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Test One Notes

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by: Lauren Notetaker

Test One Notes Introduction to Criminal Justice

Lauren Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on the first (module one) exam
Introduction to Criminal Justice
Professor Wendy R. Calaway
Study Guide
Criminal Justics
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"Can you just teach this course please? lol :)"
Norene Nitzsche

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Popular in Criminal Justice

This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Introduction to Criminal Justice at University of Cincinnati taught by Professor Wendy R. Calaway in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at University of Cincinnati.


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Can you just teach this course please? lol :)

-Norene Nitzsche


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Date Created: 02/11/16
Criminal Justice Module One TEST Consensus vs. Conflict: Where Laws Come From: Consensus­ Criminal Law reflects widely shared values and beliefs 1. Reflect the need for order 2. Laws result from consensus from views widely shared 3. Law is impartial system that protects the public 4. Law provides a neutral means for resolving disputes 5. Mala in se offenses­ bad in and of itself (rape, murder)  Confli ­ Rejects the notion that criminal laws are created as result of widespread consensus. 1. Criminal laws and enforcement mechanisms have been crafted by powerful political groups. 2. People act in their own self interest 3. People with the power are the one whose wishes will be codified into law 4. Mala Prohibita­ Bad because we say it’s illegal (drugs, prostitution) Due Process vs. Crime Control Crime Control­ Emphasizes the efficient arrest and convictional of offenders (Public Order) 1. Safety; Public order 2. Factual guilt 3. Controlling crime 4. Speed 5. Assembly line Due Process­ Emphasizes the efficient arrest and convictions of offenders (fairness) 1. Individual Rights 2. Legal Guilt 3. Reliability 4. Obstacle course Criminal Offenses: 1) Murder: a. Murder 1st Degree­ Purposely taking the life of another with premeditation b. Murder 2nd Degree­ Knowingly taking the life of another c. Felony Murder­ Knowingly taking the life of another while engaged in the commission of a  felony 2) Manslaughter: a. Voluntary Manslaughter­ Intentional killing but involves “heat of the moment or crime of  passion” to a degree that a “reasonable person” might have been provoked b.  Involuntary Manslaughter  ­ Acts of negligence, such as when one is driving too fast on an icy  road and kills someone 3) Crimes of Violence: a.  Rape  ­ Sexual intercourse without consent  b.  Robbery  ­ Taking of or attempt to take anything of value from a person by force or threat of  force or violence by putting the victim in fear c.  Aggravated Assault  ­ An unlawful attack upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or  bodily injury 4) Property Crimes: a.  Burglary ­ Unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft b.  Larceny Theft  ­ Unlawful of property from the possession of another c.  Motor Vehicle Theft  ­ Theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle d. Arson­ Any willful burning or attempting to burn without or with intent to defraud a dwelling  house or property of another Essential Elements:  Mens Rea­ Guilty mind a.  Inten ­ A purposeful act or state of mind (required) b.  Motive ­ The reason for committing a crime (not required) 1.Must prove that the defendant committed an illegal act 2. Must prove if s/he was in the necessary mental state Elements of Self Defense: Self defense­ Necessity defendant argues that he or she had to commit the crime because it  was necessary to avoid some greater harm a. Defendant's burden of proof b. Not at fault for creating the situation c. Reasonably belief will suffer death or great harm d. Did not violate duty to retreat e. Did not use greater force than was necessary Defenses: Entrapment­ Police tactics that overly encourage or entice individuals to commit crimes they  normally would not commit  Duress ­ Excuse with defendants claiming that they committed the act only because they were  not acting of their own free will Intoxication­ Defense is rooted in the concept of mens rea and defendants must show that they were operating under such “diminished capacity” that they could not know what they were doing and cannot be held responsible Double Jeopardy­ Subjecting an accused person to be tried twice for the same offense;  prohibiting by the 5th amendment Mental illness/ insanity i.  Right/Wrong Test  ­ Test of legal insanity, asking whether the defendant understood the nature  and quality of his or her act and if so if he or she understood it was wrong  Alib i­ Defendant was in another location and could not have committed the crime Criminal Law: Body of law that defines criminal offenses and punishments Historical(common) Law­ Collection of rules, customs, and traditions from England  Modern(common) Law  ­ Judge made law a.  Judge Made Law  ­ Judges interpret the laws and come up with new laws in the process  Burden of Proof  ­ Proof beyond a reasonable doubt a.Beyond a Reasonable Doubt­No reasonable alternative theory b.Clear and Convincing Evidence c.   Preponderance of Evidence  ­ Civil lawsuit (between 2 parties) more likely than not  51% d. Probably Cause  ­ Some reasonable basis to believe you have done what you have  done. Civil Law:   Plainti ­ Private person who bring the suit against someone else Criminal Law vs. Civil Law Who brings the charges? 1.Criminal: The government   Civil: Private person Burden of proof? 2. Criminal: Beyond reasonable doubt   Civil: Preponderance of Evidence Penalties of crime? 3. Criminal: Jail/Prison   Civil: Money 2 Ways that help to give individual freedom: 1. Bill of Rights: a.  4th Amendment  ­ Free to be free from search and seizure b.  5th Amendment  ­ Right to a fair trial and right to be silent c.  6th Amendment  ­ Right to an attorney; Cross examination;Trial rights d.  8th Amendment  ­ Free from cruel and unusual punishments e.  14th Amendment  ­ Right to due process


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