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PSY 2301, Chap 2

by: Upasana Raja

PSY 2301, Chap 2 2301

Marketplace > Temple University > Psychlogy > 2301 > PSY 2301 Chap 2
Upasana Raja

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Chapter 2- Theories of Development full notes for exam 1
Ronald D. Taylor
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Upasana Raja on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2301 at Temple University taught by Ronald D. Taylor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at Temple University.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
Psychoanalysis Theories: Theories proposing the development change happens because of the influence of internal drives and emotions on behavior Id: In Freud's theory, the part of the personality that comprises a person's basic sexual and aggressive impulses; it contains the libido and motivates a person to seek pleasure and avoid pain Ego: According to Freud, the thinking element of personality Superego: Freud’s term for the part of personality that is moral judge Psychosexual Stages: Freud’s five stages of personality development through which children move in a fixed sequence determined by maturation; the libido is centered in a different body part in each stage Psychosocial Stages: Erikson's eight stages, or crises, of personality development in which inner instincts with outer cultural and social demands to shape personality Behaviorism: The view that defines development in terms of behavior changes caused by environmental influences Learning Theories: Theories asserting that development results from an accumulation of experiences Classical Conditioning: Learning that results from the association of stimuli Operant Conditioning: Learning to repeat or stop behaviors because of their consequences Reinforcement: Anything that follows a behavior and causes it to be repeated Punishment: Anything that follows a behavior and causes it to stop Extinction: The gradual elimination of a behavior through repeated nonreinforcement Observational Learning, or Modeling: Learning that results from seeing a model reinforced or punished for a behavior Cognitive Theories: Theories that emphasize mental processes in development, such as logic and memory Scheme: In Piaget’s theory, an internal cognitive structure that provides an individual with a procedure to use in a specific circumstance Assimilation: The process of using a scheme to make sense of an event or experience Accommodation: Changing a scheme as a result of some new information Equilibration: The process of balancing assimilation and accommodation to create schemes that fir the environment Sociocultural Theory: Vygotsky's view that complex forms of thinking have their origins in social interactions rather than in an individual's private explorations Information-Processing Theory: A theoretical perspective that uses the computer as a model to explain how the mind manages information Neo-Piagetian Theory: An approach that uses information-processing to explain the developmental stages identified by Piaget Behavior Genetics: The study of the role of heredity in individual differences Ethology: A perspective on development that emphasizes genetically determined survival behavior presumed to have evolved through natural selection Sociobiology: The study of society using the methods and concepts of biology; when used by developmentalists, an approach that emphasizes genes that aid group survival Bioecological Theory: Bronfenbrenner’s theory that explains development in terms of relationships between individuals and their environments, or interconnected contexts Eclecticism: The use of multiple theoretical perspectives to explain and study human development


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