Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide Bio 1023
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katy Davit on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Outlaw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see Plants and humans in Biological Sciences at Mississippi State University.
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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Katy!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
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Date Created: 02/11/16
PLANTS!&!HUMANS!EXAM!1!STUDY!GUIDE! ! Intro to Biology: Biology- The study of life Organism- “Living thing” Organisms are studied through hierarchy Hierarchy- A system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority. •! Structure=Function •! Atoms- smallest “functional” unit of all chemical substances (molecules). Cannot be broken down. •! Molecules and Macromolecules- Two or more atoms connected by chemical bonds. •! Organelle- Membrane-bound sub-cellular structure with it’s own unique fashion. •! Cell- The simplest unit of an organism. •! Tissues- The association of many cells of the same type. •! Organs- Two or more types of tissue combined to perform a common function. •! Organism- A living thing that maintains an internal order and is separate from the environment. •! Species- Group of related organisms sharing a distinct form. •! Population- Group of individuals of the same species that occupy the same environment. •! Community- Assemblage of populations of different species living in the same place/time. •! Ecosystem- Biotic community of populations and the abiotic environment affecting that community. •! Biosphere- All regions on Earth, and in the atmosphere, where organisms exist. Properties of Life (Organisms): Seven common characteristics •! Composed of cells •! Metabolism •! Respond to stimuli •! Growth and development •! Reproduction •! Ability to adapt Composed of Cells- •! Unicellular o! Single cell organisms (algae, protists, etc.) •! Multicellular- o! Many celled organisms (plants, humans, etc.) Metabolism- All the chemical reactions that occur within an organism which allow it to take in and use energy. Respond to Environment- Organisms must be able to respond to change in the environment to survive. Growth and Development- Growth- Production of more or larger cells Development- Changes in the state of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism PLANTS!&!HUMANS!EXAM!1!STUDY!GUIDE! ! Reproduction- The process by which organisms produce new organisms (offspring) Biological Evolution- The change in the genetic material (DNA) of a population of organisms from one generation to the next. Scientific Method: o! The observation, identification, experimental, investigation, and theoretical explanation of a phenomena •! Order of Operations: o! Observation- Specific, observation-based question you are trying to answer. o! Hypothesis- Plausible explanation for observation o! Prediction- Outcome you believe will come from experimentation o! Experiment- Gathering of data appropriate to address question o! Results- Organized and detailed mathematical data o! Conclusion- Accept or reject hypothesis !! Null hypothesis not rejected = reject hypothesis !! Null hypothesis rejected = accept hypothesis Hypothesis or Theory: Hypothesis- A proposed explanation for a natural phenomenon Null Hypothesis- Hypothesis of “no difference” or “no change” Theory- A broad explanation of some aspect of the natural world Energy and Metabolism: •! Organisms need “energy” to carry out cellular functions •! They get this energy from the environment (light and food) •! Energy- The ability to promote change or do work •! Comes in many forms o! Light energy o! Thermal energy o! Atomic energy o! Electrical energy o! Mechanical energy o! Chemical energy •! Types of energy o! Kinetic energy- Energy associated with movement o! Potential energy- Energy due to structure or location of substance o! Chemical energy- Potential energy held in molecular bonds Primary Energy Transformations: •! Photosynthesis- Converting light energy (from the sun) into chemical bond energy (glucose) •! Cellular Respiration- Converting chemical bond energy in glucose into chemical bond energy in ATP (usable energy) •! Catalyst- Agent that speeds up the rate of chemical reaction •! Nucleic Acids- A complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain. PLANTS!&!HUMANS!EXAM!1!STUDY!GUIDE! ! Metabolism: •! Metabolism- All chemical reactions within a cell that allows an organism to maintain structures and grow and most importantly, respond to the environment. •! Anabolism- Chemical reactions responsible for “building” large macromolecules from smaller subunits •! Catabolism- The breakdown of larger molecules into subunits releasing chemical bond energy Organic Molecules I The Molecules of Life: •! There are four main macromolecules found in all living things o! Carbohydrates o! Proteins o! Lipids o! Nucleic acids Macromolecule Formation: •! Dehydration Reaction- A synthesis reaction that links subunits (monomers) together to form larger molecules (polymers) Macromolecules: •! Hydrolysis (water-breaking) •! Polymers broken down into monomers •! Uses a molecule of water Carbohydrates: •! Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms o! Carbon compounds that are hydrated •! Most of the carbon atoms in a carbohydrate are linked to a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group •! Includes monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides Monosaccharides: •! Simplest sugars •! Most common are 5 or 6 carbons o! Pentose- 5 carbons "! Ribose "! Deoxyribose o! Hexose "! Glucose •! Different ways to depict structures o! Ring or linear Disaccharides: •! Carbohydrates composed of two monosaccharides o! Joined by dehydration or condensation reaction o! Broken apart by hydrolysis PLANTS!&!HUMANS!EXAM!1!STUDY!GUIDE! ! o! Maltose- Glucose + Glucose o! Sucrose- Glucose + Fructose o! Lactose- Glucose + Galactose Polysaccharides: •! Carbohydrates composed of many monosaccharides linked together (polymers) •! Energy storage o! Starch (plants) "! Moderately branched o! Glycogen (animals) "! Highly branched glucose polymer "! Stored in liver and muscle cells •! Structural Role o! Chitin (exoskeleton) o! Glycosaminoglycan (cartilage) o! Cellulose "! Unbranched glucose polymer "! Not broken down by hydrolysis "! Most abundant organic material on earth Proteins: •! Polymers composed of amino acids monomers •! 20 amino acids with common structures •! Side-chain determines structures and functions •! Amino acids joined by peptide bonds to form polypeptides •! Possess N-terminus and C-terminus •! Joined by dehydration reaction •! Broken apart by hydrolysis Protein Structures: •! Four levels of organization (Hierarchical) •! Primary structure o! Linear sequence of amino acids o! Genetically determined •! Secondary structure o! Folding or pleating of primary structure o! Key determinates of a protein’s characteristics o! Shape is specific and important to function •! Tertiary structure o! Bending and folding of secondary structure gives complex 3D shape o! Final level of structure for single polypeptide chain •! Quaternary structure o! Made up of 2 or more polypeptides o! Protein subunits- individual polypeptides o! Multimeric proteins- proteins with multiple parts PLANTS!&!HUMANS!EXAM!1!STUDY!GUIDE! ! Enzyme Features: •! Active site- location where reaction takes place •! Substrate- reactants that bind to active site •! Enzyme/substrate complex formed when enzyme and substrate bind •! Provide binding sites for substrate molecules o! Active sites •! Binding stresses chemical bonds o! Allows for easier breakdown/binding •! Catalyze one specific type of reaction Substrate Binding: •! Enzyme have a high affinity or high degree of specificity for a substrate •! Example of a lock and key for substrate and enzyme binding •! Induced fit- interaction also involves conformational changes Organic Molecules II: Lipids: •! Fats and fat-like substances Triglycerides: •! Fats formed by bonding glycerol to three fatty acids Fatty Acids: •! Unsaturated fatty acids Phospholipids: •! Glycerol bonded to 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group Phospholipids: •! Glycerol bonded to 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group Nucleic Acids: •! Large molecules made up of nucleotide subunits Nucleotides: •! Subunits of DNA/RNA that are made up of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): •! Stores genetic information coded in the sequence of it’s monomer building blocks •! DNA Structure o! Single strands are “chains” of nucleotides o! Sugar/phosphate “backbone” o! Bases point away from backbone o! DNA is a double-stranded o! Two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds o! Base pairing rules "! Complementary "! Adenine- Thymine "! Cytosine- Guanine o! In every case, a purine binds with a pyrimidine PLANTS!&!HUMANS!EXAM!1!STUDY!GUIDE! ! Ribonucleic Acid (RNA): •! Involved in the expression, and transmission of genetic information •! Single stranded •! Uracil instead of Thymine •! Different forms o! Messenger RNA (mRNA) o! Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) o! Transfer RNA (tRNA) •! Translates information coded in DNA into polypeptides
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