Study Guide for Exam 1, HY 101
Study Guide for Exam 1, HY 101 HY 101
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Crews on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daniel Riches in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 252 views. For similar materials see Western Civ To 1648 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Study Guide Exam 1 Civilization Agriculture o Is needed to sustain a culture o Started around 8,000 B.C. o Domestic plants and animals o More complex communities needed and supported by agriculture o Prerequisite for a civilization but not the most important aspect 4 keys elements stated by Chester Star o Presence of firmly unified states Boundaries and boarders needed o Distinct social classes Not everyone has the same social status o Economical independence (interdependence) Division of labor o Conscience development of the arts Ancient Near East was the first to show all aspects of the 4 keys of civilization Ancient Near East Mesopotamia o Between the Tigris and the Euphrates River o Sumerians Circa 2000 B.C., Epic of Gilgamesh Marks by city, kings, and special economy No political unity o Akkadians King Sargon, circa 2334 – 2279 B.C. Brought political peace, largest ever Cultural uniformity After the death of King Sargon, the civilization fell apart o Babylonian Empire King Hammurabi, 1792 – 1750 B.C. Famous for law code After death, the empire dissolved City of Babylon was destroyed in 1600 B.C. Hittites o Asia Minor, present-day Turkey o Adapted many aspects from the civilization before Egypt o Nile River o Not a lot of contact with other civilization and cultures o Overriding theme of continuity Assyrian Empire o First group to unity the fertile crescent and Egypt together o Rose in the 1740s B.C. o High degree of centralization Professional army, sent own local officers to rule regions o People rose up to take back control, 1600 B.C. Differences between Mesopotamia and Egypt Mesopotamia had garden, and more conflict with other civilizations which led to more conflict o Led to a more military-centered leaderships Egypt had more security o Led to continuity o Led to a focus on culture rather than military Mesopotamia leaders o Warriors, fighters Egypt leaders o Administration, God-like, preserver Common Aspects between Mesopotamia and Egypt Monarchies Bureaucratic o Trained, literate officials, trained staff Union of religion and politics o Egyptian leaders considered to be the Gods, uniting religion and politics Social and cultural development o First cities o First writing around 3500 B.C. Pictograms first o Development of math, specially in Mesopotamia The Early Greeks Greek World in the Bronze Age Aegean Sea Bronze Age Cultures o Cycladic c. 2500-1900 BC Non-military force Island o Minoan c. 2000-1400 BC Island of Crete Politically unified Very similar to the Near East: kings, centralized government, religion and politics were combined (like Egypt), bureaucratic Little military Greater equality for women than most cultures at this time Pay taxes in king; government’s responsibility to collet and redistribute For this task to be completed successfully, they had to literate (which also means they created their own alphabet) o Mycenaean c. 1600-1200 BC Greek main land but grew to include the islands and some of Asia Minor Military culture Probably not politically unified Borrowed culture from Cycladic and Minoan Military elite governed Demise: Dorian invasions o Most likely a myth o Foreign military intervention Series of natural disasters Plugged into the main civilizations of the Near East o Very dependent on the cultures and trade from their culture o When the cultures of the Near East went into chaos, Greece could not survive Dark Ages and Aftermath Greek “Dark Ages” c. 1200-700 BC o Consequences for isolation Serious population decline Sharp decline of cities Almost complete disappearance of urban culture; rise of rural culture Disappearance of large scale governments Tiny chiefdoms, 2 or 3 towns in total Very little trade with anyone Very large decline in culture The Greeks return to being illiterate No art, went backwards o Advantages of isolation Forced an independence Created a cultural unity Role of Geography in Greek Development o Water The Aegean Sea made it very accessible to influence Connection to the Near East and developing west o Predisposed to smaller localized government o Waterways made it easy to communicate with different tribes and cultures Rivers, streams, and ocean made it easy and quick to travel o Agriculture Hard to grow food; the communication help share/trade foods Social Organizations o Male-oriented o Slave society o Basic social unit was the household Eight Contrary Renaissance of “Age of Revolution c. 750-650 BC o Renewal of trade contacts in the East o Development of new arts Stereotypical Greek art and architecture Development of mythology and epic poems Greek Gods very fluid Homer o Probably not a singular person, although the Greeks believed he was one person o Most likely a group of people who started the epic poems o Odyssey and Iliad products of the Dark Ages These tales were very nostalgic of what it was like in the Bronze Age Belief in individualism, glory o Were obsessed with people and psychology o Rise of PanHellenic religions shrines and temples and festivals o Rise of the Olympic Games o Connection brought cultural unity o Rise in population was great; consequences: Return of urban living Encouragement to trade with Near East Greater division of labor Rise of wealthy land owners Creation of leisure class To think, create, and govern were their main responsibilities Colonizing, even across the Mediterranean Bringing with them their culture, language, etc. The Greek Polis Rise of the Polis Polis o City-state: self-governing, political unit o Started as the small villages in Dark Ages o Citadels were built; fortresses used for refuge Geographic reasons for placement Had shrines to their patron God/Goddess Economic functions: became a marketplace o Shares a sense of common identity o Majority of “citizens” lived outside the polis o Size of a normal county Athens o Very densely populated Most citizens did have political power Number of men was around 40,00 at height Rise of aristocracy and wealthy merchant class o Rejected the older form of government from the Dark Ages Changing military organization o Hoplites Militia; citizen soldiers Phalanx No individualism, teamwork, mutual trust, great sacrifice Later, there would be a rule stating that the body of the phalanx could reject a commander’s orders collectively Mixed classes To be in the phalanx had to have the same property/wealth has a fully-participating citizen in the polis o Lower-status men were support to the phalanx Archaic Greece and the Polis Governing o All citizens came together to vote/rule Vocal skills greatly values because that was the only way to get your point across o Justice became a founding value Intense philosophical investigations Aristotle’s Politics Polis is the natural way o Perfectly self-sufficient o Came from human nature o Derived from natural union (man + woman, etc.) o More pragmatic than anything else The whole most precede the parts People living outside of a polis aren’t human o They have no moral anchor Different between man and beast o Language o Justice Person living in the polis, as they should, are the best, other are the worst Athens After the Dark Ages, run by oligarchy, few wealthy families, poor were serfs o Wealthy families didn’t like each other, which led to horrible violence Draco, 621 BC o Created very dark law codes to help stop the violence that was being created by the rich families o Replaced retribution laws with clean, clear written law o Written justice over the clans controls o Didn’t work for very long Solon, c. 630-560 BC o Chosen in 594 BC to change government o Social problems needed to be fixed Abolished debt bondage, establishing free peasants o His political reform was more social Wanted all citizens to become more involved; hated indifference Lasted longer than Draco’s governing plan but still didn’t last long Athens and Sparta Athens Soton o Didn’t solve underlying social tension o Created a society that was ripe for the rise of tyrants Populist: person of power who appeals to the common man Tyrant simply means one person holds all the power; not necessarily a bad ruler like today’s meaning Peisistratus and Hippias rules as tyrants 545-510 BC o Used their power to get their men elected o Actually strengthened the government Cleisthenes c. 570-507 B.C. o Led the rebellion against tyrants o Promoted Athens’s patriotism Works projects and other events created positive attachment to the city and government Cultural expansion by government o During this time, Greece achieved cultural status The Parthenon Political Expansion o Almost like an empire, very expansive Athens was heavily populated o Because they could only provide food for 20% of the population, they relied heavily on importing o Needed to expand trade routes constantly to support themselves economically Developing trade and naval power Oriented towards the sea Sparta Located on the Peloponnesus (island) Less merchant trade that Athens, less open culturally, less reliant on water systhms Lycurgus, 7 century B.C. o Ride of traditional Sparta o Could be a myth o The Spartan believed that the polis was designed by human will, unlike Athens o They had very little enjoyment Barely any cultural arts o 2 main goals Freeing of all male citizens to concentrate on warring Training citizens with discipline, commitment, and skill Homoioi (‘peers’ or ‘Equals’) and helots o Homoioi Took years of training to achieve After training able to participate in the government o Helots State serfs, public slaves Theoretically, all men could be Homoioi o To become a Homoioi, At birth, babies who did not appear healthy enough were exposed At 7, boys were taken away to training for 13 years; very intense Krypteia o For the boys survived training, it was the next step o Was the secret police o Kept the helots in a constant state of terror At 30 years old, men become Homoioi only if they survived all the training o It was illegal for them to participate in art or trade Women in Sparta o They were valued to make good fighters o Had a program of education to be a good mother o Many women were involved in more activities outside of the house because all the men were busy practicing government The Spartans consider heroes to be… o Women who died in childbirth o Men who died in battle Become increasingly isolated Peloponnesian League o 510-360s o Allegiance of mutual defense of all the island o Sparta was leader but not the ruler The Persian Wars 490, 480-479 B.C. Persian Empire o Current day Iran o Largest empire up until that point o Centralized o Rebelling Persians turn to others Most Greeks refuse them, but Athens sends help because they need their food trade Rebellion crushed in 494 in Asia Minor Now Persia goes to crush the people that Helped the rebellion King Darius I 522-486 B.C. o Landed in Greece Battle of Marathon 490 B.C. o Athens created a militia and somehow beat Persia Persia army was primarily cavalry and archers o Defeat at Marathon by Athens Grew Athens’s ego Athenians became so proud of their government Other Greeks aligned with Athens when Persia comes back King Xerxes 486-465 B.C. o Wants to redeem himself and his empire against Greece Battle of Thermopylae o Famous for the 300 Spartans o Eventually the Greek won Dlian League Made by Athens to drive Persians out of Asia Minor Other Greeks would send Athens money and men Athens grew, while Allies decreased because they were giving all of their resources to Athens Domination of Aegean Grain Trade 150 city-states became dominated by Athens This behavior cause bad reputation Main force of resistance came from Sparta. Peloponnesian War; Macedonia Empire; Early Rome Peloponnesian War Delian League and Peloponnesian League o Delian An alliance with Athens and other city-states, becomes the Athenian Empire o Peloponnesian Sparta’s Alliances Peloponnesian War, 431-404 BCE o Uneasy truce, 421-414 BCE Broken by little fights o Fighting took place on the main land and in the islands surround Greece o People try to throw off their alliances with Athens o Thucydides, 455-400 BCE Considered to be the first series historian “History of the Peloponnesian War” General in the Athenian army; got fired from losing too many battles Perides, c. 495-425 BCE o Good public Speaker o Athenian leader Athenians being over ambitious led to their surrender in 404 BCE Then, Athens was dependent on Sparta o Sparta placed a temporary government in Athens, 30 Tyrants o Destroyed the fortified wall o The famous Athenian navy was reduced o Athenian Empire was gone o Population of Athens is ½ of what it had been before the war Sparta had some consequence as well, long term o By the end of the war, the Homoioi class decreased to 3,000 o High hatred towards Sparta o By 370s, many governments rebel against Sparta and Sparta falls o Set surfs free after the war Macedonian Empire Ruled by a monarchy, had not evolved into a polis society Philip II of Macedon, 359-336 BCE o Established the League of Corinth, 338 BCE Most of the Greek world came under the rule of this empire o Wanted to expand empire into Persia but was assassinated before he could Alexander the Great, r 336-323 BCE o When he got the crown, he was young but gifted; highly educated o Aristotle was his tutor o Military conquests was legendary, created a huge empire o Integrated his empire Founded cities along the Greek structures Alexandria The cities spoke Greek, had Greek buildings, etc. Appointed Greek officials to rule regions Allowed his veterans to settle in the empire o Gave them land and money in exchange for them being respectful of the cultures they are living in o Highly encouraged to marry into the culture o Died at the age of 32 o The empire he built doesn’t last, spilt into 3 sections Hellenistic Kingdoms Antigonid Kingdom o Macedonia and the surrounding lands Ptolemaic Kingdom o Around Egypt and present-day Turkey Seleucid Kingdom o Persia to India Early Rome Very old style of life Urban life first brought by the Greek colonization Etruscans th o First great native culture to form in the 7 century Urban, centered in towns; ruled by different kings The Roman Republic Early Rome Etruscans o First highly advanced culture in Italy o Not politically unified o Ruled by Kings, but run by wealthy families o Slavery was part of the society o Free women were much more involved in society o Compete with and evolved to be like the Greeks Rome o Not founded by Etruscans o Founded in the 8 century o Group of villages Foundational/civil myths o Trojans Romans thought that they descended from Troy Amecis – the gods led the Trojans Virgil (79-19 BC), Aeneid (30-19 BC) o Made the story popular o Romulus and Remus Livy (59BC -17 AD), Ab Urbe Condita Twin sons of Mars (god of war) thrown in the river, raised by wolves Founded Rome Remus had bad intentions, put himself fist Romulus kills Remus Rome is founded by an act of selflessness, but Rome always comes first Paterfamilias o Household unit was the extended family o Father ran the house Patricians and Plebeians o Patricians were the wealthy families o Plebeians were the common people New King o Head od each family would come to the Senate and support a certain candidate Etruscan Italy Sees Rome as a good place of commerce o Built stuff to accommodate Brought more military power to improve power of the King Etruscans and Romans become plugged into the Greek connections Religious system o Very similar to Greek religion Architecture o Learning directly from the Greeks Roman Republic Lasted 4 ½ centuries o Achieved world awesomeness Oligarchy o Wealthy families o Over time it was reduced New system o Everyone participated, but no one person had complete power Consuls o Top spot politically o 2 people hold the position at one time o Strict, only last 1 year Other magistrates o Quaesters Finance o Praestors Legal o Censors Variety of duties No social group or branch of government could take over o Created checks and balances system Senate o Consisting of ~300 patricians o Investigating public crimes o Ran diplomatic systems o Ran the budget Plebs o Approved or rejected laws and treaties o Bestowed honor and awards o Tribunes Protected by the gods 10 tribunes at any one time To protect the plebs from the other branches of government Very powerful but still had a check Why did they last? o Great military o Most successful at integrating Full citizenship Discussion notes Epic of Gilgamesh This flood story has been repeated through many different cultures and religions Most common reference is the Noah’s Ark, but some striking differences Code of Hammurabi Difference of reaction based on social class Cosmic justice for sorcery Justice system very different from today o Killed for false accusations o Very strict Large emphasis on marriages and property rights Iliad Military culture Shield is used to describe status; represents where the soldier is coming from Aristotle, Politics Polis existed first People outside the polis are beast Aristotle, “Constitution of Athens” Quotes older people to prove his case Solon o Abolishes debt slavery, insider-trading accusations o Right to vote to the people The Greek Polis Art is a distraction Boys had a hard life o A lot of training to become better soldiers Women had expectations to be as strong as the men Reproduction only to produce the best military No life of your own The Melian Dialogue Athenian Arguments Melians Arguments Heroes of Persian War Colony of Sparta Strength =right to conquer Could create more enemies if Athens conquered them Sacrifice honor to save lives They have the right to rule themselves They need to preserve their image Athens Sparta Proud Militarized Powerful, fortified city Emphasis on strength Democracy polis Military training instead of education Good strong navy Homoioi Very involved in trade Power of the gov. is concentrated Culturally sophisticated More women’s rights Timeline of Readings Epic of Gilgamesh, 12,000 BCE Code of Hammurabi, 1750 BCE Iliad, 1700 BCE History of Peloponnesian War, 431-404 BCE The Sparta Constitution Politics and Constitution of Athens, 384-322 BCE The Greek Polis, 45 AD Life of Alexander the Great, 89 AD
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