politics  Polis is the natural way o Perfectly self-sufficient o Came from human nature o Derived from natural union (man + woman, etc.) o More pragmatic than anything else  The whole most precede the parts  People living outside of a polis aren’t human o They have no moral anchor  Different between man and beast o Language o Justice  Person living in the polis, as they should, are the best, other are the worst Athens  After the Dark Ages, run by oligarchy, few wealthy families, poor were serfs o Wealthy families didn’t like each other, which led to horrible violence  Draco, 621 BC o Created very dark law codes to help stop the violence that was being created by the rich families o Replaced retribution laws with clean, clear written law o Written justice over the clans controls o Didn’t work for very long  Solon, c. 630-560 BC o Chosen in 594 BC to change government o Social problems needed to be fixed  Abolished debt bondage, establishing free peasants o His political reform was more social  Wanted all citizens to become more involved; hated indifference  Lasted longer than Draco’s governing plan but still didn’t last long Athens and Sparta Athens  Soton o Didn’t solve underlying social tension o Created a society that was ripe for the rise of tyrants  Populist: person of power who appeals to the common man  Tyrant simply means one person holds all the power; not necessarily a bad ruler like today’s meaning  Peisistratus and Hippias rules as tyrants 545-510 BC o Used their power to get their men elected o Actually strengthened the government  Cleisthenes c. 570-507 B.C. o Led the rebellion against tyrants o Promoted Athens’s patriotism  Works projects and other events created positive attachment to the city and government  Cultural expansion by government o During this time, Greece achieved cultural status  The Parthenon  Political Expansion o Almost like an empire, very expansive  Athens was heavily populated o Because they could only provide food for 20% of the population, they relied heavily on importing o Needed to expand trade routes constantly to support themselves economically  Developing trade and naval power  Oriented towards the sea Sparta  Located on the Peloponnesus (island)  Less merchant trade that Athens, less open culturally, less reliant on water systhms  Lycurgus, 7 century B.C. o Ride of traditional Sparta o Could be a myth o The Spartan believed that the polis was designed by human will, unlike Athens o They had very little enjoyment  Barely any cultural arts o 2 main goals  Freeing of all male citizens to concentrate on warring  Training citizens with discipline, commitment, and skill  Homoioi (‘peers’ or ‘Equals’) and helots o Homoioi  Took years of training to achieve  After training able to participate in the government o Helots  State serfs, public slaves  Theoretically, all men could be Homoioi o To become a Homoioi,  At birth, babies who did not appear healthy enough were exposed  At 7, boys were taken away to training for 13 years; very intense  Krypteia o For the boys survived training, it was the next step o Was the secret police o Kept the helots in a constant state of terror  At 30 years old, men become Homoioi only if they survived all the training o It was illegal for them to participate in art or trade  Women in Sparta o They were valued to make good fighters o Had a program of education to be a good mother o Many women were involved in more activities outside of the house because all the men were busy practicing government  The Spartans consider heroes to be… o Women who died in childbirth o Men who died in battle  Become increasingly isolated  Peloponnesian League o 510-360s o Allegiance of mutual defense of all the island o Sparta was leader but not the ruler The Persian Wars 490, 480-479 B.C.  Persian Empire o Current day Iran o Largest empire up until that point o Centralized o Rebelling Persians turn to others  Most Greeks refuse them, but Athens sends help because they need their food trade  Rebellion crushed in 494 in Asia Minor  Now Persia goes to crush the people that Helped the rebellion  King Darius I 522-486 B.C. o Landed in Greece  Battle of Marathon 490 B.C. o Athens created a militia and somehow beat Persia  Persia army was primarily cavalry and archers o Defeat at Marathon by Athens  Grew Athens’s ego  Athenians became so proud of their government  Other Greeks aligned with Athens when Persia comes back  King Xerxes 486-465 B.C. o Wants to redeem himself and his empire against Greece  Battle of Thermopylae o Famous for the 300 Spartans o Eventually the Greek won Dlian League  Made by Athens to drive Persians out of Asia Minor  Other Greeks would send Athens money and men  Athens grew, while Allies decreased because they were giving all of their resources to Athens  Domination of Aegean Grain Trade  150 city-states became dominated by Athens  This behavior cause bad reputation  Main force of resistance came from Sparta. Peloponnesian War; Macedonia Empire; Early Rome Peloponnesian War  Delian League and Peloponnesian League o Delian  An alliance with Athens and other city-states, becomes the Athenian Empire o Peloponnesian  Sparta’s Alliances  Peloponnesian War, 431-404 BCE o Uneasy truce, 421-414 BCE  Broken by little fights o Fighting took place on the main land and in the islands surround Greece o People try to throw off their alliances with Athens o Thucydides, 455-400 BCE  Considered to be the first series historian  “History of the Peloponnesian War”  General in the Athenian army; got fired from losing too many battles  Perides, c. 495-425 BCE o Good public Speaker o Athenian leader  Athenians being over ambitious led to their surrender in 404 BCE  Then, Athens was dependent on Sparta o Sparta placed a temporary government in Athens, 30 Tyrants o Destroyed the fortified wall o The famous Athenian navy was reduced o Athenian Empire was gone o Population of Athens is ½ of what it had been before the war  Sparta had some consequence as well, long term o By the end of the war, the Homoioi class decreased to 3,000 o High hatred towards Sparta o By 370s, many governments rebel against Sparta and Sparta falls o Set surfs free after the war Macedonian Empire  Ruled by a monarchy, had not evolved into a polis society  Philip II of Macedon, 359-336 BCE o Established the League of Corinth, 338 BCE  Most of the Greek world came under the rule of this empire o Wanted to expand empire into Persia but was assassinated before he could  Alexander the Great, r 336-323 BCE o When he got the crown, he was young but gifted; highly educated o Aristotle was his tutor o Military conquests was legendary, created a huge empire o Integrated his empire  Founded cities along the Greek structures  Alexandria  The cities spoke Greek, had Greek buildings, etc.  Appointed Greek officials to rule regions  Allowed his veterans to settle in the empire o Gave them land and money in exchange for them being respectful of the cultures they are living in o Highly encouraged to marry into the culture o Died at the age of 32 o The empire he built doesn’t last, spilt into 3 sections  Hellenistic Kingdoms  Antigonid Kingdom o Macedonia and the surrounding lands  Ptolemaic Kingdom o Around Egypt and present-day Turkey  Seleucid Kingdom o Persia to India Early Rome  Very old style of life  Urban life first brought by the Greek colonization  Etruscans th o First great native culture to form in the 7 century Urban, centered in towns; ruled by different kings The Roman Republic Early Rome  Etruscans o First highly advanced culture in Italy o Not politically unified o Ruled by Kings, but run by wealthy families o Slavery was part of the society o Free women were much more involved in society o Compete with and evolved to be like the Greeks  Rome o Not founded by Etruscans o Founded in the 8 century o Group of villages  Foundational/civil myths o Trojans  Romans thought that they descended from Troy  Amecis – the gods led the Trojans  Virgil (79-19 BC), Aeneid (30-19 BC) o Made the story popular o Romulus and Remus  Livy (59BC -17 AD), Ab Urbe Condita  Twin sons of Mars (god of war) thrown in the river, raised by wolves  Founded Rome  Remus had bad intentions, put himself fist  Romulus kills Remus  Rome is founded by an act of selflessness, but Rome always comes first  Paterfamilias o Household unit was the extended family o Father ran the house  Patricians and Plebeians o Patricians were the wealthy families o Plebeians were the common people  New King o Head od each family would come to the Senate and support a certain candidate Etruscan Italy  Sees Rome as a good place of commerce o Built stuff to accommodate  Brought more military power to improve power of the King  Etruscans and Romans become plugged into the Greek connections  Religious system o Very similar to Greek religion  Architecture o Learning directly from the Greeks Roman Republic  Lasted 4 ½ centuries o Achieved world awesomeness  Oligarchy o Wealthy families o Over time it was reduced  New system o Everyone participated, but no one person had complete power  Consuls o Top spot politically o 2 people hold the position at one time o Strict, only last 1 year  Other magistrates o Quaesters  Finance o Praestors  Legal o Censors  Variety of duties  No social group or branch of government could take over o Created checks and balances system  Senate o Consisting of ~300 patricians o Investigating public crimes o Ran diplomatic systems o Ran the budget  Plebs o Approved or rejected laws and treaties o Bestowed honor and awards o Tribunes  Protected by the gods  10 tribunes at any one time  To protect the plebs from the other branches of government  Very powerful but still had a check  Why did they last? o Great military o Most successful at integrating  Full citizenship Discussion notes Epic of Gilgamesh  This flood story has been repeated through many different cultures and religions  Most common reference is the Noah’s Ark, but some striking differences Code of Hammurabi  Difference of reaction based on social class  Cosmic justice for sorcery  Justice system very different from today o Killed for false accusations o Very strict  Large emphasis on marriages and property rights Iliad  Military culture  Shield is used to describe status; represents where the soldier is coming from Aristotle, Politics  Polis existed first  People outside the polis are beast Aristotle, “Constitution of Athens”  Quotes older people to prove his case  Solon o Abolishes debt slavery, insider-trading accusations o Right to vote to the people The Greek Polis  Art is a distraction  Boys had a hard life o A lot of training to become better soldiers  Women had expectations to be as strong as the men  Reproduction only to produce the best military  No life of your own The Melian Dialogue Athenian Arguments Melians Arguments  Heroes of Persian War  Colony of Sparta  Strength =right to conquer  Could create more enemies if Athens conquered them  Sacrifice honor to save lives  They have the right to rule themselves  They need to preserve their image Athens Sparta  Proud  Militarized  Powerful, fortified city  Emphasis on strength  Democracy polis  Military training instead of education  Good strong navy  Homoioi  Very involved in trade  Power of the gov. is concentrated  Culturally sophisticated  More women’s rights Timeline of Readings  Epic of Gilgamesh, 12,000 BCE  Code of Hammurabi, 1750 BCE  Iliad, 1700 BCE  History of Peloponnesian War, 431-404 BCE  The Sparta Constitution  Politics and Constitution of Athens, 384-322 BCE  The Greek Polis, 45 AD  Life of Alexander the Great, 89 AD


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